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1.
Avian Pathol ; 51(4): 339-348, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830476

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). As well as the typical clinical respiratory signs, such as dyspnoea and tracheal rales, QX genotype strains can also cause damage to the urinary system and reproductive system. Our previous studies found that chickens infected with QX-type IBV also displayed damage to the bursa of Fabricius. To investigate the effects of different genotypes of IBV on the bursa of Fabricius, we challenged one-week-old SPF chickens with Mass, QX and TW genotype IBV strains and compared the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathological damage, viral loads, and expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1ß, IFN-α,ß, γ and TNF-α). The results showed that all three strains caused tissue damage, while significant temporal variations in the viral loads of the different infected groups were detected. IBV infection seriously interfered with the natural immune response mediated by inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IL-6 and IFN-γ) in chickens. Our results suggested that IBV has potential immunological implications for chickens that may lead to poor production efficiency. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSAvian coronavirus IBV is an important pathogen of chickens.IBV has potential immunological implications in chickens.The bursal viral load of different IBV strains varies significantly.


Subject(s)
Bursa of Fabricius , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Bursa of Fabricius/pathology , Bursa of Fabricius/virology , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6 , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology
2.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0208621, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736026

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections induce the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We have previously shown that in cells infected with gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8 were drastically upregulated, and the MAP kinase p38 and the integrated stress response pathways were implicated in this process. In this study, we report that coronavirus infection activates a negative regulatory loop that restricts the upregulation of a number of proinflammatory genes. As revealed by the initial transcriptomic and subsequent validation analyses, the anti-inflammatory adenine-uridine (AU)-rich element (ARE)-binding protein, zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36), and its related family members were upregulated in cells infected with IBV and three other coronaviruses, alphacoronaviruses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and betacoronavirus HCoV-OC43, respectively. Characterization of the functional roles of ZFP36 during IBV infection demonstrated that ZFP36 promoted the degradation of transcripts coding for IL-6, IL-8, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), through binding to AREs in these transcripts. Consistently, knockdown and inhibition of JNK and p38 kinase activities reduced the expression of ZFP36, as well as the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. On the contrary, overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2), the upstream and downstream kinases of p38, respectively, increased the expression of ZFP36 and decreased the expression of IL-8. Taken together, this study reveals an important regulatory role of the MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis in coronavirus infection-induced proinflammatory response. IMPORTANCE Excessive and uncontrolled induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the so-called cytokine release syndrome (CRS), would cause life-threatening complications and multiple organ failure in severe coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and COVID-19. This study reveals that coronavirus infection also induces the expression of ZFP36, an anti-inflammatory ARE-binding protein, promoting the degradation of ARE-containing transcripts coding for IL-6 and IL-8 as well as a number of other proteins related to inflammatory response. Furthermore, the p38 MAP kinase, its upstream kinase MKK3 and downstream kinase MK2 were shown to play a regulatory role in upregulation of ZFP36 during coronavirus infection cycles. This MKK3-p38-MK2-ZFP36 axis would constitute a potential therapeutic target for severe coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tristetraprolin/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Adenine/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-8/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation , Uridine/metabolism , Vero Cells
3.
Infect Genet Evol ; 94: 105006, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332841

ABSTRACT

During 2016 to 2020, GVI-1 type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were sporadically reported across China, indicating a new epidemic trend of the virus. Here we investigated the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of two newly isolated GVI-1 type IBV virus strains (CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011) from infected chicken farms in China. Genetic evolution analysis of the S1 gene showed the highest homology with the GVI-1 representative strain, TC07-2. Phylogenetic analysis and recombination analysis of the virus genomes indicated that newly isolated strains in China may be independently derived from recombination events that occurred between GI-19 and GI-22 strains and early GVI-1 viruses. Interestingly, unlike the deduced parental GI-19 or GI-22 strains, CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011 showed affinity for the trachea rather than the kidney and were less pathogenic. This difference may be because of recombination events that occurred during the long co-existence of the GVI-1 viruses with prevalent GI-19 and GI-22 strains. Considering the new trend, it is very important to permanently monitor circulating strains and to develop new vaccines to counteract emerging new-type IBVs.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Virulence
4.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272136

