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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118827

ABSTRACT

The nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-, leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-, and pyrin domain (PYD)-containing protein 3, NLRP3, is a multiprotein complex belonging to the innate immune system that can be activated by pathogens or danger-associated molecular patterns [...].


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyrin Domain
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090207

ABSTRACT

The inflammasome complex is a key part of chronic diseases and acute infections, being responsible for cytokine release and cell death mechanism regulation. The SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a dysregulated cytokine release. In this context, the inflammasome complex analysis within SARS-CoV-2 infection may prove beneficial to understand the disease's mechanisms. Post-mortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in patients who died from COVID-19 (n = 24), and lung samples were compared to a patient control group (n = 11) and an Influenza A virus H1N1 subtype group from the 2009 pandemics (n = 10). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: ACE2, TLR4, NF-κB, NLRP-3 (or NALP), IL-1ß, IL-18, ASC, CASP1, CASP9, GSDMD, NOX4, TNF-α. Data obtained from digital analysis underwent appropriate statistical tests. IHC analysis showed biomarkers that indicate inflammasome activation (ACE2; NF-κB; NOX4; ASC) were significantly increased in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.05 for all) and biomarkers that indicate cell pyroptosis and inflammasome derived cytokines such as IL-18 (p < 0.005) and CASP1 were greatly increased (p < 0.0001) even when compared to the H1N1 group. We propose that the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is connected to the inflammasome complex activation. Further studies are still warranted to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-18 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Autopsy , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Biopsy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 978552, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080148

ABSTRACT

Background: Pyroptosis is a lytic pro-inflammatory programmed cell death mode that depends on caspase, inflammasome, and Gasdermin D (GSDMD). A growing number of studies have shown that pyroptosis is closely related to the pathophysiological mechanism of lung. The purpose of this study is to analyze the literature from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) of Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) and visualize the current trends and hotspots in the research of pyroptosis in lung disease. Methods: On February 20, 2022, we retrieved all articles on pyroptosis in lung disease from SCI-expanded of WoSCC. Original articles and reviews published in English from 2007 to 2021 were included in the analysis. VOSviewer 1.6.17 and CiteSpace 5.8.R2 were used to analyze the retrieved data and visualize the results. Result: 1798 qualified original articles and reviews on pyroptosis in lung disease were included in the bibliometric analysis. So far, the research in this field is still in a period of growth, and the number of global publications has increased yearly. Among the 66 countries that have published relevant articles, China ranked first in the number of publications, and the USA ranked first in the number of cited articles. Holian,A. was the author with the largest number of articles, including 21 published. The University of California System in the USA was the organization with the largest number of articles, totaling 55. Frontiers in Immunology was the journal with the most publications in pyroptosis. After bibliometric analysis, the frequently used keywords are: "NOD-like receptor3 (NLRP3) inflammasome", "inflammation", "oxidative stress", and "acute lung injury (ALI)". Conclusion: The research on pyroptosis in lung disease is in its growth stage. The information released in this article may help researchers better understand the hotspots and developmental trends in this field, the cooperation network information of authors, countries, and institutions, and the citation correlation between articles. With the in-depth study of the mechanism of pyroptosis, the focus has shifted to increasing research on the connections and influences of different diseases. So far, increasing attention has been paid to the research field of the relationship between ALI and pyroptosis related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases , Pyroptosis , Acute Lung Injury , Bibliometrics , Caspases , Humans , Inflammasomes , Lung Diseases/pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071511

