Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 34
Filter
1.
J Virol ; 96(14): e0065322, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938007

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an avian coronavirus that causes infectious bronchitis, an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens. IBV evolution under the pressure of comprehensive and widespread vaccination requires surveillance for vaccine resistance, as well as periodic vaccine updates. Reverse genetics systems are very valuable tools in virology, as they facilitate rapid genetic manipulation of viral genomes, thereby advancing basic and applied research. We report here the construction of an infectious clone of IBV strain Beaudette as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The engineered full-length IBV clone allowed the rescue of an infectious virus that was phenotypically indistinguishable from the parental virus. We used the infectious IBV clone and examined whether an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) can be produced by the replicase gene ORF1 and autocatalytically released from the replicase polyprotein through cleavage by the main coronavirus protease. We show that IBV tolerates insertion of the EGFP ORF at the 3' end of the replicase gene, between the sequences encoding nsp13 and nsp16 (helicase, RNA exonuclease, RNA endonuclease, and RNA methyltransferase). We further show that EGFP is efficiently cleaved from the replicase polyprotein and can be localized in double-membrane vesicles along with viral RNA polymerase and double-stranded RNA, an intermediate of IBV genome replication. One of the engineered reporter EGFP viruses were genetically stable during passage in cultured cells. We demonstrate that the reporter EGFP viruses can be used to study virus replication in host cells and for antiviral drug discovery and development of diagnostic assays. IMPORTANCE Reverse genetics systems based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are the most valuable systems in coronavirus research. Here, we describe the establishment of a reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus strain Beaudette, the most intensively studied strain. We cloned a copy of the avian coronavirus genome into a BAC vector and recovered infectious virus in permissive cells. We used the new system to construct reporter viruses that produce enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The EGFP coding sequence was inserted into 11 known cleavage sites of the major coronavirus protease in the replicase gene ORF1. Avian coronavirus tolerated the insertion of the EGFP coding sequence at three sites. The engineered reporter viruses replicated with parental efficiency in cultured cells and were sufficiently genetically stable. The new system facilitates functional genomics of the avian coronavirus genome but can also be used for the development of novel vaccines and anticoronaviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Reverse Genetics , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases , Polyproteins , RNA, Viral/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911655

ABSTRACT

Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) continues to cause significant economic losses for the chicken industry despite the use of many live IBV vaccines around the world. Several authors have suggested that vaccine-induced partial protection may contribute to the emergence of new IBV strains. In order to study this hypothesis, three passages of a challenge IBV were made in SPF chickens sham inoculated or vaccinated at day of age using a live vaccine heterologous to the challenge virus. All birds that were challenged with vaccine heterologous virus were positive for viral RNA. NGS analysis of viral RNA in the unvaccinated group showed a rapid selection of seven genetic variants, finally modifying the consensus genome of the viral population. Among them, five were non-synonymous, modifying one position in NSP 8, one in NSP 13, and three in the Spike protein. In the vaccinated group, one genetic variant was selected over the three passages. This synonymous modification was absent from the unvaccinated group. Under these conditions, the genome population of an IBV challenge virus evolved rapidly in both heterologous vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds, while the genetic changes that were selected and the locations of these were very different between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Communicable Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Evolution, Molecular , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines/genetics
3.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 25(1): 45-50, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856596

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an important disease that causes severe economic loses in the poultry industry worldwide. Furthermore, the spread of new variants poses a challenge for diagnosis and control of the disease. This study investigated the situation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), specifically the Israel variant-2 (IS var-2) also known as GI-23 genotype, in Turkey. Between 2014 and 2019, 214 flocks vaccinated against H120 from Marmara, Western Black Sea, and Inner Anatolia were examined, with 127 (59.3%) flocks testing positive for IBV, of which 92 (72.4%) were positive for IS var-2. Of the latter samples, 60 were randomly selected and subjected to full S1 gene sequencing. The analysis indicated that the field strain in Turkey was located on the same branch as the GI-23 genotype, which is one of the most frequently observed wild-type cluster found in the Middle East. The DNA similarities between the GI-23 isolates from 2014 to 2019 were 99%. In conclusion, the IS var-2 genotype has been circulating in broiler flocks in Turkey. It is recommended that establishing the vaccine strategy it should be considered the current circulating strains for the prevention and control of the disease among poultry.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Israel , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology
4.
Avian Pathol ; 51(4): 339-348, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830476

