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2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8813, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240029

ABSTRACT

Mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a study to summarize evidence on the risk of mother-to-child transmission in the first 30 days after birth in high-income countries and to evaluate the association between preventive measures and the risk of infection for the neonate. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. The National Library of Medicine, Web of Science, and Excerpta Medica databases were screened on February 26, 2022. All prospective observational studies addressing the frequency of infection in infants born to mothers SARS-CoV-2 positive were included. Twenty-six studies were included, reporting data of 2653 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 and 2677 neonates. The proportion meta-analysis pointed out an overall estimate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants of 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2%). Data from studies with (1.4%, 95% CI: 0.8-2) and without (1.3%, 95% CI: 0.0-2.7%) rooming-in provided similar risk of infection. Adopting at least two prevention measures during rooming-in resulted in a rate of mother-to-child infection of 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3-1.7%). The results of this study show a low rate of perinatal infection, support the rooming-in and confirm the effectiveness of preventive measures in reducing the risk of mother-to-child viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Developed Countries , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 16(2): 235-237, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240921

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has created a serious health problem in pregnant people. We aimed to address whether vaccination can prevent development of placental disease in SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers. METHODS: We reported the pathology findings obtained from routine histopathological examination of placentas of overall 38 cases. RESULTS: We found low prevalence of placental pathology in vaccinated pregnant people with active SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to those unvaccinated cases. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination can prevent development of placental pathological lesions and may lower the risk of serious illness in pregnant people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Placenta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
4.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 618-624, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the available literature regarding effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on newborns, ranging from effects related to in utero and perinatal exposure to maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, to pandemic-related stress and socioeconomic changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large studies and national registries have shown that the risk of vertical transmission from SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers to newborns is rare and does not appear to be related to postnatal care policies such as mother-newborn separation and breastfeeding. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero are at higher risk for preterm delivery for reasons still under investigation. When newborns do acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, their disease course is usually mild. Long-term follow-up data are lacking, but preliminary reports indicate that, similarly to prior natural disasters, being born during the pandemic may be associated with developmental risk. SUMMARY: Although risk of vertical or perinatal transmission is low across a range of postnatal care practices, early indicators suggest developmental risk to the generation born during the pandemic. Long-term follow-up data are critically needed to determine the developmental impact of in utero and early life exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Pregnancy ; 2023: 3015072, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322359