ABSTRACT

Caloric restriction promotes longevity in multiple animal models. Compounds modulating nutrient-sensing pathways have been suggested to reproduce part of the beneficial effect of caloric restriction on aging. However, none of the commonly studied caloric restriction mimetics actually produce a decrease in calories. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) are a class of drugs which lower glucose by promoting its elimination through urine, thus inducing a net loss of calories. This effect promotes a metabolic shift at the systemic level, fostering ketones and fatty acids utilization as glucose-alternative substrates, and is accompanied by a modulation of major nutrient-sensing pathways held to drive aging, e.g., mTOR and the inflammasome, overall resembling major features of caloric restriction. In addition, preliminary experimental data suggest that SGLT-2i might also have intrinsic activities independent of their systemic effects, such as the inhibition of cellular senescence. Consistently, evidence from both preclinical and clinical studies have also suggested a marked ability of SGLT-2i to ameliorate low-grade inflammation in humans, a relevant driver of aging commonly referred to as inflammaging. Considering also the amount of data from clinical trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses suggesting a tangible effect on age-related outcomes, such as cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, kidney disease, and all-cause mortality also in patients without diabetes, here we propose a framework where at least part of the benefit provided by SGLT-2i is mediated by their ability to blunt the drivers of aging. To support this postulate, we synthesize available data relative to the effect of this class on: 1- animal models of healthspan and lifespan; 2- selected molecular pillars of aging in preclinical models; 3- biomarkers of aging and especially inflammaging in humans; and 4- COVID-19-related outcomes. The burden of evidence might prompt the design of studies testing the potential employment of this class as anti-aging drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Animals , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammasomes , Drug Repositioning , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Aging , Glucose/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Sodium , Ketones/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids/therapeutic use
5.
EBioMedicine ; 85: 104299, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061075

ABSTRACT

A hyperinflammatory response during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection crucially worsens clinical evolution of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) triggers the activation of the NACHT, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Enhanced inflammasome activity has been associated with increased disease severity and poor prognosis. Evidence suggests that inflammasome activation and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) release aggravate pulmonary injury and induce hypercoagulability, favoring progression to respiratory failure and widespread thrombosis eventually leading to multiorgan failure and death. Observational studies with the IL-1 blockers anakinra and canakinumab provided promising results. In the SAVE-MORE trial, early treatment with anakinra significantly shortened hospital stay and improved survival in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. In this review, we summarize current evidence supporting the pathogenetic role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1ß in COVID-19, and discuss clinical trials testing IL-1 inhibition in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism
6.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(15): 5827-5848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056218

ABSTRACT

The rapid dissemination of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remains a global public health emergency. The host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 plays a key role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 can induce aberrant and excessive immune responses, leading to cytokine storm syndrome, autoimmunity, lymphopenia, neutrophilia and dysfunction of monocytes and macrophages. Pyroptosis, a proinflammatory form of programmed cell death, acts as a host defense mechanism against infections. Pyroptosis deprives the replicative niche of SARS-CoV-2 by inducing the lysis of infected cells and exposing the virus to extracellular immune attack. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to hijack this cell death mode for its own survival, propagation and shedding. SARS-CoV-2-encoded viral products act to modulate various key components in the pyroptosis pathways, including inflammasomes, caspases and gasdermins. SARS-CoV-2-induced pyroptosis contriubtes to the development of COVID-19-associated immunopathologies through leakage of intracellular contents, disruption of immune system homeostasis or exacerbation of inflammation. Therefore, pyroptosis has emerged as an important mechanism involved in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis. However, the entangled links between pyroptosis and SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis lack systematic clarification. In this review, we briefly summarize the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19-related immunopathologies. Moreover, we present an overview of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and pyroptosis and highlight recent research advances in the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the implication of the pyroptosis pathways in COVID-19 pathogenesis, which will provide informative inspirations and new directions for further investigation and clinical practice. Finally, we discuss the potential value of pyroptosis as a therapeutic target in COVID-19. An in-depth discussion of the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis will be conducive to the identification of potential therapeutic targets and the exploration of effective treatment measures aimed at conquering SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pyroptosis , Inflammasomes , Caspases
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30618, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colchicine acts upstream in the cytokines cascade by inhibiting the nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome while interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor antagonists, such as tocilizumab, block the end result of the cytokines cascade. Hence, adding colchicine to tocilizumab with the aim of blocking the early and end products of the cytokines cascade, might reduce the risk of developing cytokine storm. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to conduct an open-label randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding colchicine to tocilizumab among patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia to reduce the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality. We will include patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received tocilizumab according to our local guidelines. Enrolled patients will be then randomized in 1:1 to colchicine versus no colchicine. Patients will be followed up for 30 days. The primary outcome is the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation and will be determined using Cox proportional hazard model. DISCUSSION: Given colchicine's ease of use, low cost, good safety profile, and having different anti-inflammatory mechanism of action than other IL-6 blockade, colchicine might serve as a potential anti-inflammatory agent among patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This study will provide valuable insights on the use of colchicine in severe COVID-19 when added to IL-6 antagonists. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Medical Research Center and Institutional Review Board at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar approved the study protocol (MRC-01-21-299). Results of the analysis will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Immunol ; 244: 109093, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049018

