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3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132563, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499193

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although several studies have provided information on short-term clinical outcomes in children with perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2, data on the immune response in the first months of life among newborns exposed to the virus in utero are lacking. Objective: To characterize systemic and mucosal antibody production during the first 2 months of life among infants who were born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled 28 pregnant women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and who gave birth at Policlinico Umberto I in Rome, Italy, from November 2020 to May 2021, and their newborns. Maternal and neonatal systemic immune responses were investigated by detecting spike-specific antibodies in serum, and the mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring specific antibodies in maternal breastmilk and infant saliva 48 hours after delivery and 2 months later. Exposures: Maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The systemic immune response was evaluated by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA antibodies and receptor binding domain-specific IgM antibodies in maternal and neonatal serum. The mucosal immune response was assessed by measuring spike-specific antibodies in breastmilk and in infant saliva, and the presence of antigen-antibody spike IgA immune complexes was investigated in breastmilk samples. All antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In total, 28 mother-infant dyads (mean [SD] maternal age, 31.8 [6.4] years; mean [SD] gestational age, 38.1 [2.3] weeks; 18 [60%] male infants) were enrolled at delivery, and 21 dyads completed the study at 2 months' follow-up. Because maternal infection was recent in all cases, transplacental transfer of virus spike-specific IgG antibodies occurred in only 1 infant. One case of potential vertical transmission and 1 case of horizontal infection were observed. Virus spike protein-specific salivary IgA antibodies were significantly increased (P = .01) in infants fed breastmilk (0.99 arbitrary units [AU]; IQR, 0.39-1.68 AU) vs infants fed an exclusive formula diet (0.16 AU; IQR, 0.02-0.83 AU). Maternal milk contained IgA spike immune complexes at 48 hours (0.53 AU; IQR, 0.25-0.39 AU) and at 2 months (0.09 AU; IQR, 0.03-0.17 AU) and may have functioned as specific stimuli for the infant mucosal immune response. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgA antibodies were detected in infant saliva, which may partly explain why newborns are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mothers infected in the peripartum period appear to not only passively protect the newborn via breastmilk secretory IgA but also actively stimulate and train the neonatal immune system via breastmilk immune complexes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1055-1070, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482855

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has afflicted the health of children and women across all age groups. Since the outbreak of the pandemic in December 2019, various epidemiologic, immunologic, clinical, and pharmaceutical studies have been conducted to understand its infectious characteristics, pathogenesis, and clinical profile. COVID-19 affects pregnant women more seriously than nonpregnant women, endangering the health of the newborn. Changes have been implemented to guidelines for antenatal care of pregnant women, delivery, and newborn care. We highlight the current trends of clinical care in pregnant women and newborns during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 114, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455972

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal breastfeeding rates in South Africa have been attributed to the relatively easy access that women and families have had to infant formula, in part as a result of programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. This policy may have had an undesirable spill-over effect on HIV-negative women as well. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were to: (a) describe EBF practices in South Africa, (b) determine how EBF has been affected by the WHO HIV infant feeding policies followed since 2006, and (c) assess if the renewed interest in The Code has had any impact on breastfeeding practices in South Africa. METHODS: We applied the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for scoping reviews and reported our work in compliance with the PRISMA Extension (PRISMA-ScR). Twelve databases and platforms were searched. We included all study designs (no language restrictions) from South Africa published between 2006 and 2020. Eligible participants were women in South Africa who delivered a healthy live newborn who was between birth and 24 months of age at the time of study, and with known infant feeding practices. RESULTS: A total of 5431 citations were retrieved. Duplicates were removed in EndNote and by Covidence. Of the 1588 unique records processed in Covidence, 179 records met the criteria for full-text screening and 83 were included in the review. It was common for HIV-positive women who initiated breastfeeding to stop doing so prior to 6 months after birth (1-3 months). EBF rates rapidly declined after birth. School and work commitments were also reasons for discontinuation of EBF. HIV-positive women expressed fear of HIV MTCT transmission as a reason for not breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The Review found that while enforcing the most recent WHO HIV infant feeding guidelines and the WHO Code may be necessary to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa, they may not be sufficient because there are additional barriers that impact breastfeeding outcomes. Mixed-methods research, including in-depth interviews with key informants representing different government sectors and civil society is needed to prioritize actions and strategies to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Guideline Adherence , World Health Organization , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guidelines as Topic , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Infant Formula/supply & distribution , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Public Policy , South Africa
6.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(2): 181-187, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455408

