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1.
Clin Perinatol ; 49(1): 73-92, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049039

ABSTRACT

Maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can present with or without symptoms at the time of birth. Symptomatic mothers are more likely be associated with preterm births. Population studies demonstrate a consistent association of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a reduction in preterm birth rate. Newborns with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results appear to have minimal burden of illness that is directly associated with a viral infection. Neonatal mortality directly related to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely rare. Maternal vaccination in pregnant women leads to maternal antibody production, and this can occur as early as 5 days after the first vaccination dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010024

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic significantly impacted the general population's health. At times, the infection has unfavorably influenced pregnancy evolution and the result of birth. However, vertical transmission of the virus is rare and generates controversial discussions. The study aimed to highlight the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of pregnant women with confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with possible vertical transmission and identify possible factors that encourage vertical transmission. Between 1 April 2020 and 31 December 2021, 281 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 gave birth in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of the tertiary unit of County Emergency Clinical Hospital from Timisoara. Three newborns (1.06%) tested positive. The characteristic of these three cases was described as a short series. In two cases, the patients were asymptomatic. In one case, the patient developed a mild form of COVID-19 with a favorable evolution in all cases. We did not identify the presence of smoking history, vaccine before admission, atypical presentation, fever, or chest X-ray abnormalities. We note possible factors that encourage vertical transmission: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, thrombophilia, asymptomatic cough, an asymptomatic or mild form of the disease, a ruptured membrane, and cesarean. The laboratory results highlight the inconstant presence of some changes found in the list of potential predictors of the severity of the infection: Lymphopenia, high values of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelets, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin. The study's conclusion of this small group suggests that there may have been an intrauterine infection in late pregnancy and described characteristics of the pregnant women. Possible risk factors that could encourage vertical transmission have been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(12): 2278-2283, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992730