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated, which results in a cytokine storm at the late stage of COVID-19. Autophagy regulation is involved in the infection and replication of SARS-CoV-2 at the early stage and the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated lung inflammation at the late stage of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the autophagy regulation at different stages of COVID-19. Specifically, we highlight the therapeutic potential of autophagy activators in COVID-19 by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby avoiding the cytokine storm. We hope this review provides enlightenment for the use of autophagy activators targeting the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, specifically the combinational therapy of autophagy modulators with the inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome, antiviral drugs, or anti-inflammatory drugs in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 987453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039679

ABSTRACT

The innate immune response to viruses is critical for the correct establishment of protective adaptive immunity. Amongst the many pathways involved, the NLRP3 [nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)] inflammasome has received considerable attention, particularly in the context of immunity and pathogenesis during infection with influenza A (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18, commonly coupled with pyroptotic cell death. While this mechanism is protective and key to host defense, aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation causes a hyperinflammatory response and excessive release of cytokines, both locally and systemically. Here, we discuss key molecules in the NLRP3 pathway that have also been shown to have significant roles in innate and adaptive immunity to viruses, including DEAD box helicase X-linked (DDX3X), vimentin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). We also discuss the clinical opportunities to suppress NLRP3-mediated inflammation and reduce disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Nucleotides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vimentin/metabolism
10.
Sci Adv ; 8(37): eabo0732, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic turned the whole world upside down in a short time. One of the main challenges faced has been to understand COVID-19-associated life-threatening hyperinflammation, the so-called cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). We report here the proinflammatory role of Spike (S) proteins from different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern in zebrafish. We found that wild-type/Wuhan variant S1 (S1WT) promoted neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, local and systemic hyperinflammation, emergency myelopoiesis, and hemorrhages. In addition, S1γ was more proinflammatory S1δ was less proinflammatory than S1WT, and, notably, S1ß promoted delayed and long-lasting inflammation. Pharmacological inhibition of the canonical inflammasome alleviated S1-induced inflammation and emergency myelopoiesis. In contrast, genetic inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 strengthened the proinflammatory activity of S1, and angiotensin (1-7) fully rescued S1-induced hyperinflammation and hemorrhages. These results shed light into the mechanisms orchestrating the COVID-19-associated CSS and the host immune response to different SARS-CoV-2 S protein variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism
11.
Sci Adv ; 8(37): eabo5400, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029457

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 in most cases, but some patients develop an excessive inflammatory process that can be fatal. As the NLRP3 inflammasome and additional inflammasomes are implicated in disease aggravation, drug repositioning to target inflammasomes emerges as a strategy to treat COVID-19. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening using a 2560 small-molecule compound library and identified FDA-approved drugs that function as pan-inflammasome inhibitors. Our best hit, niclosamide (NIC), effectively inhibits both inflammasome activation and SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mechanistically, induction of autophagy by NIC partially accounts for inhibition of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes, but NIC-mediated inhibition of NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome are autophagy independent. NIC potently inhibited inflammasome activation in human monocytes infected in vitro, in PBMCs from patients with COVID-19, and in vivo in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study provides relevant information regarding the immunomodulatory functions of this promising drug for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunomodulating Agents , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 9082455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020549