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) are evolving continuously via genetic drift and genetic recombination, making disease prevention and control difficult. In this study, we undertook genetic and pathogenic characterization of recombinant IBVs isolated from chickens in South Korea between 2003 and 2019. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 46 IBV isolates belonged to GI-19, which includes nephropathogenic IBVs. Ten isolates formed a new cluster, the genomic sequences of which were different from those of reference sequences. Recombination events in the S1 gene were identified, with putative parental strains identified as QX-like, KM91-like, and GI-15. Recombination detection methods identified three patterns (rGI-19-I, rGI-19-II, and rGI-19-III). To better understand the pathogenicity of recombinant IBVs, we compared the pathogenicity of GI-19 with that of the rGI-19s. The results suggest that rGI-19s may be more likely to cause trachea infections than GI-19, whereas rGI-19s were less pathogenic in the kidney. Additionally, the pathogenicity of rGI-19s varied according to the genotype of the major parent. These results indicate that genetic recombination between heterologous strains belonging to different genotypes has occurred, resulting in the emergence of new recombinant IBVs in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Genomics , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virulence
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 254: 109014, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107294

ABSTRACT

TW-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with high pathogenicity is becoming the predominant IBV type circulating in China. To develop vaccines against TW-like IBV strains and investigate the critical genes associated with their virulence, GD strain was attenuated by 140 serial passages in specific-pathogen-free embryonated eggs and the safety and efficacy of the attenuated GD strain (aGD) were examined. The genome sequences of GD and aGD were also compared and the effects of mutations in the S gene were observed. The results revealed that aGD strain showed no obvious pathogenicity with superior protective efficacy against TW-like and QX-like virulent IBV strains. The genomes of strains aGD and GD shared high similarity (99.87 %) and most of the mutations occurred in S gene. Recombinant IBV strain rGDaGD-S, in which the S gene was replaced with the corresponding regions from aGD, showed decreased pathogenicity compared with its parental strain. In conclusion, attenuated TW-like IBV strain aGD is a potential vaccine candidate and the S gene is responsible for its attenuation. Our research has laid the foundation for future exploration of the attenuating molecular mechanism of IBV.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Virulence Factors/genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Reverse Genetics/methods , Serial Passage , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244042

ABSTRACT

Infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-6. Although they facilitate local antiviral immunity, their excessive release leads to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome, exemplified by the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we investigated the roles of the integrated stress response (ISR) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) family proteins in regulating coronavirus-induced IL-8 and IL-6 upregulation. The mRNA expression of IL-8 and IL-6 was significantly induced in cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a gammacoronavirus, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, an alphacoronavirus. Overexpression of a constitutively active phosphomimetic mutant of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), chemical inhibition of its dephosphorylation, or overexpression of its upstream double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) significantly enhanced IL-8 mRNA expression in IBV-infected cells. Overexpression of the AP-1 protein cJUN or its upstream kinase also increased the IBV-induced IL-8 mRNA expression, which was synergistically enhanced by overexpression of cFOS. Taken together, this study demonstrated the important regulatory roles of ISR and AP-1 proteins in IL-8 production during coronavirus infection, highlighting the complex interactions between cellular stress pathways and the innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/metabolism , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gammacoronavirus/metabolism , Gammacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Infectious bronchitis virus/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Interleukin-8/genetics , Phosphorylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Vero Cells , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
7.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 183-196, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892407

ABSTRACT

Nine infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains belonging to the GI-7 lineage were isolated between 2009 and 2017 in China. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of full-length sequences of the S1 gene suggested that the GI-7 lineage should be further classified as Taiwan (TW)-I and TW-II sublineages, which correspond to the previous TW-I and TW-II genotypes. The nine IBV strains were clustered in the TW-II sublineage. Further investigation revealed that viruses in the TW-I and TW-II were not only genetically but also antigenically different. Moreover, the TW-II sublineage contained various clades and recombinants. A recombinant was found to originate from recombination events between field strains (TW-II ck/CH/LJL/090608- and GI-19 ck/ CH/LDL/091022-like viruses) in which the recombination in the S1 subunit coding sequences had led to changes in antigenicity of the viruses. A more in-depth investigation demonstrated that TW-II viruses appear to have undergone a significant evolution following introduction in mainland China, which resulted in the viruses diverging into different clades. The viruses between the different clades in TW-II sublineage exhibited a significant change in genetic and antigenic characteristics. In addition, the five TW-II viruses selected on the basis of the results of S1 nucleotide sequence phylogenetic trees showed different pathogenicity to specific-pathogen-free chickens, although they could induce nephritis in the infected chickens and thus were identified as nephropathogenic strains.