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection on the health and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women and their infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is greater in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women as measured by rates of admission to intensive care units, mechanical ventilation, mortality, and morbidities including myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolic and other thrombotic events, preeclampsia, preterm labor, and preterm birth. The risk of transmission from mother-to-infant is relatively low (1.5-5%) as quantitated by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing. Infants appear to be at higher risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 if the mother has tested positive within 1 week of delivery or is herself symptomatic at the time of maternity admission. The rate of positivity is not higher in infants who room in with the mother compared to infants who are initially separated and cared for in a SARS-CoV-2-free environment. Infants who test positive in the hospital have no or mild signs of disease, most of which may be attributable to prematurity, and rarely require readmission for clinical signs consistent with COVID-19. SUMMARY: Pregnant women should take precautions to avoid infection with SARS-CoV-2. Infants born to mothers who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 can receive normal neonatal care in-hospital with their mothers if mother and staff adhere to recommended infection control practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
8.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 618-624, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437854

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the available literature regarding effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on newborns, ranging from effects related to in utero and perinatal exposure to maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, to pandemic-related stress and socioeconomic changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large studies and national registries have shown that the risk of vertical transmission from SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers to newborns is rare and does not appear to be related to postnatal care policies such as mother-newborn separation and breastfeeding. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in utero are at higher risk for preterm delivery for reasons still under investigation. When newborns do acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, their disease course is usually mild. Long-term follow-up data are lacking, but preliminary reports indicate that, similarly to prior natural disasters, being born during the pandemic may be associated with developmental risk. SUMMARY: Although risk of vertical or perinatal transmission is low across a range of postnatal care practices, early indicators suggest developmental risk to the generation born during the pandemic. Long-term follow-up data are critically needed to determine the developmental impact of in utero and early life exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Placenta ; 115: 78-86, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415712

ABSTRACT

The risk of potential vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women is currently a topic of debate. To explore the correlation between the two, we searched PubMed, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on vertical transmission of COVID-19. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Detailed information of each included case including methods of delivery, protection measures for mothers and neonates at birth, types of specimens, inspection time, results of testing and feeding patterns was collected to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. The results showed that of the 390 neonates reported in 36 studies, 23 were infected with SARS-CoV-2 by potential vertical transmission. From the perspective of virology and pathology, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was possible via uterus or breastmilk. Some reported potential vertically transmitted neonates could be attributed to horizontal transmission. It is extremely vital to fully elucidate the potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, implicating clinical practice and nursing to reduce the risk of not only horizontal transmission but also vertical transmission, thus protecting neonates from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
10.
Medwave ; 21(7): e8454, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406848