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic or mild/moderate symptoms to severe symptoms and death. The mechanisms underlying its clinical evolution are still unclear. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, host factors, such as the inflammasome system, are activated by the presence of the virus inside host cells. The search for COVID-19 risk factors is of relevance for clinical management. In this study, we investigated the impact of inflammasome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with distinct severity profiles at clinical presentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to disease severity at clinical presentation based on the WHO Clinical Progression Scale. Group 1 included patients with mild/moderate disease (WHO < 6; n = 76), and group 2 included patients with severe/critical COVID-19 (WHO ≥ 6; n = 357). Inpatients with moderate to severe/critical profiles were recruited and followed-up at Hospital Center for COVID-19 Pandemic - National Institute of Infectology (INI)/FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil, from June 2020 to March 2021. Patients with mild disease were recruited at Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC)/FIOCRUZ, RJ, Brazil, in August 2020. Genotyping of 11 inflammasome SNPs was determined by real-time PCR. Protection and risk estimation were performed using unconditional logistic regression models. Significant differences in NLRP3 rs1539019 and CARD8 rs2043211 were observed between the two groups. Protection against disease severity was associated with the A/A genotype (ORadj = 0.36; P = 0.032), allele A (ORadj = 0.93; P = 0.010), or carrier-A (ORadj = 0.45; P = 0.027) in the NLRP3 rs1539019 polymorphism; A/T genotype (ORadj = 0.5; P = 0.045), allele T (ORadj = 0.93; P = 0.018), or carrier-T (ORadj = 0.48; P = 0.029) in the CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphism; and the A-C-G-C-C (ORadj = 0.11; P = 0.018), A-C-G-C-G (ORadj = 0.23; P = 0.003), C-C-G-C-C (ORadj = 0.37; P = 0.021), and C-T-G-A-C (ORadj = 0.04; P = 0.0473) in NLRP3 genetic haplotype variants. No significant associations were observed for the other polymorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating an association between CARD8 and NLRP3 inflammasome genetic variants and protection against COVID-19 severity, contributing to the discussion of the impact of inflammasomes on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010122

ABSTRACT

Inhibition of inflammatory responses from the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 (Spike) by targeting NLRP3 inflammasome has recently been developed as an alternative form of supportive therapy besides the traditional anti-viral approaches. Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore (C. petasites) is a Thai traditional medicinal plant possessing antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, C. petasites ethanolic root extract (CpEE) underwent solvent-partitioned extraction to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction of C. petasites (CpEA). Subsequently, C. petasites extracts were determined for the flavonoid contents and anti-inflammatory properties against spike induction in the A549 lung cells. According to the HPLC results, CpEA significantly contained higher amounts of hesperidin and hesperetin flavonoids than CpEE (p < 0.05). A549 cells were then pre-treated with either C. petasites extracts or its active flavonoids and were primed with 100 ng/mL of spike S1 subunit (Spike S1) and determined for the anti-inflammatory properties. The results indicate that CpEA (compared with CpEE) and hesperetin (compared with hesperidin) exhibited greater anti-inflammatory properties upon Spike S1 induction through a significant reduction in IL-6, IL-1ß, and IL-18 cytokine releases in A549 cells culture supernatant (p < 0.05). Additionally, CpEA and hesperetin significantly inhibited the Spike S1-induced inflammatory gene expressions (NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18, p < 0.05). Mechanistically, CpEA and hesperetin attenuated inflammasome machinery protein expressions (NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1), as well as inactivated the Akt/MAPK/AP-1 pathway. Overall, our findings could provide scientific-based evidence to support the use of C. petasites and hesperetin in the development of supportive therapies for the prevention of COVID-19-related chronic inflammation.


Subject(s)
Antipyretics , COVID-19 , Clerodendrum , Hesperidin , Petasites , A549 Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Clerodendrum/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-6 , Lung/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transcription Factor AP-1
14.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(13): 1112-1123, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009311

ABSTRACT

The cytokine storm (CS) in hyperinflammation is characterized by high levels of cytokines, extreme activation of innate as well as adaptive immune cells and initiation of apoptosis. High levels of apoptotic cells overwhelm the proper recognition and removal system of these cells. Phosphatidylserine on the apoptotic cell surface, which normally provides a recognition signal for removal, becomes a target for hemostatic proteins and secretory phospholipase A2. The dysregulation of these normal pathways in hemostasis and the inflammasome result in a prothrombotic state, cellular death, and end-organ damage. In this review, we provide the argument that this imbalance in recognition and removal is a common denominator regardless of the inflammatory trigger. The complex reaction of the immune defense system in hyperinflammation leads to self-inflicted damage. This common endpoint may provide additional options to monitor the progression of the inflammatory syndrome, predict severity, and may add to possible treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cell Membrane , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammasomes
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 898298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997447