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a new pandemic, which was declared by the World Health Organization in 2019 as a threat to public health. According to numerous reports, it can have negative consequences for pregnant women, labour, and neonates born to infected mothers. The aim of this paper was to gather the evidence and to present a summary of the results of studies concerning COVID-19 in pregnant women and their neonates. Methods: Articles from prestigious journals covering the period from 2020 to February 2023, relevant review papers, and original research articles from PubMed were analysed. In order to analyse the available research literature, the Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases were used, in which the search for articles was conducted using terms ("pregnancy," "coronavirus," "SARS-CoV-2," and "newborn") and using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines for clinical trials. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews (2022-2023) on symptoms, neonatal course, and risk of COVID-19 infection have been summarized. Summary of meta-analyses and systematic reviews (2022-2023) on the effect and adverse reaction of the COVID-19 vaccination is presented. Results: As a result of the research conducted, it was confirmed that in most pregnant women, no serious signs of the infection were observed, although isolated cases of death related to COVID-19 in pregnant women were reported. Several authors called attention to the more severe course of the infection in pregnant women with obesity. It seemed that no vertical transmission from mother to child was occurring. Nevertheless, the information was not clinching. The condition of the neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 was in most cases described as normal; however, some papers reported deaths of infected neonates. Conclusions: Due to insufficient data, further research is necessary. Further studies and follow-up are recommended, which would make possible an assessment of remote effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and vital parameters of the newborn.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Parturition , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 261, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In countries with intermediate or high hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents the main route of chronic HBV infection. There is a paucity of information on HBV MTCT in Cambodia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women and its MTCT rate in Siem Reap, Cambodia. METHODS: This longitudinal study included two parts, study-1 to screen HBsAg among pregnant women and study-2 to follow up babies of all HBsAg-positive and one-fourth of HBsAg-negative mothers at their delivery and six-month post-partum. Serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples were collected to examine HBV sero-markers by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA), and molecular analyses were performed on HBsAg-positive samples. Structured questionnaires and medical records were used to examine the risk factors for HBV infection. MTCT rate was calculated by HBsAg positivity of 6-month-old babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers and ascertained by the homology of HBV genomes in mother-child pair at 6-month-old. RESULTS: A total of 1,565 pregnant women were screened, and HBsAg prevalence was 4.28% (67/1565). HBeAg positivity was 41.8% and was significantly associated with high viral load (p < 0.0001). Excluding subjects who dropped out due to restrictions during COVID-19, one out of 35 babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers tested positive for HBsAg at 6 months of age, despite receiving timely HepB birth dose and HBIG, followed by 3 doses of HepB vaccine. Hence the MTCT rate was 2.86%. The mother of the infected baby was positive for HBeAg and had a high HBV viral load (1.2 × 109 copies/mL). HBV genome analysis showed 100% homology between the mother and the child. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings illustrate the intermediate endemicity of HBV infection among pregnant women in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Despite full HepB vaccination, a residual risk of HBV MTCT was observed. This finding supports the recently updated guidelines for the prevention of HBV MTCT in 2021, which integrated screening and antiviral prophylaxis for pregnant women at risk of HBV MTCT. Furthermore, we strongly recommend the urgent implementation of these guidelines nationwide to effectively combat HBV in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Cambodia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Vaccination
7.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(2): 181-187, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection on the health and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women and their infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is greater in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women as measured by rates of admission to intensive care units, mechanical ventilation, mortality, and morbidities including myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolic and other thrombotic events, preeclampsia, preterm labor, and preterm birth. The risk of transmission from mother-to-infant is relatively low (1.5-5%) as quantitated by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing. Infants appear to be at higher risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 if the mother has tested positive within 1 week of delivery or is herself symptomatic at the time of maternity admission. The rate of positivity is not higher in infants who room in with the mother compared to infants who are initially separated and cared for in a SARS-CoV-2-free environment. Infants who test positive in the hospital have no or mild signs of disease, most of which may be attributable to prematurity, and rarely require readmission for clinical signs consistent with COVID-19. SUMMARY: Pregnant women should take precautions to avoid infection with SARS-CoV-2. Infants born to mothers who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 can receive normal neonatal care in-hospital with their mothers if mother and staff adhere to recommended infection control practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(2): 188-194, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259300

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to describe the process of and challenges in developing national guidance for management of infants born to mothers with COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Beginning in January 2020, infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spread across the USA, causing the illness COVID-19. As pregnant women began to present for delivery while sick with COVID-19, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a writing group in March 2020 to develop guidance for the management of their newborns. The initial guidance was developed emergently and was forced to rely on extremely limited data from China. The initial guidance advocated for a conservative approach that included temporary physical separation of infected mother and newborn. To address the knowledge deficit, the AAP sponsored a volunteer registry to collect data on perinatal infection and management. As data have emerged informing the natural history of COVID-19, the performance of PCR-based diagnostics, the value of infection control measures and the risk of infant disease, AAP has issued serial updates to newborn guidance. SUMMARY: Evolving knowledge on the epidemiology of perinatal COVID-19 has informed newborn guidance. The most recent guidance focuses on the use of infection control measures to support maternal-newborn contact and breastfeeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 42: 100977, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284745