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 disease can affect women at any stage of pregnancy, and newborns could become infected with SARS-CoV-2 through vertical or horizontal transmission. Objective: To determine clinical and epidemiological characteristics of mothers with COVID-19, associated neonatal outcomes, and to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. Methods: We conducted an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. We included all mothers with positive serology for SARS-CoV-2 and their newborns at the Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo from April 18 to September 30, 2020. Variables were collected from the medical records, and descriptive statistics were used for the analysis. Results: A total of 647 mothers and 656 neonates were enrolled. Of all live births, 85.3% and 14.7% were term and preterm neonates, respectively. We found 1.7% (11/656) of newborns with positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2; and that 27.3% (3/11) of these neonates required hospitalization. Neonatal mortality was 4/656 (0.6%), and no case was attributed to COVID-19. Of all mothers affected with COVID-19, 95.7% were asymptomatic, and 4.3% presented clinical symptoms attributed to COVID-19, most of which were mild. The most frequent obstetric complications were preeclampsia-eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, and acute fetal distress. All the mothers were discharged. Conclusion: We found 1.7% of newborns with positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2; and that 20.1% of these neonates were hospitalized. The most frequent morbidity was neonatal sepsis and prematurity. The infection was mild among newborns, showing a 0.6% overall mortality, with no cases attributed to COVID-19. We found that only 5% of mothers presented symptoms, most of which were mild to moderate symptoms. There was no record of maternal mortality in this study group. It is not possible to conclude whether vertical transmission or intrapartum-acquired infection is responsible for neonatal COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(8): 1392-1405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389051

ABSTRACT

The complications of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its COVID-19 disease on mothers and their offspring are less known. This review aimed to determine the transmission, severity, and complications of SARS- CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. This review showed the influence of COVID-19 disease on neonatal neurogenesis. Owing medicines that were reported for the treatment of COVID-19 disease, this review suggested some control strategies like treatments (medicinal plants, antiviral therapy, cellular therapy, and immunotherapy), nutrition uptake, prevention, and recommendations. This overview showed that severe infection of SARS-CoV-2 during the early stage of pregnancy might increase the risk of stress, panic, and anxiety. This disorder can disturb the maternal immune system, and thus causing a neurodevelopmental disturbance. This hypothesis may be depending on the severity and intensity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. However, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from dams to their fetuses is absent until now. During this global pandemic disease, maintaining safety during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and breastfeeding may play a vital role in a healthy life for the offspring. Thus, international, and national organizations should be continuing for perinatal management, particularly during the next pandemic or disaster time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374474

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). One major problem faced is whether breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus is safe. The objective of this work is to study the impact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can have on breastfeeding, and whether the virus or antibodies can be transmitted from mother to child through milk. We carried out a systematic review of studies focusing on the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on breastfeeding by mothers infected with the virus. The bibliographic search was done through Medline (Pubmed), MedlinePlus and Google Scholar. From 292 records, the title and summary of each were examined according to the criteria, and whether they meet the selection criteria was also analysed. A total of 30 articles are included, of which 26 deal with the study of RNA virus in breastmilk and its involvement in breastfeeding and four on the study of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in milk. Most studies have been conducted in China. Breastfeeding by mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 is highly recommended for infants, if the health of the mother and the infant allow for it. Direct breastfeeding and maintaining appropriate protective measures should be encouraged. Should the mother's health condition not permit direct breastfeeding, infants should be fed with pumped breastmilk or donor milk.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/adverse effects , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Milk, Human/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 574, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374107

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2) infection confers a non-negligible risk for younger pregnant women with diabetes, which is still less well investigated. This topic was recently addressed by a systematic scoping review in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, aiming to summarize the complex interaction between SARS-Cov-2 infection, pregnancy and diabetes. This commentary will summarize and discuss the main findings of this article and its implications for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166248, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372892