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). As well as the typical clinical respiratory signs, such as dyspnoea and tracheal rales, QX genotype strains can also cause damage to the urinary system and reproductive system. Our previous studies found that chickens infected with QX-type IBV also displayed damage to the bursa of Fabricius. To investigate the effects of different genotypes of IBV on the bursa of Fabricius, we challenged one-week-old SPF chickens with Mass, QX and TW genotype IBV strains and compared the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathological damage, viral loads, and expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, IFN-α,ß, γ and TNF-α). The results showed that all three strains caused tissue damage, while significant temporal variations in the viral loads of the different infected groups were detected. IBV infection seriously interfered with the natural immune response mediated by inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in chickens. Our results suggested that IBV has potential immunological implications for chickens that may lead to poor production efficiency. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSAvian coronavirus IBV is an important pathogen of chickens.IBV has potential immunological implications in chickens.The bursal viral load of different IBV strains varies significantly.


Subject(s)
Bursa of Fabricius , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Bursa of Fabricius/virology , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6 , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology
5.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1396-1405, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818327

ABSTRACT

To develop a safe and effective nanoparticle (NP) multiepitope DNA vaccine for controlling infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection, we inserted the multiepitope gene expression box SBNT into a eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) to construct a recombinant plasmid pcDNA/SBNT. The NP multiepitope DNA vaccine pcDNA/SBNT-NPs were prepared using chitosan to encapsulate the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/SBNT, with a high encapsulation efficiency of 94.90 ± 1.35%. These spherical pcDNA/SBNT-NPs were 140.9 ± 73.2 nm in diameter, with a mean ζ potential of +16.8 ± 4.3 mV. Our results showed that the chitosan NPs not only protected the plasmid DNA from DNase degradation but also mediated gene transfection in a slow-release manner. Immunization with pcDNA/SBNT-NPs induced a significant IBV-specific immune response and partially protected chickens against homologous IBV challenge. Therefore, the chitosan NPs could be a useful gene delivery system, and NP multiepitope DNA vaccines may be a potential alternative for use in the development of a novel, safe, and effective IBV vaccine.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Nanoparticles , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810312

ABSTRACT

The complete nucleotide sequence of the S1 glycoprotein gene of the Japanese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains was determined and genetically analyzed. A total of 61 Japanese IBV strains were classified into seven genotypes, namely GI-1, 3, 7, 13, 18, 19, and GVI-1 using the classification scheme that was proposed by Valastro et al, with three exceptions. These genotypes practically corresponded to those defined in Japan, namely Mass, Gray, JP-II, 4/91, JP-I, JP-III, and JP-IV, which have been identified through their partial nucleotide sequences containing hypervariable regions 1 and 2. In addition, three exceptive strains were considered to be derived from recombination within the S1 gene of IBV strains G1-13 and GI-19. By analyzing the amino acid polymorphism of the S1 glycoprotein among Japanese genotypes, a diversity was observed based on the genotype-specific amino acid residue, the proteolytic cleavage motif at the S1/S2 cleavage site, and the position of the potential N-glycosylation sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Glycoproteins/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Japan , Phylogeny
7.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0205921, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788916

