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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572496

ABSTRACT

In humans, over-activation of innate immunity in response to viral or bacterial infections often causes severe illness and death. Furthermore, similar mechanisms related to innate immunity can cause pathogenesis and death in sepsis, massive trauma (including surgery and burns), ischemia/reperfusion, some toxic lesions, and viral infections including COVID-19. Based on the reviewed observations, we suggest that such severe outcomes may be manifestations of a controlled suicidal strategy protecting the entire population from the spread of pathogens and from dangerous pathologies rather than an aberrant hyperstimulation of defense responses. We argue that innate immunity may be involved in the implementation of an altruistic programmed death of an organism aimed at increasing the well-being of the whole community. We discuss possible ways to suppress this atavistic program by interfering with innate immunity and suggest that combating this program should be a major goal of future medicine.


Subject(s)
Altruism , Apoptosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Death/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572670

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus that has caused worldwide pandemic. The disease induced by SARS-CoV-2 is called COVID-19. A majority of people with COVID-19 have relatively mild respiratory symptoms. However, a small percentage of COVID-19 patients develop a severe disease where multiple organs are affected. These severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, so called "cytokine storm". Inflammasomes, which are protein complexes of the innate immune system orchestrate development of local and systemic inflammation during virus infection. Recent data suggest involvement of inflammasomes in severe COVID-19. Activation of inflammasome exerts two major effects: it activates caspase-1-mediated processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18, and induces inflammatory cell death, pyroptosis, via protein called gasdermin D. Here, we provide comprehensive review of current understanding of the activation and possible functions of different inflammasome structures during SARS-CoV-2 infection and compare that to response caused by influenza A virus. We also discuss how novel SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines activate innate immune response, which is a prerequisite for the activation of protective adaptive immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Death , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-1beta , Neoplasm Proteins , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470996

ABSTRACT

Infections with viral pathogens are widespread and can cause a variety of different diseases. In-depth knowledge about viral triggers initiating an immune response is necessary to decipher viral pathogenesis. Inflammasomes, as part of the innate immune system, can be activated by viral pathogens. However, viral structural components responsible for inflammasome activation remain largely unknown. Here we analyzed glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV-1/2, HCMV and HCV, required for viral entry and fusion, as potential triggers of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages. All tested glycoproteins were able to potently induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation, indicated by ASC-SPECK formation and secretion of cleaved IL-1ß. Lytic cell death via gasdermin D (GSDMD), pore formation, and pyroptosis are required for IL-1ß release. As a hallmark of pyroptosis, we were able to detect cleavage of GSDMD and, correspondingly, cell death in THP-1 macrophages. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of NLRP3 and GSDMD in THP-1 macrophages confirmed and strongly support the evidence that viral glycoproteins can act as innate immunity triggers. With our study, we decipher key mechanisms of viral pathogenesis by showing that viral glycoproteins potently induce innate immune responses. These insights could be beneficial in vaccine development and provide new impulses for the investigation of vaccine-induced innate immunity.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , THP-1 Cells
4.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(11): 2187-2195, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442084

ABSTRACT

Millions of people around the world are involved with COVID-19 due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. Virological features of SARS-CoV-2, including its genomic sequence, have been identified but the mechanisms governing COVID-19 immunopathogenesis have remained uncertain. miR-223 is a hematopoietic cell-derived miRNA that is implicated in regulating monocyte-macrophage differentiation, neutrophil recruitment, and pro-inflammatory responses. The miR-223 controls inflammation by targeting a variety of factors, including TRAF6, IKKα, HSP-70, FOXO1, TLR4, PI3K/AKT, PARP-1, HDAC2, ITGB3, CXCL2, CCL3, IL-6, IFN-I, STMN1, IL-1ß, IL-18, Caspase-1, NF-κB, and NLRP3. The key role of miR-223 in regulating the inflammatory process and its antioxidant and antiviral role can suggest this miRNA as a potential regulatory factor in the process of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/pathology , MicroRNAs/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology
6.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376993