ABSTRACT

Gasdermins (GSDMs) are a class of pore-forming proteins related to pyroptosis, a programmed cell death pathway that is induced by a range of inflammatory stimuli. Small-scale GSDM activation and pore formation allow the passive release of cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-18, and alarmins, but, whenever numerous GSDM pores are assembled, osmotic lysis and cell death occur. Such GSDM-mediated pyroptosis promotes pathogen clearance and can help restore homeostasis, but recent studies have revealed that dysregulated pyroptosis is at the root of many inflammation-mediated disease conditions. Moreover, new homeostatic functions for gasdermins are beginning to be revealed. Here, we review the newly discovered mechanisms of GSDM activation and their prominent roles in host defense and human diseases associated with chronic inflammation. We also highlight the potential of targeting GSDMs as a new therapeutic approach to combat chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer and how we might overcome the current obstacles to realize this potential.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes , Neoplasms , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyroptosis/physiology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994076

ABSTRACT

Inflammasomes are intracellular multimeric complexes that cleave the precursors of the IL-1 family of cytokines and various proteins, found predominantly in cells of hematopoietic origin. They consist of pattern-recognition receptors, adaptor domains, and the enzymatic caspase-1 domain. Inflammasomes become activated upon stimulation by various exogenous and endogenous agents, subsequently promoting and enhancing inflammatory responses. To date, their function has been associated with numerous pathologies. Most recently, many studies have focused on inflammasomes' contribution to hematological diseases. Due to aberrant expression levels, NLRP3, NLRP1, and NLRC4 inflammasomes were indicated as predominantly involved. The NLRP3 inflammasome correlated with the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas, multiple myeloma, acute myeloid leukemia, lymphoid leukemias, myelodysplastic neoplasms, graft-versus-host-disease, and sickle cell anemia. The NLRP1 inflammasome was associated with myeloma and chronic myeloid leukemia, whereas NLRC4 was associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Moreover, specific gene variants of the inflammasomes were linked to disease susceptibility. Despite the incomplete understanding of these correlations and the lack of definite conclusions regarding the therapeutic utility of inflammasome inhibitors, the available results provide a valuable basis for clinical applications and precede upcoming breakthroughs in the field of innovative treatments. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on inflammasomes in hematological diseases, indicates the potential limitations of the current research approaches, and presents future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Diseases , Inflammasomes , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism
17.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 42(8): 406-420, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992070

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused massive morbidity and mortality worldwide. In severe cases, it is mainly associated with acute pneumonia, cytokine storm, and multi-organ dysfunction. Inflammasomes play a primary role in various pathological processes such as infection, injury, and cancer. However, their role in COVID-19-related complications has not been explored. In addition, the role of underlying medical conditions on COVID-19 disease severity remains unclear. Therefore, this review expounds on the mechanisms of inflammasomes following COVID-19 infection and provides recent evidence on the potential double-edged sword effect of inflammasomes during COVID-19 pathogenesis. The assembly and activation of inflammasomes are critical for inducing effective antiviral immune responses and disease resolution. However, uncontrolled activation of inflammasomes causes excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm), increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and death. Therefore, discoveries in the role of the inflammasome in mediating organ injury are key to identifying therapeutic targets and treatment modifications to prevent or reduce COVID-19-related complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammasomes , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Biomater Sci ; 10(19): 5566-5582, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991685