ABSTRACT

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious global pathogen prevalent in all types of poultry flocks. IBV is responsible for economic losses and welfare issues in domestic poultry, resulting in a significant risk to food security. IBV vaccines are currently generated by serial passage of virulent IBV field isolates through embryonated hens' eggs. The different patterns of genomic variation accumulated during this process means that the exact mechanism of attenuation is unknown and presents a risk of reversion to virulence. Additionally, the passaging process adapts the virus to replicate in chicken embryos, increasing embryo lethality. Vaccines produced in this manner are therefore unsuitable for in ovo application. We have developed a reverse genetics system, based on the pathogenic IBV strain M41, to identify genes which can be targeted for rational attenuation. During the development of this reverse genetics system, we identified four amino acids, located in nonstructural proteins (nsps) 10, 14, 15, and 16, which resulted in attenuation both in vivo and in ovo. Further investigation highlighted a role of amino acid changes, Pro85Leu in nsp 10 and Val393Leu in nsp 14, in the attenuated in vivo phenotype observed. This study provides evidence that mutations in nsps offer a promising mechanism for the development of rationally attenuated live vaccines against IBV, which have the potential for in ovo application. IMPORTANCE The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the etiological agent of infectious bronchitis, an acute, highly contagious, economically important disease of poultry. Vaccination is achieved using a mixture of live attenuated vaccines for young chicks and inactivated vaccines as boosters for laying hens. Live attenuated vaccines are generated through serial passage in embryonated hens' eggs, an empirical process which achieves attenuation but retains immunogenicity. However, these vaccines have a risk of reversion to virulence, and they are lethal to the embryo. In this study, we identified amino acids in the replicase gene which attenuated IBV strain M41, both in vivo and in ovo. Stability assays indicate that the attenuating amino acids are stable and unlikely to revert. The data in this study provide evidence that specific modifications in the replicase gene offer a promising direction for IBV live attenuated vaccine development, with the potential for in ovo application.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acids/chemistry , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
8.
Virol J ; 19(1): 62, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The QX-type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has become the predominant genotype worldwide in recent years and has caused serious economic losses to the chicken industry. The most significant feature of QX IBV is that its infection in the early growing stage can cause abnormal oviduct development, resulting in a high proportion of 'false layers' in poultry flocks of laying hens and breeders. However, few studies have evaluated whether infections of QX-type IBV in laying stages can also cause severe pathological changes in the oviduct. METHODS: In this study, 300-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were infected either with the QX-type strain QXL or Massachusetts (Mass)-type strain M41 to compare their pathogenicity on different segments of the oviduct. RESULTS: Both the QXL and M41 strains successfully replicated in all segments of the oviduct; however, the QXL strain was more highly distributed in mucosal layer and caused severe lesions in the lamina propria, including interstitial dilation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and distinct expansion of tubular glands. Moreover, the QXL strain induced high expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in the majority of segments in the oviduct. Further research found that the QXL strain may affected the formation of shell membranes and eggshells by inhibiting the expression of type I collagen and CaBP-D28k. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the QX-type IBV is more pathogenic than Mass-type IBV to oviduct in laying phase. Collectively, these findings provide detailed information on the pathological changes in different segments of the oviduct in laying phase, which could offer a better understanding about the pathogenicity of IBV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Female , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Oviducts/pathology , Virulence
9.
Virus Genes ; 58(3): 203-213, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766911

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) are two major respiratory infections in chickens. The coinfection of these viruses can cause significant financial losses and severe complications in the poultry industry across the world. To examine transcriptome profile changes during the early stages of infection, differential transcriptional profiles in tracheal tissue of three infected groups (i.e., IBV, AIV, and coinfected) were compared with the control group. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were challenged with Iranian variant-2-like IBV (IS/1494), UT-Barin isolates of H9N2 (A/chicken/Mashhad/UT-Barin/2017), and IBV-AIV coinfection; then, RNA was extracted from tracheal tissue. The Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technique was employed to investigate changes in the Transcriptome. Up- and downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the trachea transcriptome of all groups. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway and Gene Ontology databases were examined to identify possible relationships between DEGs. In the experimental groups, upregulated genes were higher compared to downregulated genes. A more severe immune response was observed in the coinfected group; further, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, Janus kinase/signal transducer, and activator of transcription, and apoptotic pathways were important upregulated genes in this group. The findings of this paper may give a better understanding of transcriptome changes in the trachea during the early stages of infection with these viruses.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Bronchitis/genetics , Bronchitis/veterinary , Chickens , Gene Expression Profiling , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/genetics , Iran , Poultry Diseases/genetics , RNA , Trachea , Transcriptome/genetics
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 94: 105006, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332841

ABSTRACT

During 2016 to 2020, GVI-1 type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were sporadically reported across China, indicating a new epidemic trend of the virus. Here we investigated the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of two newly isolated GVI-1 type IBV virus strains (CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011) from infected chicken farms in China. Genetic evolution analysis of the S1 gene showed the highest homology with the GVI-1 representative strain, TC07-2. Phylogenetic analysis and recombination analysis of the virus genomes indicated that newly isolated strains in China may be independently derived from recombination events that occurred between GI-19 and GI-22 strains and early GVI-1 viruses. Interestingly, unlike the deduced parental GI-19 or GI-22 strains, CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011 showed affinity for the trachea rather than the kidney and were less pathogenic. This difference may be because of recombination events that occurred during the long co-existence of the GVI-1 viruses with prevalent GI-19 and GI-22 strains. Considering the new trend, it is very important to permanently monitor circulating strains and to develop new vaccines to counteract emerging new-type IBVs.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Virulence
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304592