Características genéticas, antigénicas y patógenas del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa GI-7/TW-II en China. Nueve cepas del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) que pertenecen al linaje GI-7 se aislaron entre 2009 y 2017 en China. El análisis filogenético y las comparaciones de las secuencias completas del gene S1 sugirieron que el linaje GI-7 debería ser clasificado además como sublinajes TW-I y TW-II, que corresponden a los anteriores genotipos TW-T y TW-II. Las nueve cepas del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa se agruparon en el sublinaje TW-II. La investigación adicional reveló que los virus en TW-I y TW-II no solo eran tanto genéticamente como antigénicamente diferentes. Además, el sublinaje TW-II contenía varios clados y recombinantes. Se descubrió que un recombinante se originaba a partir de eventos de recombinación entre cepas de campo (virus similares a las cepas TW-II ck/CH/LJL/090608 y GI-19 ck/CH/LDL/091022) en los que la recombinación en las secuencias de codificación de la subunidad de S1 condujo a cambios en la antigenicidad de los virus. Una investigación más profunda demostró que los virus TW-II parecen haber experimentado una evolución significativa después de su introducción en China continental, lo que resultó en la divergencia de los virus en diferentes clados. Los virus entre los diferentes clados en el sublinaje TW-II exhibieron un cambio significativo en las características genéticas y antigénicas. Además, los cinco virus TW-II seleccionados con base en los resultados de los árboles filogenéticos de las secuencias de nucleótidos de S1 mostraron patogenicidad diferente en los pollos libres de patógenos específicos, aunque pudieron inducir nefritis en los pollos infectados y, por lo tanto, se identificaron como cepas nefropatógenas.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1928-1938, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830463

ABSTRACT

In this study, we isolated and identified 2 infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains from layer chickens soon after vaccination with the Massachusetts-Connecticut bivalent vaccine (Conn) and H120 and 4/91 booster vaccines in China in 2011. The results of cross-virus-neutralization tests and phylogenetic analysis of the S1 subunit of spike gene of these vaccine strains and other reference strains showed that strain LJL/110302 was of GI-19 lineage, whereas LLN/111169 was of the GI-1 lineage of the Conn serotype. Further comparative genomic analysis revealed that LLN/111169, an IBV strain with novel traits, originated from multiple recombination events (at least 3 recombination sites) between GI-19 and the Conn and 4/91 vaccine strains. LLN/111169 was pathogenic to specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. This is of prime importance because while IBV prevention measures worldwide are mainly dependent on modified live vaccine strains, our results showed that recombination between field and vaccine strains has produced a novel pathogenic IBV strain. In addition, LLN/111169 showed relatively broad tissue tropism (trachea, lungs, kidneys, and cecal tonsils) in infected SPF chickens. These results emphasize the importance of IBV surveillance in chicken flocks.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Virus Replication , Animals , Antigens, Viral/analysis , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Retrospective Studies , Serogroup , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, Attenuated/analysis , Viral Vaccines/analysis , Virulence
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108579, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826358

ABSTRACT

In China, variants of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) evolve continually and diverse recombinant strains have been reported. Here, an IBV strain, designated as ck/CH/LJX/2017/07 (referred as JX17) was isolated from chicken vaccinated with H120 and 4/91 in Jiangxi, China, in 2017. Sequence analysis reveals of the S1 gene of JX17 the highest nucleotide identity of 98.15% with that of GI-7 genotype TW2575/98 strain. Furthermore, whole genome analysis among JX17 and other 18 IBV strains demonstrates that JX17 has the highest nucleotide identity of 95.94% with GI-19 genotype YX10 strain. Among all genes of JX17 except the S1 gene, the N gene and 3' UTR have the highest identity to GI-13 genotype 4/91 strain and the rest genes are the most identical to GI-19 genotype YX10 strain. Analyzed by the RDP and SimPlot, the recombination of JX17 strain was shown to occur in regions which include 5'-terminal S1 gene (20,344 to 22,447 nt), most N gene and 3' UTR (26,163 to 27,648 nt). The pathogenicity study shows that JX17 is a natural low virulent IBV variant which caused respiratory symptoms but no death. Taken together, these results indicate that IBV strains continue to evolve through genetic recombination and three prevalent genotypes in China including QX, TW and 4/91 have started to recombine.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genome, Viral , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Chickens/virology , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 135-143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761350