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has turned perinatal healthcare into a worldwide public health challenge. Although initial data did not demonstrate pregnancy as a more susceptible period to adverse outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, an increasing number of reports now certify maternal illness as a high-risk condition for the development of maternal-fetal complications. Despite the rarity of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, severe maternal illness might induce adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Additionally, perinatal COVID-19 data may raise concerns about long-term harmful consequences to the offspring in the framework of non-communicable diseases. The World Health Organisation, as well as scientific literature, consider the protection of the maternal-fetal dyad against COVID-19 as a critical issue and, therefore, strongly promote and encourage the vaccination of pregnant and lactating women. Furthermore, the pandemic has triggered an unprecedented recession, leading to historic levels of unemployment and deprivation, while health, societal, economic and gender inequities particularly affecting low-income and middle-income countries, have increased. This mini-review provides an updated brief report on historical, clinical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic based on 10 lectures presented at the 9th Maria-Delivoria-Papadopoulos Perinatal Symposium, held virtually on 19 March 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Pregnancy Outcome
6.
Glob Health Action ; 15(1): 2100602, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programming in South Africa. In 2020, it was estimated that there were 4 million cross-border migrants in South Africa, some of whom are women living with HIV (WLWH), who are highly mobile and located within peripheral and urban areas of Johannesburg. Little is known about the mobility typologies of these women associated with different movement patterns, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mobility typologies of women utilising PMTCT services and on how changes to services might have affected adherence. OBJECTIVE: To qualitatively explore experiences of different mobility typologies of migrant women utilising PMTCT services in a high mobility context of Johannesburg and how belonging to a specific typology might have affected the health care received and their overall experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 40 pregnant migrant WLWH were conducted from June 2020-June 2021. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling at a public hospital in Johannesburg. A thematic approach was used to analyse interviews. RESULTS: Forty interviews were conducted with 22 cross-border and 18 internal migrants. Women in cross-border migration patterns compared to interprovincial and intraregional mobility experienced barriers of documentation, language availability, mistreatment, education and counselling. Due to border closures, they were unable to receive ART interrupting adherence and relied on SMS reminders to adhere to ART during the pandemic. All 40 women struggled to understand the importance of adherence because of the lack of infrastructure to support social distancing protocols and to provide PMTCT education. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 amplified existing challenges for cross-border migrant women to utilise PMTCT services. Future pandemic preparedness should be addressed with differentiated service delivery including multi-month dispensing of ARVs, virtual educational care, and language-sensitive information, responsive to the needs of mobile women to alleviate the burden on the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prenatal Care/methods , South Africa/epidemiology
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 104, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection control measures during the Covid-19 pandemic have focused on limiting physical contact and decontamination by observing cleaning and hygiene rituals. Breastfeeding requires close physical contact and observance of hygienic measures like handwashing. Worries around contamination increase during the perinatal period and can be expressed as increase in obsessive compulsive symptoms. These symptoms have shown to impact breastfeeding rates. This study attempts to explore any relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and whether the Covid-19 pandemic has any impact on intent to breastfeed. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of perinatal women attending largest maternity centre in Qatar was carried out during the months of October to December 2020. Socio-demographic information, intent to breastfeed and information around obsessive compulsive thoughts around Covid-19 pandemic were collected using validated tools. RESULTS: 15.7% respondents report intent to not breastfeed. 21.4% respondents reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 77.3% respondents believed the biggest source of infection was from others while as only 12% of the respondents believed that the source of infection was through breastfeeding and 15.7% believed the vertical transmission as the main source of risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were increased and the rates of intent to breastfeed were decreased when compared with pre pandemic rates. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intent to not breastfeed were significantly associated with fear of infection to the new-born. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly correlated with intent to breastfeed and can be seen as adaptive strategies utilized by women to continue breastfeeding in the context of fear of infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1266, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: South Africa's National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS), the only clinical laboratory service in the country's public health sector, is an important resource for monitoring public health programmes. OBJECTIVES: We describe NHLS data quality, particularly patient demographics among infants, and the effect this has on linking multiple test results to a single patient. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive analysis of NHLS data from 1st January 2017-1st September 2020 was performed. A validated probabilistic record-linking algorithm linked multiple results to individual patients in lieu of a unique patient identifier. Paediatric HIV PCR data was used to illustrate the effect on monitoring and evaluating a public health programme. Descriptive statistics including medians, proportions and inter quartile ranges are reported, with Chi-square univariate tests for independence used to determine association between variables. RESULTS: During the period analysed, 485 300 007 tests, 98 217 642 encounters and 35 771 846 patients met criteria for analysis. Overall, 15.80% (n = 15 515 380) of all encounters had a registered national identity (ID) number, 2.11% (n = 2 069 785) were registered without a given name, 63.15% (n = 62 020 107) were registered to women and 32.89% (n = 32 304 329) of all folder numbers were listed as either the patient's date of birth or unknown. For infants tested at < 7 days of age (n = 2 565 329), 0.099% (n = 2 534) had an associated ID number and 48.87% (n = 1 253 620) were registered without a given name. Encounters with a given name were linked to a subsequent encounter 40.78% (n = 14 180 409 of 34 775 617) of the time, significantly more often than the 21.85% (n = 217 660 of 996 229) of encounters registered with a baby-derivative name (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Unavailability and poor capturing of patient demographics, especially among infants and children, affects the ability to accurately monitor routine health programmes. A unique national patient identifier, other than the national ID number, is urgently required and must be available at birth if South Africa is to accurately monitor programmes such as the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Child , Child Health , Data Accuracy , Data Warehousing , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 577, 2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women's hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period. RESULTS: We included 2,503 women admitted to the hospital; 1,287 (51.4 %) were admitted before the Covid-19 lockdown and 1,216 (48.6 %) during the Covid-19 lockdown. There were no significant differences in stillbirth rates (p = 0.584) or pregnancy complications (including preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes) (p = 0.115) between pregnant women in the pre- and intra-pandemic periods. However, decreases in preterm births (p = 0.001), and low birth weight (p = 0.005) were observed in the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. No significant difference in the mode of delivery, and no maternal deaths were observed during the two time periods. CONCLUSIONS: In our study we observed a decrease in preterm births and low birth weight, no change in stillbirths, and a rise in the admission rates of mothers to the ICU during the initial Covid-19 lockdown period compared to pre-Covid-19 lockdown period. Further research will be needed to devise plan for immediate post-pandemic care and future health care crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods , Severity of Illness Index
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 574, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910280