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a known global threat, and most recently the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 2 million human lives. Delays and interference with IFN responses are closely associated with the severity of disease caused by CoV infection. As the most abundant viral protein in infected cells just after the entry step, the CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein likely plays a key role in IFN interruption. We have conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis and report herein that the N proteins of representative human and animal CoVs from four different genera [swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)] suppress IFN responses by multiple strategies. In particular, we found that the N protein of SADS-CoV interacted with RIG-I independent of its RNA binding activity, mediating K27-, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and its subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation, thus inhibiting the host IFN response. These data provide insight into the interaction between CoVs and host, and offer new clues for the development of therapies against these important viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Swine , Ubiquitination/physiology
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 688758, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295641

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a known global threat, and most recently the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 2 million human lives. Delays and interference with IFN responses are closely associated with the severity of disease caused by CoV infection. As the most abundant viral protein in infected cells just after the entry step, the CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein likely plays a key role in IFN interruption. We have conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis and report herein that the N proteins of representative human and animal CoVs from four different genera [swine acute diarrhea syndrome CoV (SADS-CoV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV)] suppress IFN responses by multiple strategies. In particular, we found that the N protein of SADS-CoV interacted with RIG-I independent of its RNA binding activity, mediating K27-, K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and its subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation, thus inhibiting the host IFN response. These data provide insight into the interaction between CoVs and host, and offer new clues for the development of therapies against these important viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Swine , Ubiquitination/physiology
13.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1251801

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first identified in the 1930s and it imposes a major economic burden on the poultry industry. In particular, GI-19 lineage has spread globally and has evolved constantly since it was first detected in China. In this study, we analyzed S1 gene sequences from 60 IBVs isolated in South Korea. Two IBV lineages, GI-15 and GI-19, were identified in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that there were six distinct subgroups (KM91-like, K40/09-like, and QX-like I to IV) of the South Korean GI-19 IBVs. Among them, QX-type III and IV subgroups, which are phylogenetically different from those reported in South Korea in the past, accounted for more than half of the total. Moreover, the phylogeographic analysis of the QX-like subgroups indicated at least four distinct introductions of GI-19 IBVs into South Korea during 2001-2020. The efficacy of commercialized vaccines against the recently introduced QX-like subgroups should be verified, and continuous international surveillance efforts and quarantine procedures should be enhanced to prevent the incursion of viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genomics , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Sequence Homology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272136

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) are evolving continuously via genetic drift and genetic recombination, making disease prevention and control difficult. In this study, we undertook genetic and pathogenic characterization of recombinant IBVs isolated from chickens in South Korea between 2003 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 46 IBV isolates belonged to GI-19, which includes nephropathogenic IBVs. Ten isolates formed a new cluster, the genomic sequences of which were different from those of reference sequences. Recombination events in the S1 gene were identified, with putative parental strains identified as QX-like, KM91-like, and GI-15. Recombination detection methods identified three patterns (rGI-19-I, rGI-19-II, and rGI-19-III). To better understand the pathogenicity of recombinant IBVs, we compared the pathogenicity of GI-19 with that of the rGI-19s. The results suggest that rGI-19s may be more likely to cause trachea infections than GI-19, whereas rGI-19s were less pathogenic in the kidney. Additionally, the pathogenicity of rGI-19s varied according to the genotype of the major parent. These results indicate that genetic recombination between heterologous strains belonging to different genotypes has occurred, resulting in the emergence of new recombinant IBVs in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Genomics , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virulence
15.
Avian Pathol ; 50(4): 295-310, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269041