ABSTRACT

In the last several years, countless developments have been made to engineer more efficient and potent mRNA lipid nanoparticle vaccines, culminating in the rapid development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. However, despite these advancements and materials approaches, there is still a lack of understanding of the resultant immunogenicity of mRNA lipid nanoparticles. Therefore, a more mechanistic, design-driven approach needs to be taken to determine which biophysical characteristics, especially related to changes in lipid compositions, drive nanoparticle immunogenicity. Here, we synthesized a panel of six mRNA lipid nanoparticle formulations, varying the concentrations of different lipid components and systematically studied their effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation; a key intracellular protein complex that controls various inflammatory responses. Initial experiments aimed to determine differences in nanoparticle activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes by IL-1ß ELISA, which unveiled that nanoparticles with high concentrations of ionizable lipid DLin-MC3-DMA in tandem with high cationic lipid DPTAP and low cholesterol concentration induced the greatest activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results were further corroborated by the measurement of ASC specks indicative of NLRP3 complex assembly, as well as cleaved gasdermin-D and caspase-1 expression indicating complex activation. We also uncovered these activation profiles to be mechanistically correlated primarily with lysosomal rupturing caused by the delayed membrane disruption capabilities of ionizable lipids until the lysosomal stage, as well as by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and calcium influx for some of the particles. Therefore, we report that the specific, combined effects of each lipid type, most notably ionizable, cationic lipids, and cholesterol, is a crucial mRNA lipid nanoparticle characteristic that varies the endo/lysosomal rupture capabilities of the formulation and activate NLRP3 inflammasomes in a lysosomal rupture dependent manner. These results provide a more concrete understanding of mRNA lipid Nanoparticle-Associated Molecular Patterns for the activation of molecular-level immune responses and provide new lipid composition design considerations for future mRNA-delivery approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Vaccines , Calcium , Caspase 1/genetics , Caspase 1/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipids , Liposomes , Lysosomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Transfection
19.
Inflammation ; 45(5): 1849-1863, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990700

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the COVID-19 outbreak, has become a pandemic threatening millions of lives worldwide. Recently, several vaccine candidates and drugs have shown promising effects in preventing or treating COVID-19, but due to the development of mutant strains through rapid viral evolution, urgent investigations are warranted in order to develop preventive measures and further improve current vaccine candidates. Positive-sense-single-stranded RNA viruses comprise many (re)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. Our innate immune system and, in particular, the interferon response form an important first line of defense against these viruses. Flexibility in the genome aids the virus to develop multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response and efficiently promotes their replication and infective capacity. This review will focus on the innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the virus' evasion of the innate immune system by escaping recognition or inhibiting the production of an antiviral state. Since interferons have been implicated in inflammatory diseases and immunopathology along with their protective role in infection, antagonizing the immune response may have an ambiguous effect on the clinical outcome of the viral disease. This pathology is characterized by intense, rapid stimulation of the innate immune response that triggers activation of the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, and release of its products including the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-18, and IL-1ß. This predictive view may aid in designing an immune intervention or preventive vaccine for COVID-19 in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interferons , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-6 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyrin , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(4): 796-805, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in a severe pneumonia associated with elevation of blood inflammatory parameters, reminiscent of cytokine storm syndrome. Steroidal anti-inflammatory therapies have shown efficacy in reducing mortality in critically ill patients; however, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers such an extensive inflammation remain unexplained. OBJECTIVES: To dissect the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we studied the role of IL-1ß, a pivotal cytokine driving inflammatory phenotypes, whose maturation and secretion are regulated by inflammasomes. METHODS: We analyzed nod-like receptor protein 3 pathway activation by means of confocal microscopy, plasma cytokine measurement, cytokine secretion following in vitro stimulation of blood circulating monocytes, and whole-blood RNA sequencing. The role of open reading frame 3a SARS-CoV-2 protein was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis following nucleofection of a monocytic cell line. RESULTS: We found that circulating monocytes from patients with COVID-19 display ASC (adaptor molecule apoptotic speck like protein-containing a CARD) specks that colocalize with nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and spontaneously secrete IL-1ß in vitro. This spontaneous activation reverts following patient's treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Transfection of a monocytic cell line with cDNA coding for the ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 protein resulted in ASC speck formation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence that IL-1ß targeting could represent an effective strategy in this disease and suggest a mechanistic explanation for the strong inflammatory manifestations associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , NLR Proteins , Receptors, Interleukin-1 , SARS-CoV-2
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