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2) infection confers a non-negligible risk for younger pregnant women with diabetes, which is still less well investigated. This topic was recently addressed by a systematic scoping review in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, aiming to summarize the complex interaction between SARS-Cov-2 infection, pregnancy and diabetes. This commentary will summarize and discuss the main findings of this article and its implications for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, we suffer from an increasing diabetes pandemic and on the other hand from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Already at the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it was quickly assumed that certain groups are at increased risk to suffer from a severe course of COVID-19. There are serious concerns regarding potential adverse effects on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. Diabetic pregnancies clearly need special care, but clinical implications as well as the complex interplay of diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 are currently unknown. We summarized the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 in diabetic pregnancies, including the identification of novel potential pathophysiological mechanisms and interactions as well as clinical outcomes and features, screening, and management approaches. METHODS: We carried out a systematic scoping review in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science Core Collection in September 2020. RESULTS: We found that the prognosis of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 may be associated with potential underlying mechanisms such as a simplified viral uptake by ACE2, a higher basal value of pro-inflammatory cytokines, being hypoxemic as well as platelet activation, embolism, and preeclampsia. In the context of "trans-generational programming" and COVID-19, life-long consequences may be "programmed" during gestation by pro-inflammation, hypoxia, over- or under-expression of transporters and enzymes, and epigenetic modifications based on changes in the intra-uterine milieu. COVID-19 may cause new onset diabetes mellitus, and that vertical transmission from mother to baby might be possible. CONCLUSIONS: Given the challenges in clinical management, the complex interplay between COVID-19 and diabetic pregnancies, evidence-based recommendations are urgently needed. Digital medicine is a future-oriented and effective approach in the context of clinical diabetes management. We anticipate our review to be a starting point to understand and analyze mechanisms and epidemiology to most effectively treat women with SARS-COV-2 and diabetes in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(16): 1764-1778, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900720