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has markedly, and likely permanently, changed health care. This includes changing the obstetric and perinatal care of mothers and infants, and by extension, the care of their families. Infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 illness and related complications that can significantly impact maternal health and the health of the neonate. Viral transmission from mother to fetus is possible, but rare during pregnancy, and current health care policies focusing on maternal masking, and hand washing allows infected mothers to safely care for neonates (including nursing or feeding with expressed breast milk). The newly developed vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective for pregnant and breast-feeding mothers, with measurable antibody levels in cord blood and breast milk potentially providing a level of passive immunity to neonates. While studies looking at short-term outcomes for neonates have been reassuring, it is critical that we continue to work to understand and improve the care of pregnant woman and newborns with coronavirus disease 2019 to optimize long term outcomes. Although the knowledge base continues to evolve, the available evidence influencing the care of pregnant women and their infants is summarized in this focused review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(1): 23-36, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277131

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). By February 2022, the disease had infected more than 500 million people globally. COVID-19 frequently manifests as pneumonia and mortality is mainly caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Previous studies have reported that pregnant women are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and complications can happen due to alterations in the immune response, respiratory physiology, hypercoagulable state, and placental pathology. Clinicians face the challenge of selecting the proper treatment for pregnant patients with different physiological characteristics compared with the non-pregnant population. Furthermore, drug safety for both the patient and the fetus should also be considered. Efforts to prevent COVID-19, including prioritizing vaccination for pregnant women, are essential to break the chain of COVID-19 transmission in the pregnant population. This review aims to summarize the current literature regarding the effect of COVID-19 in pregnant women, its clinical manifestations, treatment, complications, and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Placenta
11.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 28(2): 101427, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253147

ABSTRACT

After three years of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have learned many aspects of the disease and the virus: its molecular structure, how it infects human cells, the clinical picture at different ages, potential therapies, and the effectiveness of prophylaxis. Research is currently focused on the short- and long-term consequences of COVID-19. We review the available information on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants born during the pandemic from infected and non-infected mothers, as well as the neurological impact of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also discuss the mechanisms that could potentially affect the fetal or neonatal brain including direct impact after vertical transmission, maternal immune activation with a proinflammatory cytokine storm, and finally the consequences of complications of pregnancy secondary to maternal infection that could affect the fetus. Several follow-up studies have noted a variety of neurodevelopmental sequelae among infants born during the pandemic. There is controversy as to the exact etiopathogenesis of these neurodevelopmental effects: from the infection itself or as a result of parental emotional stress during that period. We summarize case reports of acute neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with neurological signs and neuroimaging changes. Many infants born during previous pandemics caused by other respiratory viruses demonstrated serious neurodevelopmental and psychological sequelae that were only recognized after several years of follow-up. It is essential to warn health authorities about the need for very long-term continuous follow up of infants born during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic for early detection and treatment that could help mitigate the neurodevelopmental consequences of perinatal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Fetus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
12.
Acta Paediatr ; 112(6): 1177-1181, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253003