ABSTRACT

Given the impact of pandemics due to viruses of bat origin, there is increasing interest in comparative investigation into the differences between bat and human immune responses. The practice of comparative biology can be enhanced by computational methods used for dynamic knowledge representation to visualize and interrogate the putative differences between the two systems. We present an agent based model that encompasses and bridges differences between bat and human responses to viral infection: the comparative biology immune agent based model, or CBIABM. The CBIABM examines differences in innate immune mechanisms between bats and humans, specifically regarding inflammasome activity and type 1 interferon dynamics, in terms of tolerance to viral infection. Simulation experiments with the CBIABM demonstrate the efficacy of bat-related features in conferring viral tolerance and also suggest a crucial role for endothelial inflammasome activity as a mechanism for bat systemic viral tolerance and affecting the severity of disease in human viral infections. We hope that this initial study will inspire additional comparative modeling projects to link, compare, and contrast immunological functions shared across different species, and in so doing, provide insight and aid in preparation for future viral pandemics of zoonotic origin.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Computer Simulation , Endothelium/physiology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Stress, Physiological , Viral Zoonoses , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Virus Shedding
7.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(11): 694-703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349668

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), results in life-threatening disease in a minority of patients, especially elderly people and those with co-morbidities such as obesity and diabetes. Severe disease is characterized by dysregulated cytokine release, pneumonia and acute lung injury, which can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, multisystem failure and death. However, a mechanistic understanding of COVID-19 progression remains unclear. Here we review evidence that SARS-CoV-2 directly or indirectly activates inflammasomes, which are large multiprotein assemblies that are broadly responsive to pathogen-associated and stress-associated cellular insults, leading to secretion of the pleiotropic IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-18), and pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death. We further discuss potential mechanisms of inflammasome activation and clinical efforts currently under way to suppress inflammation to prevent or ameliorate severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325681

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began at the end of 2019. COVID-19 is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patients with COVID-19 may exhibit poor clinical outcomes. Some patients with severe COVID-19 experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS) or a cytokine storm-elevated levels of hyperactivated immune cells-and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18. This severe inflammatory response can lead to organ damage/failure and even death. The inflammasome is an intracellular immune complex that is responsible for the secretion of IL-1ß and IL-18 in various human diseases. Recently, there has been a growing number of studies revealing a link between the inflammasome and COVID-19. Therefore, this article summarizes the current literature regarding the inflammasome complex and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/drug therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology
9.
EMBO J ; 40(18): e108249, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323479

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that causes dysfunctions in multiple human cells and tissues. Studies have looked at the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells mediated by the viral spike protein and human receptor ACE2. However, less is known about the cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Here, we show that the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host pyroptosis by blocking Gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes show enhanced cellular interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression, but reduced IL-1ß secretion. While SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, GSDMD cleavage and pyroptosis are inhibited in infected human monocytes. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein associates with GSDMD in cells and inhibits GSDMD cleavage in vitro and in vivo. The nucleocapsid binds the GSDMD linker region and hinders GSDMD processing by caspase-1. These insights into how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes cellular inflammatory responses may open new avenues for treating COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , THP-1 Cells
10.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1049-1059, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303332

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the central nervous system and cause several neurological manifestations. Data from cerebrospinal fluid analyses and postmortem samples have been shown that SARS-CoV-2 has neuroinvasive properties. Therefore, ongoing studies have focused on mechanisms involved in neurotropism and neural injuries of SARS-CoV-2. The inflammasome is a part of the innate immune system that is responsible for the secretion and activation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and interleukin-18. Since cytokine storm has been known as a major mechanism followed by SARS-CoV-2, inflammasome may trigger an inflammatory form of lytic programmed cell death (pyroptosis) following SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to associated neurological complications. We reviewed and discussed the possible role of inflammasome and its consequence pyroptosis following coronavirus infections as potential mechanisms of neurotropism by SARS-CoV-2. Further studies, particularly postmortem analysis of brain samples obtained from COVID-19 patients, can shed light on the possible role of the inflammasome in neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 178: 113848, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283843

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, and the ensuing global pandemic, has resulted in an unprecedented response to identify therapies that can limit uncontrolled inflammation observed in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. The immune pathology behind COVID-19 is complex and involves the activation and interaction of multiple systems including, but not limited to, complement, inflammasomes, endothelial as well as innate and adaptive immune cells to bring about a convoluted profile of inflammation, coagulation and tissue damage. To date, therapeutic approaches have focussed on inhibition of coagulation, untargeted immune suppression and/or cytokine-directed blocking agents. Regardless of recently achieved improvements in individual patient outcomes and survival rates, improved and focussed approaches targeting individual systems involved is needed to further improve prognosis and wellbeing. This review summarizes the current understanding of molecular and cellular systems involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, and their contribution to pathogen clearance and damage to then discuss possible therapeutic options involving immunomodulatory drug delivery systems as well as summarising the complex interplay between them.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Inflammasomes/antagonists & inhibitors , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement Activation/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/trends , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology
13.
Immunology ; 163(4): 377-388, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247200