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused significant mortality and morbidity in people of all age groups worldwide. Given the uncertainty regarding the mode of transmission and potential effects of COVID-19 on pregnant mothers and their newborns, guidelines for taking care of maternal-newborn dyads have evolved tremendously since the pandemic began. There has been an enormous influx of published materials regarding the outcomes of mothers and newborns. Still, multiple knowledge gaps regarding comprehensive information about risk to the mothers and newborns exist, which need to be addressed. Current evidence suggests that mothers with symptomatic COVID-19 infection are at increased risk of severe illness during pregnancy, with a higher need for respiratory support and premature deliveries. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 are at increased risk of needing intensive care; however, most newborns do well after birth. As new mutant variants arise, we need to be cautious while proactively understanding any new evolving patterns. All leading health authorities strongly recommend COVID-19 vaccination before or during pregnancy to reduce the risk of maternal morbidities and benefit from passing antibodies to newborns prenatally and via breastmilk. Additionally, there are racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in outcomes and vaccination coverage for pregnant women. This article summarizes the rapidly evolving evidence for the last 1.5 years and aims to help health care professionals care for mothers with COVID-19 and their newborns. KEY POINTS: · COVID-19 in pregnancy can cause perinatal morbidities.. · Breastfeeding and breast milk are safe for newborns.. · COVID-19 vaccination reduces the risk for morbidities..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Mothers , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 746-751, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the neonatal outcomes related to maternal SARS-COV-2 infection. METHODS: In this study, we identified newborns born between May 14 and August 31, 2020, to mothers who were PCR-SRAS-CoV-2 positive at the time of delivery. From the cohort of 974 infants, we performed a nested case-control study. RESULTS: During the study period, 133 (13.7%) mothers were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among the 35 pregnant women with COVID-19 symptoms (26.3%), cough was the most common symptom, present in half of the cases. Four of them have progressed to critical pneumonia requiring transfer to intensive care unit. The neonates from mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR, were routinely tested for COVID-19 within the first 24 h after labor, and 3 other newborns tested in the presence of symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to preterm birth, meconium-stained amniotic fluid distress, and neonatal asphyxia. Most infants were breastfed at birth, regardless of their mothers' COVID-19 status. In COVID-19-positive pregnant women admitted to intensive care unit, the proportion of preterm births (OR=12.5 [1.7-90.5]), fetal death in utero (OR=25.9 [2.2-305]) and admission in neonatal intensive care unit admission (OR=13.4 [3.0-60]), appeared higher than the controls. No maternal deaths were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest little neonatal morbidity associated with maternal COVID-19, except for those born to mothers admitted to intensive care unit. However, under breastfeeding conditions with rigorous hygiene precautions and parental education, the risk of transmission of SARS-COV-2 virus to the newborn was very low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , French Guiana/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(10): 1370-1374, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection born to the women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at single tertiary hospital from September 2020 and May 2021. 50 pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 50 neonates were included for analysis. We performed comprehensive testing of all biological samples for vertical transmission including the cord blood immunoglobulin. RESULTS: We detected SARS-CoV-2 in one fetal membrane and one amniotic fluid sample. We also demonstrated presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies in cord blood of 3 neonates. Though none of the samples of vaginal secretion, breast milk and nasopharyngeal swab from neonates were tested positive for covid infection via RT-PCR. We demonstrated presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the cord blood which had shown positive correlation with increasing disease to delivery interval and disease severity. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is possible. As virus was not detected in cervicovaginal secretions and breast milk so vertical transmission through this mechanism seems unlikely. Presence of IgG in cord blood is suggestive of passive immunity acquired from mother. This finding has greater clinical implication as large number of expecting mothers are being vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 42: 100977, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852086

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has markedly, and likely permanently, changed health care. This includes changing the obstetric and perinatal care of mothers and infants, and by extension, the care of their families. Infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 illness and related complications that can significantly impact maternal health and the health of the neonate. Viral transmission from mother to fetus is possible, but rare during pregnancy, and current health care policies focusing on maternal masking, and hand washing allows infected mothers to safely care for neonates (including nursing or feeding with expressed breast milk). The newly developed vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective for pregnant and breast-feeding mothers, with measurable antibody levels in cord blood and breast milk potentially providing a level of passive immunity to neonates. While studies looking at short-term outcomes for neonates have been reassuring, it is critical that we continue to work to understand and improve the care of pregnant woman and newborns with coronavirus disease 2019 to optimize long term outcomes. Although the knowledge base continues to evolve, the available evidence influencing the care of pregnant women and their infants is summarized in this focused review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
18.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 79(2): 100-105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection is usually mild in children, although it can become severe in some cases. Initially, doubts arose due to vertical perinatal transmission in infected mothers. Therefore, the first recommendations were very restrictive, suggesting mother-newborn separation. This study aimed to describe the clinical behavior of newborns born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection and of children admitted to hospital due to COVID-19 (coronavirus-2 disease). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of pediatric patients hospitalized between May 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. RESULTS: We included 19 patients: 47.4% were neonates born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 (1.63% of deliveries), and 52.6% were pediatric patients aged 2 months to 12 years with confirmed COVID-19 infection (3.43% of all pediatric admissions). All patients presented mild symptomatology and remained isolated with a family member in the room. Vertical transmission was not found, although a positivity rate of 88.89% was detected in fathers. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric admissions for COVID-19 did not represent an overload of care. No patient developed complications or required specific treatment. The incidence of COVID-19 deliveries was low, and vertical perinatal transmission was not observed. Admission with a companion facilitated pediatric care, which was favorable for the patient and the healthcare staff.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave) es habitualmente leve en niños, aunque llega a evolucionar de forma grave en algunos casos. Inicialmente surgieron dudas por la transmisión perinatal vertical en madres infectadas, por lo que las primeras recomendaciones fueron muy restrictivas, ya que sugerían la separación madre-hijo. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el comportamiento clínico de los recién nacidos de madres con infección por SARS-CoV-2 y de los niños ingresados al hospital por COVID-19 (enfermedad por coronavirus 2). MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados entre el 1 de mayo de 2020 y el 30 de abril de 2021. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 19 pacientes: el 47.4% eran neonatos hijos de madres infectadas con SARS-CoV-2 (1.63% de los partos) y el 52.6%, pacientes pediátricos de entre 2 meses y 12 años de edad con COVID-19 (3.43% de los ingresos pediátricos). Todos los pacientes presentaron sintomatología leve y permanecieron aislados en la habitación con un familiar. No se constató la transmisión vertical, aunque se detectó una tasa de positividad en el padre del 88.89. CONCLUSIONES: Los ingresos pediátricos por COVID-19 no supusieron sobrecarga asistencial. Ningún paciente desarrolló complicaciones ni precisó tratamiento específico. La incidencia de partos COVID-19 fue baja y no se constató la transmisión vertical. El ingreso con un acompañante facilitó los cuidados pediátricos, lo que resultó favorable para el paciente y para el personal del servicio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e147, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834345