ABSTRACT

Mothers have been very hesitant about breastfeeding when they have COVID-19 infection or vaccinations. Maternal milk protects neonates through its high biological value, immune factors and anti-infectious molecules and this review shows that the virus that causes COVID-19 is not transmitted through breast milk. COVID-19 vaccines induce anti-spike antibodies with neutralising capacity, and phagocytosis, and no vaccine particles or messenger ribonucleic acid have been detected in breast milk. Most drugs used for maternal COVID-19 infections are safe for breastfed infants. CONCLUSION: The clear benefits of breastfeeding by far outweigh the very low risk of infant infections from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 110, 2023 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently one of the world's most critical health issues so far. Given the importance of appropriate treatment in pregnancy and the controversies about Remdesivir effectiveness and complications, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Remdesivir on maternal, fetal, and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 diseases. METHODS: A total of 189 pregnant women with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for SARS-COV-2, and oxygen saturation [SpO2] of < 95%) were admitted to 12 hospitals affiliated with the Iran University of Medical Sciences from March 1st, 2020 to June 7th, 2021, namely the first four COVID-19 Picks in Iran. They were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study by census method and categorized into case and control groups, based on the inclusion of Remdesivir in their treatment protocol. Demographics, clinical outcomes, and pregnancy-related complications of the mothers and the neonates were compared between the two study groups. RESULTS: A comparison of 54 mothers in the case and 135 in the control group showed no demographic and clinical characteristics difference. Neonates whose mothers did not receive Remdesivir had a higher rate of positive PCR (10.2%), compared to the Remdesivir group (1.9%) with a relative risk of 0.91 reported for Remdesivir (95% CI: 0.85-0.98, P = 0.04); besides, Remdesivir resulted in fewer neonatal intensive care unit admission rates in mild/moderate COVID-19 group (RR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.105-1.02, P = 0.03). Although neonatal death between the two groups was not statistically significant, from the clinical point seems important; 1(1.9%) in the case vs. 9(7.2%) in the control group. Interestingly LOS (Length of Stay) in the hospital was longer in the case group (median of 7 vs. 3 days; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The inclusion of Remdesivir in the treatment protocol of pregnant women with COVID-19 may reduce vertical transmission and improve perinatal outcomes, thus being suggested to be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome
14.
J Perinat Med ; 51(2): 277-283, 2023 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this article, we aimed to evaluate the most recent information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of mothers and their babies. METHODS: We conducted a literature search by utilizing online sources. Scientific papers that were written in English on the effects of COVID-19 on both mother and their newborn were assessed. RESULTS: COVID-19 can be fatal, especially in pregnant women with accompanying chronic diseases. The timing and mode of delivery should be decided by the status of the mother and fetus instead of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in pregnant women. At the nursery, routine separation of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers and their infants is not recommended. However, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce the risk of transmission. The advantages of breastfeeding seem to outweigh the potential dangers of viral transmission. Neonatal COVID-19 infections may cause different clinical pictures from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening diseases. International health authorities specifically recommend that pregnant and lactating women get vaccinated to diminish the risk of transmission of the virus to the mother and fetus, not giving preference to a certain vaccine. It is prudent to apply universal screening only in populations with a high prevalence of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals should carefully manage the perinatal period during the COVID-19 outbreak, using the most up-to-date information to protect and promote maternal and newborn health. Further scientific studies are needed to clarify the early and long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal-neonatal morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pandemics , Lactation , SARS-CoV-2 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
15.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197404

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Pediatrics National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (NPC-19) was developed to provide information on the effects of perinatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: National Registry for the Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal COVID-19 participating centers entered maternal and newborn data for pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 14 days before and 10 days after delivery. Incidence of and morbidities associated with maternal and newborn SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed. RESULTS: From April 6, 2020 to March 19, 2021, 242 centers in the United States centers reported data for 7524 pregnant persons; at the time of delivery, 78.1% of these persons were asymptomatic, 18.2% were symptomatic but not hospitalized specifically for COVID-19, 3.4% were hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment, and 18 (0.2%) died in the hospital of COVID-related complications. Among 7648 newborns, 6486 (84.8%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 144 (2.2%) were positive; the highest rate of newborn infection was observed when mothers first tested positive in the immediate postpartum period (17 of 125, 13.6%). No newborn deaths were attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, 15.6% of newborns were preterm: among tested newborns, 30.1% of polymerase chain reaction-positive and 16.2% of polymerase chain reaction-negative were born preterm (P < .001). Need for mechanical ventilation did not differ by newborn SARS-CoV-2 test result, but those with positive tests were more likely to be admitted to a NICU. CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection was acquired by newborns at variable rates and without apparent short-term effects. During a period that preceded widespread availability of vaccines, we observed higher than expected numbers of preterm births and maternal in-hospital deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
16.
Pediatrics ; 150(6)2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098887