ABSTRACT

Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruit domain (ASC), encoded by PYCARD gene, is a 22 kDa small molecule, which aggregates into ASC specks during inflammasome activation. ASC protein is an adaptor protein present in several inflammasome complexes that performs several intra- and extracellular functions, in monomeric form or as ASC specks, during physiological and pathological processes related to inflammation and adaptive immunity. Extracellular ASC specks (eASC specks) released during cell death by pyroptosis can contribute as a danger signal to the propagation of inflammation via phagocytosis and activation of surrounding cells. ASC specks are found in the circulation of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and have been considered as relevant blood biomarkers of inflammation. eASC amplifies the inflammatory signal, may induce the production of autoantibodies, transports molecules that bind to this complex, contributing to the generation of antibodies, and can induce the maturation of cytokines promoting the modelling of the adaptive immunity. Although several advances have been registered in the last 21 years, there are numerous unknown or enigmatic gaps in the understanding of the role of eASC specks in the organism. Here, we provide an overview about the ASC protein focusing on the probable roles of eASC specks in several diseases, up to the most recent studies concerning COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Alarmins/metabolism , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Phagocytosis , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
14.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(3): 247-258, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238099

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a type of beta-CoV that develops acute pneumonia, which is an inflammatory condition. A cytokine storm has been recognized as one of the leading causes of death in patients with COVID-19. ALI and ARDS along with multiple organ failure have also been presented as the consequences of acute inflammation and cytokine storm. It has been previously confirmed that SARS-CoV, as another member of the beta-CoV family, activates NLRP3 inflammasome and consequently develops acute inflammation in a variety of ways through having complex interactions with the host immune system using structural and nonstructural proteins. Numerous studies conducted on Tranilast have further demonstrated that the given drug can act as an effective anti-chemotactic factor on controlling inflammation, and thus, it can possibly help the improvement of the acute form of COVID-19 by inhibiting some key inflammation-associated transcription factors such as NF-κB and impeding NLRP3 inflammasome. Several studies have comparably revealed the direct effect of this drug on the prevention of inappropriate tissue's remodeling; inhibition of neutrophils, IL-5, and eosinophils; repression of inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammation site; restriction of factors involved in acute airway inflammation like IL-33; and suppression of cytokine IL-13, which increase mucosal secretions. Therefore, Tranilast may be considered as a potential treatment for patients with the acute form of COVID-19 along with other drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , ortho-Aminobenzoates/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans
15.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197553

ABSTRACT

The activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and/or its components is associated with the physio-pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), SARS Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), and in several autoimmune diseases. Hibiscus noldeae Baker f. has been widely reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of different ailments, some of which are of inflammatory background such as asthma, wounds, headache, etc. However, the claims have not been supported by evidence at the molecular and functional levels. Here, we report on the bio-guided fractionation of H. noldeae and assessment of the inhibitory properties of some fractions and purified compounds on NLRP3 inflammasome and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was determined by detecting the activity of caspase-1 and the production of Interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP-stimulated Tamm-Horsfall Protein 1 (THP-1) macrophages, while the production of IL-6 was studied in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. It was observed that hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of the crude extract of the aerial parts of H. noldeae, as well as caffeic acid, isoquercetin, and ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions revealed significant inhibitory effects on Caspase-1 activities, and on IL-1ß and IL-6 production. The ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions downregulated the production of IL-1ß and IL-6, in a similar range as the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CHO and the drug Dexamethasone, both used as controls, respectively. Overall, our work does provide the very first scientific based evidence for Hibiscus noldeae anti-inflammatory effects and widespread use by traditional healers in Rwanda for a variety of ailments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Hibiscus/chemistry , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , RAW 264.7 Cells
16.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194613

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most devastating infectious disease in the 21st century with more than 2 million lives lost in less than a year. The activation of inflammasome in the host infected by SARS-CoV-2 is highly related to cytokine storm and hypercoagulopathy, which significantly contribute to the poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Even though many studies have shown the host defense mechanism induced by inflammasome against various viral infections, mechanistic interactions leading to downstream cellular responses and pathogenesis in COVID-19 remain unclear. The SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with numerous cardiovascular disorders including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. The inflammatory response triggered by the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome under certain cardiovascular conditions resulted in hyperinflammation or the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 signaling pathways. Perturbations of several target cells and tissues have been described in inflammasome activation, including pneumocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and dendritic cells. The interplay between inflammasome activation and hypercoagulopathy in COVID-19 patients is an emerging area to be further addressed. Targeted therapeutics to suppress inflammasome activation may have a positive effect on the reduction of hyperinflammation-induced hypercoagulopathy and cardiovascular disorders occurring as COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Thrombophilia/etiology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Humans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombophilia/immunology , Thrombophilia/pathology
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 613613, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084148