ABSTRACT

Several techniques are currently available to quickly and accurately quantify the number of virus particles in a sample, taking advantage of advanced technologies improving old techniques or generating new ones, generally relying on partial detection methods or structural analysis. Therefore, characterization of virus infectivity in a sample is often essential, and classical virological methods are extremely powerful in providing accurate results even in an old-fashioned way. In this chapter, we describe in detail the techniques routinely used to estimate the number of viable infectious coronavirus particles in a given sample. All these techniques are serial dilution assays, also known as titrations or end-point dilution assays (EPDA).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Viral Plaque Assay/methods , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Trachea/cytology
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2937-2943, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739974

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is highly infectious respiratory disease in poultry industry with significant economic importance. The prevalence of IBV in quail industry in Malaysia was not well documented; therefore, its actual role in the epidemiology of the disease is relatively unknown. This study was to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quail, as one of the species in commercial poultry industry, toward IBV. In addition, it will also give a potential impact on the overall health management in the quail industry even though it had been established that quail are resistant to diseases affecting poultry. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first experimental study on IBV inoculation in quail. In this experimental study, 20 quails were divided into 4 groups (n = 5 for group A, B, and C, n = 5 for control group). The quails in group A, B, and C were infected via intraocular and intranasal routes with 0.2 mL of 10 × 5 EID50 of the virus. Clinical signs, gross lesions, positive detection of virus, and trachea histopathological scoring were used to assess the susceptibility of these Japanese quails. The results have indicated mild ruffled feathers and watery feces in these inoculated birds. Trachea, lung, and kidney were subjected to one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for virus detection. The virus was found from trachea and lung samples, whereas it was absent from all kidney samples. Only 3 quails were found with gross lesions. There was a significant difference of tracheal lesion by 0.009 ± 0.845 (P < 0.05) within the treatment groups. In summary, Japanese quails might be susceptible to IBV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coturnix , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Malaysia/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Prevalence , Virulence
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708422

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses that commonly cause gastrointestinal or respiratory illnesses in the infected host. Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen of chickens that can affect the kidneys and reproductive systems resulting in bird mortality and decreased reproductivity. The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are activated in response to viral infections and represent a class of cellular restriction factors that restrict the replication of many viral pathogens. Here, we characterize the relative mRNA expression of the chicken IFITM genes in response to IBV infection, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro using the pathogenic M41-CK strain, the nephropathogenic QX strain and the nonpathogenic Beaudette strain. In vivo we demonstrate a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2, 3 and 5 in M41-CK- and QX-infected trachea two days post-infection. In vitro infection with Beaudette, M41-CK and QX results in a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2 and 3 at 24 h post-infection. We confirmed a differential innate response following infection with distinct IBV strains and believe that our data provide new insights into the possible role of chIFITMs in early IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Chickens/genetics , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Organ Culture Techniques , Poultry Diseases/etiology , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Poultry Diseases/virology , Viral Load , Viral Tropism
13.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683587

ABSTRACT

Viral vectored vaccines are desirable alternatives for conventional infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. We have recently shown that a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strain LaSota expressing the spike (S) protein of IBV strain Mass-41 (rLaSota/IBV-S) was a promising vaccine candidate for IBV. Here we evaluated a novel chimeric rNDV/avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 (rNDV/APMV-2) as a vaccine vector against IBV. The rNDV/APMV-2 vector was chosen because it is much safer than the rNDV strain LaSota vector, particularly for young chicks and chicken embryos. In order to determine the effectiveness of this vector, a recombinant rNDV/APMV-2 expressing the S protein of IBV strain Mass-41 (rNDV/APMV-2/IBV-S) was constructed. The protective efficacy of this vector vaccine was compared to that of the rNDV vector vaccine. In one study, groups of one-day-old specific-pathogenic-free (SPF) chickens were immunized with rLaSota/IBV-S and rNDV/APMV-2/IBV-S and challenged four weeks later with the homologous highly virulent IBV strain Mass-41. In another study, groups of broiler chickens were single (at day one or three weeks of age) or prime-boost (prime at day one and boost at three weeks of age) immunized with rLaSota/IBV-S and/or rNDV-APMV-2/IBV-S. At weeks six of age, chickens were challenged with a highly virulent IBV strain Mass-41. Our challenge study showed that novel rNDV/APMV-2/IBV-S provided similar protection as rLaSota/IBV-S in SPF chickens. However, compared to prime-boost immunization of chickens with chimeric rNDV/APMV-2, rLaSota/IBV-S and/or a live IBV vaccine, single immunization of chickens with rLaSota/IBV-S, or live IBV vaccine provided better protection against IBV. In conclusion, we have developed the novel rNDV/APMV-2 vector expressing S protein of IBV that can be a safer vaccine against IB in chickens. Our results also suggest a single immunization with a LaSota vectored IBV vaccine candidate provides better protection than prime-boost immunization regimens.