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was first isolated in Australia in 1962. Ongoing surveillance and characterization of Australian IBVs have shown that they have evolved separately from strains found throughout the rest of the world, resulting in the evolution of a range of unique strains and changes in the dominant wild-type strains, affecting tissue tropism, pathogenicity, antigenicity, and gene arrangement. Between 1961 and 1976 highly nephropathogenic genotype GI-5 and GI-6 strains, causing mortalities of 40% to 100%, predominated, while strains causing mainly respiratory disease, with lower mortality rates, have predominated since then. Since 1988, viruses belonging to two distinct and novel genotypes, GIII and GV, have been detected. The genome organization of the GIII strains has not been seen in any other gammacoronavirus. Mutations that emerged soon after the introduction of vaccination, incursion of strains with a novel lineage from unknown sources, recombination between IBVs from different genetic lineages, and gene translocations and deletions have contributed to an increasingly complex IBV population. These processes and the consequences of this variation for the biology of these viruses provide an insight into the evolution of endemic coronaviruses during their control by vaccination and may provide a better understanding of the potential for evolution of other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the continuing capacity of attenuated IBV vaccines developed over 40 years ago to provide protection against viruses in the same genetic lineage provides some assurance that coronavirus vaccines developed to control other coronaviruses may continue to be effective for an extended period.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Chickens , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Antigenic Variation , Australia/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 109014, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107294

ABSTRACT

TW-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with high pathogenicity is becoming the predominant IBV type circulating in China. To develop vaccines against TW-like IBV strains and investigate the critical genes associated with their virulence, GD strain was attenuated by 140 serial passages in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and the safety and efficacy of the attenuated GD strain (aGD) were examined. The genome sequences of GD and aGD were also compared and the effects of mutations in the S gene were observed. The results revealed that aGD strain showed no obvious pathogenicity with superior protective efficacy against TW-like and QX-like virulent IBV strains. The genomes of strains aGD and GD shared high similarity (99.87 %) and most of the mutations occurred in S gene. Recombinant IBV strain rGDaGD-S, in which the S gene was replaced with the corresponding regions from aGD, showed decreased pathogenicity compared with its parental strain. In conclusion, attenuated TW-like IBV strain aGD is a potential vaccine candidate and the S gene is responsible for its attenuation. Our research has laid the foundation for future exploration of the attenuating molecular mechanism of IBV.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reverse Genetics/methods , Serial Passage , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
17.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2291-2298, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258219

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an avian coronavirus, is highly contagious. Chickens with IBV infection develop acute pathogenesis in multiple organs, including the respiratory and urogenital tracts. Frequent recombination in the spike (S) glycoprotein gene has made vaccine strategies ineffective. To understand IBV pathogenesis, we analyzed the genetic distance between Korean IBV isolates and other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. To obtain comprehensive information about early immune responses such as innate cytokine production and associated immune regulation during IBV infection, we infected primary chicken embryonic kidney cells and performed transcriptome analysis. We observed that the functional pathways of innate immunity are regulated and confirmed expression of genes that coordinate early immune responses. Understanding the immune profile of the host cell may assist in vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Kidney/cytology , Phylogeny , Republic of Korea , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(11): 5440-5451, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916884

ABSTRACT

Four GI-1/Massachusetts-type (GI-1/Mass-type) infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were isolated and the complete genomes of these isolates, coupled with the Mass-type live-attenuated vaccine H120 and the Mass-type pathogenic M41 strains, were sequenced in the present study. Our results show that isolates LJL/140820 and I0306/17 may be derived from the Ma5 (another Mass-type live-attenuated vaccine strain) and H120 vaccine strains, respectively. The I1124/16 strain was found to be a M41 variant that likely resulted from nucleotide accumulated mutations in the genome. Consistently, the results of the virus neutralization test showed that isolate I1124/16 was antigenically related but slight different from the M41. Our results from the protection experiments pointed out that chickens immunized with H120 failed to eliminate viral shedding after infection with the isolate I1124/16, which was different from that of M41; this result was consistent to the field observation and further implicated that the variant IBV isolate I1124/16 was antigenic different from the M41 strain. Furthermore, the I1124/16 was found to have comparable but slightly lower pathogenicity with the M41 strain. More studies based on the reverse genetic techniques are needed to elucidate the amino acids in the S1 subunit of spike protein contributing to the altered antigenicity of the isolate I1124/16. In addition, an IBV isolate, LJL/130609, was found to be originated from recombination events between the I1124/16- and Connecticut-like strains. Our results from the virus neutralization test also showed that isolates LJL/130609 and I1124/16 were antigenic closely related. Hence, there are at least 3 different genetic evolution patterns for the circulation of the GI-1/Mass-type IBV field strains in China. The differences of vaccines used, the field conditions and genetic pressures between different flocks, likely account for the emergence, evolution patterns, and characteristics of the Mass-type IBV strains.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Genetic Heterogeneity , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Chickens , China , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology
19.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 183-196, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892407