ABSTRACT

Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic inflammatory signaling protein complexes that detect microbial materials, sterile inflammatory insults, and certain host-derived elements. Inflammasomes, once activated, promote caspase-1-mediated maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18, leading to pyroptosis. Current advances in inflammasome research support their involvement in the development of chronic inflammatory disorders in contrast to their role in regulating innate immunity. Cannabis (marijuana) is a natural product obtained from the Cannabis sativa plant, and pharmacologically active ingredients of the plant are referred to as cannabinoids. Cannabinoids and cannabis extracts have recently emerged as promising novel drugs for chronic medical conditions. Growing evidence indicates the potent anti-inflammatory potential of cannabinoids, especially Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and synthetic cannabinoids; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Several attempts have been made to decipher the role of cannabinoids in modulating inflammasome signaling in the etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss recently published evidence on the effect of cannabinoids on inflammasome signaling. We also discuss the contribution of various cannabinoids in human diseases concerning inflammasome regulation. Lastly, in the milieu of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we confer available evidence linking inflammasome activation to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 suggesting overall, the importance of cannabinoids as possible drugs to target inflammasome activation in or to support the treatment of a variety of human disorders including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammasomes/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 592622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081192

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Natural SARS-COV-2 infection has been detected in dogs, cats and tigers. However, the symptoms in canines and felines were mild. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. Excessive activation of inflammasome pathways can trigger cytokine storm and severe damage to host. In current study, we performed a comparative genomics study of key components of inflammasome and pyroptosis pathways in dogs, cats and tigers. Cats and tigers do not have AIM2 and NLRP1. Dogs do not contain AIM2, and encode a short form of NLRC4. The activation sites in GSDMB were absent in dogs, cats and tigers, while GSDME activation sites in cats and tigers were abolished. We propose that deficiencies of inflammasome and pyroptosis pathways might provide an evolutionary advantage against SARS-CoV-2 by reducing cytokine storm-induced host damage. Our findings will shed important lights on the mild symptoms in canines and felines infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Inflammasomes/immunology , Pyroptosis/immunology , Animals , Cat Diseases/immunology , Cat Diseases/virology , Cats , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Genomics , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Pyroptosis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tigers
19.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(21): 4921-4930, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991237

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, has a wide-ranging clinical spectrum that, in the worst-case scenario, involves a rapid progression to severe acute respiratory syndrome and death. Epidemiological data show that obesity and diabetes are among the main risk factors associated with high morbidity and mortality. The increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection documented in obesity-related metabolic derangements argues for initial defects in defence mechanisms, most likely due to an elevated systemic metabolic inflammation ("metaflammation"). The NLRP3 inflammasome is a master regulator of metaflammation and has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of either obesity or diabetes. Here, we discuss the most recent findings suggesting contribution of NLRP3 inflammasome to the increase in complications in COVID-19 patients with diabesity. We also review current pharmacological strategies for COVID-19, focusing on treatments whose efficacy could be due, at least in part, to interference with the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on The Pharmacology of COVID-19. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.21/issuetoc.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/immunology , Obesity/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(4): 1044-1059, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983662

ABSTRACT

Scientists and health professionals are exhaustively trying to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by elucidating viral invasion mechanisms, possible drugs to prevent viral infection/replication, and health cares to minimize individual exposure. Although neurological symptoms are being reported worldwide, neural acute and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 are still unknown. COVID-19 complications are associated with exacerbated immunoinflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 invasion. In this scenario, pro-inflammatory factors are intensely released into the bloodstream, causing the so-called "cytokine storm". Both pro-inflammatory factors and viruses may cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system, activating neuroinflammatory responses accompanied by hemorrhagic lesions and neuronal impairment, which are largely described processes in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 infection could trigger and/or worse brain diseases. Moreover, patients with central nervous system disorders associated to neuroimmune activation (e.g. depression, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease) may present increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or achieve severe conditions. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection may trigger hyperactivation of P2X7 receptors leading to NLRP3 inflammasome stimulation as a key mediator of neuroinvasion and consequent neuroinflammatory processes, as observed in psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, P2X7 receptor antagonism could be a promising strategy to prevent or treat neurological complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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