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the 6-month incidence of laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, postnatal care, hospitalization, and mortality among infants born to people with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy by timing of maternal infection. METHODS: Using a cohort of liveborn infants from pregnancies with SARS-CoV-2 infections in the year 2020 from 10 United States jurisdictions in the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mother and Babies Network, we describe weighted estimates of infant outcomes from birth through 6 months of age from electronic health and laboratory records. RESULTS: Of 6601 exposed infants with laboratory information through 6 months of age, 1.0% (95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.1) tested positive, 19.1% (17.5-20.6) tested negative, and 80.0% (78.4-81.6) were not known to be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Among those ≤14 days of age, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred only with maternal infection ≤14 days before delivery. Of 3967 infants with medical record abstraction, breastmilk feeding initiation was lower when maternal infection occurred ≤14 days before delivery compared with >14 days (77.6% [72.5-82.6] versus 88.3% [84.7-92.0]). Six-month all-cause hospitalization was 4.1% (2.0-6.2). All-cause mortality was higher among infants born to people with infection ≤14 days (1.0% [0.4-1.6]) than >14 days (0.3% [0.1-0.5]) before delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Results are reassuring, with low incidences of most health outcomes examined. Incidence of infant SARS-CoV-2, breastmilk feeding initiation, and all-cause mortality differed by timing of maternal infection. Strategies to prevent infections and support pregnant people with coronavirus disease 2019 may improve infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
17.
Clin Perinatol ; 49(1): 73-92, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049039

ABSTRACT

Maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can present with or without symptoms at the time of birth. Symptomatic mothers are more likely be associated with preterm births. Population studies demonstrate a consistent association of SARS-CoV-2 infection and a reduction in preterm birth rate. Newborns with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results appear to have minimal burden of illness that is directly associated with a viral infection. Neonatal mortality directly related to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely rare. Maternal vaccination in pregnant women leads to maternal antibody production, and this can occur as early as 5 days after the first vaccination dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010024

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic significantly impacted the general population's health. At times, the infection has unfavorably influenced pregnancy evolution and the result of birth. However, vertical transmission of the virus is rare and generates controversial discussions. The study aimed to highlight the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of pregnant women with confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with possible vertical transmission and identify possible factors that encourage vertical transmission. Between 1 April 2020 and 31 December 2021, 281 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 gave birth in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of the tertiary unit of County Emergency Clinical Hospital from Timisoara. Three newborns (1.06%) tested positive. The characteristic of these three cases was described as a short series. In two cases, the patients were asymptomatic. In one case, the patient developed a mild form of COVID-19 with a favorable evolution in all cases. We did not identify the presence of smoking history, vaccine before admission, atypical presentation, fever, or chest X-ray abnormalities. We note possible factors that encourage vertical transmission: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, thrombophilia, asymptomatic cough, an asymptomatic or mild form of the disease, a ruptured membrane, and cesarean. The laboratory results highlight the inconstant presence of some changes found in the list of potential predictors of the severity of the infection: Lymphopenia, high values of C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelets, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin. The study's conclusion of this small group suggests that there may have been an intrauterine infection in late pregnancy and described characteristics of the pregnant women. Possible risk factors that could encourage vertical transmission have been identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(12): 2278-2283, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992730

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has turned perinatal healthcare into a worldwide public health challenge. Although initial data did not demonstrate pregnancy as a more susceptible period to adverse outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, an increasing number of reports now certify maternal illness as a high-risk condition for the development of maternal-fetal complications. Despite the rarity of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, severe maternal illness might induce adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Additionally, perinatal COVID-19 data may raise concerns about long-term harmful consequences to the offspring in the framework of non-communicable diseases. The World Health Organisation, as well as scientific literature, consider the protection of the maternal-fetal dyad against COVID-19 as a critical issue and, therefore, strongly promote and encourage the vaccination of pregnant and lactating women. Furthermore, the pandemic has triggered an unprecedented recession, leading to historic levels of unemployment and deprivation, while health, societal, economic and gender inequities particularly affecting low-income and middle-income countries, have increased. This mini-review provides an updated brief report on historical, clinical, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic based on 10 lectures presented at the 9th Maria-Delivoria-Papadopoulos Perinatal Symposium, held virtually on 19 March 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Lactation , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Pregnancy Outcome
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