Subject(s)
Avulavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Avulavirus/metabolism , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Proteins/administration & dosage , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
14.
Virus Res ; 285: 198002, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165136

ABSTRACT

In the present study, an IBV strain I0305/19 was isolated from a diseased commercial broiler flock in 2019 in China with high morbidity and mortality. The isolate I0305/19 was clustered together with viruses in sublineage D of GI-19 lineage on the basis of the complete S1 sequence analysis. Isolate I0305/19 and other GI-19 viruses isolated in China have the amino acid sequence MIA at positions 110-112 in the S protein. Further analysis based on the complete genomic sequence showed that the isolate emerged through at least four recombination events between GI-19 ck/CH/LJS/120848- and GI-13 4/91-like strains, in which the S gene was found to be similar to that of the GI-19 ck/CH/LJS/120848-like strain. Pathological assessment showed the isolate was a nephropathogenic IBV strain that caused high morbidity of 100 % and mortality of 80 % in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. The isolate I0305/19 exhibited broader tropisms in different tissues, including tracheas, lungs, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, liver, kidneys, proventriculus, small intestines, large intestines, cecum, and cecal tonsils. Furthermore, subpopulations of the virus were found in tissues of infected chickens; this finding is important in understanding how the virulent IBV strains can potentially replicate and evolve to cause disease. This information is also valuable for understanding the mechanisms of replication and evolution of other coronaviruses such as the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Poultry Diseases/virology , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Tropism , Animals , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Infectious bronchitis virus/classification , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Phylogeny , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
15.
Mol Immunol ; 120: 52-60, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2404

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly infectious and contagious viral disease of chickens caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belonging to the genus Coronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It can affect all age groups of birds. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of innate immune pattern recognition receptors that have a key role in immune response and defense against various infections.The TLRs are essential for initiation of innate immune responses and in the development of adaptive immune responses. An in ovo model was employed to study the antiviral activity of TLR ligands (Pam3CSK4, LPS and CpG ODN) on replication of IBV. It was hypothesized that optimum dose and specific timing of TLR ligands may reduce viral load of IBV in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Further, the mechanism involved in the TLR-mediated antiviral response in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of ECEs was investigated. The ECEs of 9-11 days old were treated with different doses (high, intermediate and low) of TLR-2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR-4 (LPS) and TLR-21 (CpG ODN) ligands. In addition, to know the timing of TLR ligand treatment, six time intervals were analyzed viz. 36, 24 and 12 h prior to infection, time of infection (co-administration of TLR ligands and avian IBV) and 12 and 24 h post-IBV infection. For studying the relative expression of immuno-stimulatory genes (IFN-α, IFN-ß, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, iNOS and OAS) in CAM, TLR ligands were administered through intra-allantoicroute and CAM were collected at 4, 8 and 16 h post treatment. The results demonstrated that intermediate dose of all the three TLR ligands significantly reduced virus titers and used in the present study. However, the LPS reduced virus titer pre- and post-IBV infection but Pam3CSK4 and CpG ODN reduced only pre-IBV infection. Further analysis showed that TLR ligands induced IFN-γ, IL-1ß and IFN stimulated genes viz. iNOS and OAS genes in CAM. The present study pointed towards the novel opportunities for rational design of LPS as immuno-stimulatory agent in chickens with reference to IBV. It may be speculated that in ovo administration of these TLR ligands may enhance resistance against viral infection in neonatal chicken and may contribute towards the development of more effective and safer vaccines including in ovo vaccines.


Subject(s)
Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Avian Proteins/agonists , Avian Proteins/immunology , Chick Embryo , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Gene Expression/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Ligands , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/immunology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/immunology
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