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected nearly 178 million people and claimed the lives of over 3.8 million in less than 15 months. This has prompted a flurry of research studies into the mechanisms and effects of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in humans. However, studies examining the effects of COVID-19 in pregnant women, their placentae and their babies remain limited. Furthermore, reports of safety and efficacy of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy are limited. This review concisely summarises the case studies and research on COVID-19 in pregnancy, to date. It also reviews the mechanism of infection with SARS-CoV-2, and its reliance and effects upon the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Overall, the data suggest that infection during pregnancy can be dangerous at any time, but this risk to both the mother and fetus, as well as placental damage, increases during the third trimester. The possibility of vertical transmission, which is explored in this review, remains contentious. However, maternal infection with SARS-CoV-2 can increase risk of miscarriage, preterm birth and stillbirth, which is likely due to damage to the placenta.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Fetus/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Fetus/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Placenta/metabolism , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 577, 2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women's hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period. RESULTS: We included 2,503 women admitted to the hospital; 1,287 (51.4 %) were admitted before the Covid-19 lockdown and 1,216 (48.6 %) during the Covid-19 lockdown. There were no significant differences in stillbirth rates (p = 0.584) or pregnancy complications (including preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes) (p = 0.115) between pregnant women in the pre- and intra-pandemic periods. However, decreases in preterm births (p = 0.001), and low birth weight (p = 0.005) were observed in the pandemic period compared to the pre-pandemic period. No significant difference in the mode of delivery, and no maternal deaths were observed during the two time periods. CONCLUSIONS: In our study we observed a decrease in preterm births and low birth weight, no change in stillbirths, and a rise in the admission rates of mothers to the ICU during the initial Covid-19 lockdown period compared to pre-Covid-19 lockdown period. Further research will be needed to devise plan for immediate post-pandemic care and future health care crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods , Severity of Illness Index
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, we suffer from an increasing diabetes pandemic and on the other hand from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Already at the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it was quickly assumed that certain groups are at increased risk to suffer from a severe course of COVID-19. There are serious concerns regarding potential adverse effects on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. Diabetic pregnancies clearly need special care, but clinical implications as well as the complex interplay of diabetes and SARS-CoV-2 are currently unknown. We summarized the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 in diabetic pregnancies, including the identification of novel potential pathophysiological mechanisms and interactions as well as clinical outcomes and features, screening, and management approaches. METHODS: We carried out a systematic scoping review in MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science Core Collection in September 2020. RESULTS: We found that the prognosis of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 may be associated with potential underlying mechanisms such as a simplified viral uptake by ACE2, a higher basal value of pro-inflammatory cytokines, being hypoxemic as well as platelet activation, embolism, and preeclampsia. In the context of "trans-generational programming" and COVID-19, life-long consequences may be "programmed" during gestation by pro-inflammation, hypoxia, over- or under-expression of transporters and enzymes, and epigenetic modifications based on changes in the intra-uterine milieu. COVID-19 may cause new onset diabetes mellitus, and that vertical transmission from mother to baby might be possible. CONCLUSIONS: Given the challenges in clinical management, the complex interplay between COVID-19 and diabetic pregnancies, evidence-based recommendations are urgently needed. Digital medicine is a future-oriented and effective approach in the context of clinical diabetes management. We anticipate our review to be a starting point to understand and analyze mechanisms and epidemiology to most effectively treat women with SARS-COV-2 and diabetes in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Health/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Primary Prevention/methods
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5505-5514, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363687

ABSTRACT

The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their neonates is an area of research interest nowadays. To date, there is limited knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women at term in middle- and low-income countries. In the present retro-prospective study, medical records of pregnant women admitted for delivery were reviewed from the largest Covid-19 dedicated Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh (SMGS) maternity hospital. The SARS-CoV-2 screening was carried out for all pregnant women admitted for delivery using RT-PCR. All neonates born from SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were isolated and tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Most of the pregnant women (90.6%) were asymptomatic at the time of admission with a low prevalence (3.4%) of SARS-CoV-2. A higher rate of asymptomatic prevalence (86.1%) was found among SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women. On the basis of the RT-PCR result (negative vs. positive), statistically significant differences were found for maternal characteristics, such as mean gestational age (37.5 ± 2.2 vs. 36.6 ± 3.3), medical comorbidity (2.9% vs. 7.4%), and maternal outcomes like the C-section rate (29.8% vs. 58.3%), preterm delivery (14.6% vs. 28.3), and neonatal outcomes like mean birth weight (2840 ± 450 vs. 2600 ± 600), low Apgar score (2.7% vs. 6.48%), and fetal distress (10.9% vs. 22.2%) among SARS-CoV-2 negative and positive cases, respectively. No neonate from SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fetal Distress/epidemiology , Fetal Distress/virology , Gestational Age , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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