ABSTRACT

With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, the number of pregnant women infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly increasing. A shortage of negative-pressure isolation rooms for newborns makes hospital assignment more difficult for late-pregnant women with COVID-19. Among 34 infants born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers, 5 (14.7%) presented with respiratory distress and 1 (2.9%) presented with feeding intolerance that required specialized care. Aerosol-generating procedures were performed in one infant. Overall outcomes of 34 infants were favorable, and no infant tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Most infants born to SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers did not need to be quarantined in a negative-pressure isolation room, and 17 (50%) mother-infant dyads were eligible for rooming-in. If negative-pressure isolation rooms are selectively used for newborns requiring aerosol-generating procedures or newborns in respiratory distress, resource availability for lower-risk cases may improve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 28, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. The safety of breastfeeding of SARS-CoV-2-positive women has not yet reached a consensus among the scientific community, healthcare providers, experts in lactation care, health organizations and governments. This study was conducted to summarize the latest evidence about the safety of breastfeeding among suspected/confirmed infected mothers and to summarize the recommendations on breastfeeding during COVID-19 from different organizations. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review of publications about the safety of breastfeeding among SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers was conducted. Scientific databases were searched up to 26 May 2021. The evidence was summarized into five perspectives according to a framework proposed by van de Perre et al. with certain modifications. Moreover, websites of different health organizations were visited to gather the recommendations for breastfeeding. RESULTS: The current evidence demonstrated that the majority of infants breastfed by infected mothers were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Breast milk samples from suspected/infected mothers mainly demonstrated negative results in SARS-CoV-2 viral tests. There was insufficient evidence proving the infectivity of breast milk from infected mothers. Recent studies found other transmission modalities (e.g., milk containers, skin) associated with breastfeeding. Specific antibodies in the breast milk of infected mothers were also found, implying protective effects for their breastfed children. According to van de Perre's criteria, the breast milk of infected mothers was unlikely to transmit SARS-CoV-2. Owing to the low quality of the current evidence, studies with a more robust design are needed to strengthen the conclusion regarding the safety of breastfeeding. Further studies to follow up the health status of infants who were directly breastfed by their suspected/infected mothers, to collect breast milk samples at multiple time points for viral tests and to examine specific antibodies in breast milk samples are warranted. Current recommendations on breastfeeding during COVID-19 from different organizations are controversial, while direct breastfeeding with contact precautions is generally suggested as the first choice for infected mothers. CONCLUSIONS: This review determined the safety of breastfeeding and identified the focus for further research during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations on breastfeeding are suggested to be updated in a timely manner according to the latest evidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Breast Feeding/methods , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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