ABSTRACT

Nine infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains belonging to the GI-7 lineage were isolated between 2009 and 2017 in China. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of full-length sequences of the S1 gene suggested that the GI-7 lineage should be further classified as Taiwan (TW)-I and TW-II sublineages, which correspond to the previous TW-I and TW-II genotypes. The nine IBV strains were clustered in the TW-II sublineage. Further investigation revealed that viruses in the TW-I and TW-II were not only genetically but also antigenically different. Moreover, the TW-II sublineage contained various clades and recombinants. A recombinant was found to originate from recombination events between field strains (TW-II ck/CH/LJL/090608- and GI-19 ck/ CH/LDL/091022-like viruses) in which the recombination in the S1 subunit coding sequences had led to changes in antigenicity of the viruses. A more in-depth investigation demonstrated that TW-II viruses appear to have undergone a significant evolution following introduction in mainland China, which resulted in the viruses diverging into different clades. The viruses between the different clades in TW-II sublineage exhibited a significant change in genetic and antigenic characteristics. In addition, the five TW-II viruses selected on the basis of the results of S1 nucleotide sequence phylogenetic trees showed different pathogenicity to specific-pathogen-free chickens, although they could induce nephritis in the infected chickens and thus were identified as nephropathogenic strains.


Características genéticas, antigénicas y patógenas del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa GI-7/TW-II en China. Nueve cepas del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) que pertenecen al linaje GI-7 se aislaron entre 2009 y 2017 en China. El análisis filogenético y las comparaciones de las secuencias completas del gene S1 sugirieron que el linaje GI-7 debería ser clasificado además como sublinajes TW-I y TW-II, que corresponden a los anteriores genotipos TW-T y TW-II. Las nueve cepas del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa se agruparon en el sublinaje TW-II. La investigación adicional reveló que los virus en TW-I y TW-II no solo eran tanto genéticamente como antigénicamente diferentes. Además, el sublinaje TW-II contenía varios clados y recombinantes. Se descubrió que un recombinante se originaba a partir de eventos de recombinación entre cepas de campo (virus similares a las cepas TW-II ck/CH/LJL/090608 y GI-19 ck/CH/LDL/091022) en los que la recombinación en las secuencias de codificación de la subunidad de S1 condujo a cambios en la antigenicidad de los virus. Una investigación más profunda demostró que los virus TW-II parecen haber experimentado una evolución significativa después de su introducción en China continental, lo que resultó en la divergencia de los virus en diferentes clados. Los virus entre los diferentes clados en el sublinaje TW-II exhibieron un cambio significativo en las características genéticas y antigénicas. Además, los cinco virus TW-II seleccionados con base en los resultados de los árboles filogenéticos de las secuencias de nucleótidos de S1 mostraron patogenicidad diferente en los pollos libres de patógenos específicos, aunque pudieron inducir nefritis en los pollos infectados y, por lo tanto, se identificaron como cepas nefropatógenas.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(11): 624, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888208

ABSTRACT

A label-free electrochemical strategy is proposed combining equivalent substitution effect with AuNPs-assisted signal amplification. According to the differences of S1 protein in various infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, a target DNA sequence that can specifically recognize H120 RNA forming a DNA-RNA hybridized double-strand structure has been designed. Then, the residual single-stranded target DNA is hydrolyzed by S1 nuclease. Therefore, the content of target DNA becomes equal to the content of virus RNA. After equivalent coronavirus, the target DNA is separated from DNA-RNA hybridized double strand by heating, which can partly hybridize with probe 2 modified on the electrode surface and probe 1 on AuNPs' surface. Thus, AuNPs are pulled to the surface of the electrode and the abundant DNA on AuNPs' surface could adsorb a large amount of hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (RuHex) molecules, which produce a remarkably amplified electrochemical response. The voltammetric signal of RuHex with a peak near - 0.28 V vs. Ag/AgCl is used as the signal output. The proposed method shows a detection range of 1.56e-9 to 1.56e-6 µM with the detection limit of 2.96e-10 µM for IBV H120 strain selective quantification detection, exhibiting good accuracy, stability, and simplicity, which shows a great potential for IBV detection in vaccine research and avian infectious bronchitis diagnosis. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Infectious bronchitis virus/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/standards , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Chickens , Coronavirus/genetics , DNA Probes , Gold , In Situ Hybridization , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL