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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illnesses in the U.S. and are estimated to consume one-third of the country's mental health treatment cost. Although anxiolytic therapies are available, many patients still exhibit treatment resistance, relapse, or substantial side effects. Further, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home order, social isolation, fear of the pandemic, and unprecedented times, the incidence of anxiety has dramatically increased. Previously, we have demonstrated dihydromyricetin (DHM), the major bioactive flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, exhibits anxiolytic properties in a mouse model of social isolation-induced anxiety. Because GABAergic transmission modulates the immune system in addition to the inhibitory signal transmission, we investigated the effects of short-term social isolation on the neuroimmune system. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were housed under absolute social isolation for 4 weeks. The anxiety-like behaviors after DHM treatment were examined using elevated plus-maze and open field behavioral tests. Gephyrin protein expression, microglial profile changes, NF-κB pathway activation, cytokine level, and serum corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Socially isolated mice showed increased anxiety levels, reduced exploratory behaviors, and reduced gephyrin levels. Also, a dynamic alteration in hippocampal microglia were detected illustrated as a decline in microglia number and overactivation as determined by significant morphological changes including decreases in lacunarity, perimeter, and cell size and increase in cell density. Moreover, social isolation induced an increase in serum corticosterone level and activation in NF-κB pathway. Notably, DHM treatment counteracted these changes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that social isolation contributes to neuroinflammation, while DHM has the ability to improve neuroinflammation induced by anxiety.


Subject(s)
Flavonols/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Social Isolation/psychology , Animals , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , Flavonols/therapeutic use , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(12): 2471-2474, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473989

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiological process of the disease, Covid-19, is mediated by innate immunity, with the presence of macrophages responsible for secreting type 1 and 6 interleukins (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leading to dilation of endothelial cells with a consequent increase in capillary permeability. The treatment of this disease has been much discussed, but the variability in the clinical picture, the difficulties for diagnosis and treatment, especially of those patients who have the most severe clinical condition of the disease. Immunization is an effective tool for controlling the spread and overload of health services, but its effectiveness involves high investments in the acquisition of inputs, development of vaccines, and logistics of storage and distribution. These factors can be obstacles for countries with lower economic, technological, and infrastructure indexes. Reflecting on these difficulties, we raised the possibility of adjuvant therapies with imminent research feasibility, as is the case with the use of carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol whose has biological properties that serve as a barrier to processes mediated by free radicals, such as irritation and inflammation, due to its antioxidant action. Many authors highlighted the activity of carvacrol as a potent suppressor of COX-2 expression minimizing the acute inflammatory process, decreasing the release of some pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, PGE2. Anyway, the benefits of carvacrol are numerous and the therapeutic possibilities too. With this description, the question arises: would carvacrol be a supporting treatment option, effective in minimizing the deleterious effects of Covid-19? There is still a lot to discover and research.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cymenes/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cymenes/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112291, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT), a neuropeptide involved in mammal reproductive and prosocial behaviors, has been reported to interact with various stressor-provoked neurobiological changes, including neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes. In view of disturbances in psychosocial relationships due to social isolation and physical distancing measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic, being one of the triggering factors for the recent rise in depression and anxiety, OXT is a potential candidate for a new antidepressant. METHODS: In this present study, we have aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (RE), extracted from distillation residue of rosemary essential oil, on central OXT level in the context of other stress biomarkers and neurotransmitter levels in mice models. Tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test (EPMT) following LPS injection were employed to assess depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in mice, respectively. FINDINGS: Pretreatment with RE for seven days significantly improved behavior in TST and EPMT. Whole-genome microarray analysis reveals that RE significantly reversed TST stress-induced alterations in gene expressions related to oxytocinergic and neurotransmitter pathways and inflammatory processes. In both models, RE significantly increased central Oxt and Oxtr expressions, as well as OXT protein levels. RE also significantly attenuated stress-induced changes in serum corticosterone, brain and serum BDNF levels, and brain neurotransmitters levels in both models. INTERPRETATION: Altogether, our study is the first to report antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of RE through modulating oxytocinergic system in mice brain and thus highlights the prospects of RE in the treatment of depressive disorders of psychosocial nature.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxytocin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Oxytocin/metabolism , Rosmarinus , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/isolation & purification , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Oxytocin/agonists , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Receptors, Oxytocin/agonists
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378190

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 might lead to multi-organ failure and, in some cases, to death. The COVID-19 severity is associated with a "cytokine storm." Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are proinflammatory molecules that can activate pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). DAMPs and TLRs have not received much attention in COVID-19 but can explain some of the gender-, weight- and age-dependent effects. In females and males, TLRs are differentially expressed, likely contributing to higher COVID-19 severity in males. DAMPs and cytokines associated with COVID-19 mortality are elevated in obese and elderly individuals, which might explain the higher risk for severer COVID-19 in these groups. Adenosine signaling inhibits the TLR/NF-κB pathway and, through this, decreases inflammation and DAMPs' effects. As vaccines will not be effective in all susceptible individuals and as new vaccine-resistant SARS-CoV-2 mutants might develop, it remains mandatory to find means to dampen COVID-19 disease severity, especially in high-risk groups. We propose that the regulation of DAMPs via adenosine signaling enhancement might be an effective way to lower the severity of COVID-19 and prevent multiple organ failure in the absence of severe side effects.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Adenosine/metabolism , Alarmins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Patient Acuity , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
5.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(9): 666-682, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220034

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis is the most feared complication of cardiovascular diseases and a main cause of death worldwide, making it a major health-care challenge. Platelets and the coagulation cascade are effectively targeted by antithrombotic approaches, which carry an inherent risk of bleeding. Moreover, antithrombotics cannot completely prevent thrombotic events, implicating a therapeutic gap due to a third, not yet adequately addressed mechanism, namely inflammation. In this Review, we discuss how the synergy between inflammation and thrombosis drives thrombotic diseases. We focus on the huge potential of anti-inflammatory strategies to target cardiovascular pathologies. Findings in the past decade have uncovered a sophisticated connection between innate immunity, platelet activation and coagulation, termed immunothrombosis. Immunothrombosis is an important host defence mechanism to limit systemic spreading of pathogens through the bloodstream. However, the aberrant activation of immunothrombosis in cardiovascular diseases causes myocardial infarction, stroke and venous thromboembolism. The clinical relevance of aberrant immunothrombosis, referred to as thromboinflammation, is supported by the increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory diseases but also during infections, including in COVID-19. Clinical trials in the past 4 years have confirmed the anti-ischaemic effects of anti-inflammatory strategies, backing the concept of a prothrombotic function of inflammation. Targeting inflammation to prevent thrombosis leaves haemostasis mainly unaffected, circumventing the risk of bleeding associated with current approaches. Considering the growing number of anti-inflammatory therapies, it is crucial to appreciate their potential in covering therapeutic gaps in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Immune System/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology
7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 556: 87-92, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173393

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced cytokine storm has been a devastating actuality in clinic. The abnormal production of type I interferon (IFN-1) and upregulation of multiple cytokines induced strong inflammation and thus lead to shock and organ failure. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif-containing 37 (TRIM37) regulates the ubiquitination of multiple proteins including TRAFs. RNA sequencing was performed to investigated the alteration of transcriptional profile of H1N1-infected patients. qRT-PCR assay was performed to investigate the RNA levels of certain genes. The group of immune cells was examined by the Flow cytometry analysis. H&E staining was applied to evaluate lung inflammation of WT and TRIM37-KO mice. ELISA assay was performed to demonstrate the alteration of multiple cytokines. The protein levels in NF-kB signaling was estimated by western blotting and immunoprecipitation assays were applied to demonstrate the direct interaction between TRIM37 and TRAF-6. The RNA level of TRIM37 decreased in CD11b+ cells of Flu-infected patients. Knockout of TRIM37 inhibited the immune responses of H1N1-infected mice. TRIM37 deficiency reduced the levels of virous proinflammatory cytokines in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). Mechanically, TRIM37 promoted the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6. TRIM37 negatively regulated inflammatory responses induced by virus infection via promoting TRAF6 ubiquitination at K63.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Animals , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6/chemistry , Tripartite Motif Proteins/deficiency , Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 168: 105581, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157664

ABSTRACT

In-depth characterization of heart-brain communication in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure is attracting significant interest in the COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic era during intensive care unit (ICU) stay and after ICU or hospital discharge. Emerging research has provided new insights into pathogenic role of the deregulation of the heart-brain axis (HBA), a bidirectional flow of information, in leading to severe multiorgan disease syndrome (MODS) in patients with confirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Noteworthy, HBA dysfunction may worsen the outcome of the COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discuss the critical role HBA plays in both promoting and limiting MODS in COVID-19. We also highlight the role of HBA as new target for novel therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 in order to open new translational frontiers of care. This is a translational perspective from the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Researches.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/therapy , Brain/drug effects , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Diseases/therapy , Heart/drug effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Functional Food , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Microvessels/drug effects , Microvessels/immunology , Microvessels/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/immunology , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111143, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) is a severe respiratory syndrome that was recently associated as the main death cause in the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. Hence, in order to prevent ARDS, the pulmonary function maintenance has been the target of several pharmacological approaches. However, there is a lack of reports regarding the use of effective pharmaceutical active natural products (PANPs) for early treatment and prevention of COVID-19-related ARDS. Therefore, the aim of this work was to conduct a systematic review regarding the PANPs that could be further studied as alternatives to prevent ARDS. Consequently, this work can pave the way to spread the use of PANPs on the prevention of ARDS in COVID-19-confirmed or -suspected patients. METHODS: The search strategy included scientific studies published in English from 2015 to 2020 that promoted the elucidation of anti-inflammatory pathways targeting ARDS by in vitro and/or in vivo experiments using PANPs. Then, 74 studies regarding PANPs, able to maintain or improve the pulmonary function, were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The PANPs may present different pulmonary anti-inflammatory pathways, wherein (i) reduction/attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, (ii) increase of the anti-inflammatory mediators' levels, (iii) pulmonary edema inhibition and (iv) attenuation of lung injury were the most observed biological effects of such products in in vitro experiments or in clinical studies. Finally, this work highlighted the PANPs with promising potential to be used on respiratory syndromes, allowing their possible use as alternative treatment at the prevention of ARDS in COVID-19-infected or -suspected patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism
10.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 314(1): 1-15, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070839

ABSTRACT

We present the first reported cases of delayed inflammatory reactions (DIR) to hyaluronic acid (HA) dermal fillers after exposure to the COVID-19 spike protein. DIR to HA is reported to occur in the different scenarios including: secondary to poor injection technique, following dental cleaning procedures, following bacterial/viral illness, and after vaccination. In this report of 4 cases with distinct clinical histories and presentations: one case occured following a community acquired COVID-19 infection, one case occured in a study subject in the mRNA-1273 clinical phase III trial, one case occurred following the first dose of publically available mRNA-1273 vaccine (Moderna, Cambridge MA), and the last case occurred after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer, New York, NY). Injectable HA dermal fillers are prevalent in aesthetic medicine for facial rejuvenation. Structural modifications in the crosslinking of HA fillers have enhanced the products' resistance to enzymatic breakdown and thus increased injected product longevity, however, have also led to a rise in DIR. Previous, DIR to HA dermal fillers can present clinically as edema with symptomatic and inflammatory erythematous papules and nodules. The mechanism of action for the delayed reaction to HA fillers is unknown and is likely to be multifactorial in nature. A potential mechanism of DIR to HA fillers in COVID-19 related cases is binding and blockade of angiotensin 2 converting enzyme receptors (ACE2), which are targeted by the SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein to gain entry into the cell. Spike protein interaction with dermal ACE2 receptors favors a pro-inflammatory, loco-regional TH1 cascade, promoting a CD8+T cell mediated reaction to incipient granulomas, which previously formed around residual HA particles. Management to suppress the inflammatory response in the native COVID-19 case required high-dose corticosteroids (CS) to suppress inflammatory pathways, with concurrent ACE2 upregulation, along with high-dose intralesional hyaluronidase to dissolve the inciting HA filler. With regards to the two vaccine related cases; in the mRNA-1273 case, a low dose angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) was utilized for treatment, to reduce pro-inflammatory Angiotensin II. Whereas, in the BNT162b2 case the filler reaction was suppressed with oral corticosteroids. Regarding final disposition of the cases; the vaccine-related cases returned to baseline appearance within 3 days, whereas the native COVID-19 case continued to have migratory, evanescent, periorbital edema for weeks which ultimately subsided.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Dermal Fillers/adverse effects , Hyaluronic Acid/adverse effects , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , /immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid/immunology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111017, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064876

ABSTRACT

Myricetin(MYR) is a flavonoid compound widely found in many natural plants including bayberry. So far, MYR has been proven to have multiple biological functions and it is a natural compound with promising research and development prospects. This review comprehensively retrieved and collected the latest pharmacological abstracts on MYR, and discussed the potential molecular mechanisms of its effects. The results of our review indicated that MYR has a therapeutic effect on many diseases, including tumors of different types, inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, cerebral ischemia, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and pathogenic microbial infections. Furthermore, it regulates the expression of Hippo, MAPK, GSK-3ß, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, STAT3, TLR, IκB/NF-κB, Nrf2/HO-1, ACE, eNOS / NO, AChE and BrdU/NeuN. MYR also enhances the immunomodulatory functions, suppresses cytokine storms, improves cardiac dysfunction, possesses an antiviral potential, can be used as an adjuvant treatment against cancer, cardiovascular injury and nervous system diseases, and it may be a potential drug against COVID-19 and other viral infections. Generally, this article provides a theoretical basis for the clinical application of MYR and a reference for its further use.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biomedical Research/methods , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/physiology , Flavonoids/chemistry , Humans
12.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(1): 99-116, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008079

ABSTRACT

The novel beta coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, designated as COVID-19) that is responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome has devastated the global economy and health care system. Since COVID-19 changed the definition of "normal" in ordinary life around the world, the development of effective therapeutics and preventive measures is desperately needed to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection and restore normalcy. A clear understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis is crucial in providing the scientific rationale necessary to develop anti-COVID19 drugs and vaccines. According to the most recently published literature, COVID-19 pathogenesis was postulated to occur in three sequential phases: pulmonary, proinflammatory, and prothrombic. Herein, virus-host interactions, potential pathogenic mechanisms, and clinical manifestations are described for each phase. Additionally, based on this pathogenesis model, various therapeutic strategies involving current clinical trials are presented with an explanation of their modes of action and example drugs. This review is a thorough, updated summary of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the therapeutic options available for this disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111200, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002355

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) has had major global impact. The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection and psychiatric diseases is of great concern, with an evident link between corona virus infections and various central and peripheral nervous system manifestations. Unmitigated neuro-inflammation has been noted to underlie not only the severe respiratory complications of the disease but is also present in a range of neuro-psychiatric illnesses. Several neurological and psychiatric disorders are characterized by immune-inflammatory states, while treatments for these disorders have distinct anti-inflammatory properties and effects. With inflammation being a common contributing factor in SARS-CoV-2, as well as psychiatric disorders, treatment of either condition may affect disease progression of the other or alter response to pharmacological treatment. In this review, we elucidate how viral infections could affect pre-existing psychiatric conditions and how pharmacological treatments of these conditions may affect overall progress and outcome in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. We address whether any treatment-induced benefits and potential adverse effects may ultimately affect the overall treatment approach, considering the underlying dysregulated neuro-inflammatory processes and potential drug interactions. Finally, we suggest adjunctive treatment options for SARS-CoV-2-associated neuro-psychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 21(10): 1781-1803, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955008

ABSTRACT

The existence of a causal relationship between the rise of the death rate in COVID-19 infected patients and their sufferance from non-communicable pathophysiological conditions, particularly chronic diseases, was recently evidenced. In fact, in addition to the immunodeficiency generated by chronic disease conditions, COVID-19 also led to affect the immune system. Furthermore, the novel coronavirus attacks the lungs and other vital organs such as heart, kidneys, and brain. All these outcomes are accused of being involved in the increasing vulnerability and comorbidity in COVID-19- infected people with chronic diseases. Pharmacological, dietetic and natural approaches were suggested after deep bibliographic research for presenting preventive recommendations for this category of patients in order to avoid the fatal complications of this infection, and consequently limiting the risk of comorbidity. In this regard, some medications could enter into interaction with COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes or hypertension and thereafter lead to fatal complications. Furthermore, regarding their nutritional values, some foods are more useful than others during this pandemic period because they are rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and perhaps some bioactive phytochemicals, which are known to be effective in improving immune response, managing chronic diseases and/or having antiviral activities. In addition, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, prebiotics and probiotics could be helpful in these conditions. Interestingly, in order to understand the mechanism of this causality and suggesting efficacious solutions, this review deserves considerable epidemiologic, clinical and experimental investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/therapy , Diet Therapy/methods , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/metabolism , Comorbidity , Diet Therapy/trends , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Mortality/trends , Vitamins/administration & dosage
15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 183: 114302, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893616

ABSTRACT

Baicalein is the main active compound of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal herb with multiple pharmacological activities, including the broad anti-virus effects. In this paper, the preclinical study of baicalein on the treatment of COVID-19 was performed. Results showed that baicalein inhibited cell damage induced by SARS-CoV-2 and improved the morphology of Vero E6 cells at a concentration of 0.1 µM and above. The effective concentration could be reached after oral administration of 200 mg/kg crystal form ß of baicalein in rats. Furthermore, baicalein significantly inhibited the body weight loss, the replication of the virus, and relieved the lesions of lung tissue in hACE2 transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. In LPS-induced acute lung injury of mice, baicalein improved the respiratory function, inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung, and decreased the levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α in serum. In conclusion, oral administration of crystal form ß of baicalein could reach its effective concentration against SARS-CoV-2. Baicalein could inhibit SARS-CoV-2-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, baicalein might be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Flavanones/pharmacokinetics , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 2063-2067, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammation-mediated tissue injury is the major mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Statins have well-established anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and immuno-modulatory effects. They may also influence viral entry into human cells. METHODS: A literature search was done using PubMed and Google search engines to prepare a narrative review on this topic. RESULTS: Statins interact with several different signaling pathways to exert their anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective effects. They also variably affect cholesterol content of cell membranes and interfere with certain coronavirus enzymes involved in receptor-binding. Both these actions may influence SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells. Statins also upregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors on cell surfaces which may promote viral entry into the cells but at the same time, may minimize tissue injury through production of angiotensin [1-7]. The net impact of these different effects on COVID-19 pathogenesis is not clear. However, the retrospective clinical studies have shown that statin use is potentially associated with lower risk of developing severe illness and mortality and a faster time to recovery in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Early observations suggest beneficial effect of statin use on the clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Prospective randomized studies as well as well-designed laboratory studies are required to confirm these observations and to elucidate the mechanisms of such benefits, if proven.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , India/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Retrospective Studies
17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(4): H793-H796, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744896

ABSTRACT

The 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) is a chaperone essential for mitochondrial proteostasis ensuring thus sufficient aerobic energy production. In pathological conditions, HSP60 can be translocated from the mitochondria and excreted from the cell. In turn, the extracellular HSP60 has a strong ability to trigger and enhance inflammatory response with marked proinflammatory cytokine induction, which is mainly mediated by Toll-like receptor binding. Previous studies have found increased circulating levels of HSP60 in hypertensive patients, as well as enhanced HSP60 expression and membrane translocation in the hypertrophic myocardium. These observations are of particular interest, since they could provide a possible pathophysiological explanation of the severe course and worse outcome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in hypertensive patients, repeatedly reported during the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related to hyperinflammatory response and cytokine storm development during the third phase of the disease. In this regard, pharmacological inhibition of HSP60 could attract attention to potentially ameliorate inappropriate inflammatory reaction in severe COVID-19 patients. Among HSP60 antagonizing drugs, mizoribine is the most intriguing, since it is clinically approved and exerts antiviral activity. However, this topic requires to be further scrutinized.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chaperonin 60/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Chaperonin 60/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Ribonucleosides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
19.
Am J Med Sci ; 360(3): 216-221, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457538

ABSTRACT

The potentially lethal infection caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Disease Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a global crisis. Following the initial viral infection is the host inflammatory response that frequently results in excessive secretion of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and TNFα), developing into a self-targeting, toxic "cytokine storm" causing critical pulmonary tissue damage. The need for a therapeutic that is available immediately is growing daily but the de novo development of a vaccine may take years. Therefore, repurposing of approved drugs offers a promising approach to address this urgent need. Inhaled furosemide, a small molecule capable of inhibiting IL-6 and TNFα, may be an agent capable of treating the Coronavirus Disease 2019 cytokine storm in both resource-rich and developing countries. Furosemide is a "repurpose-able" small molecule therapeutics, that is safe, easily synthesized, handled, and stored, and is available in reasonable quantities worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Furosemide/administration & dosage , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Furosemide/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics
20.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104916, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324253

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is an obligatory marker of arterial disease, both stemming from the inflammatory activity of cholesterol itself and from well-established molecular mechanisms. Raised progenitor cell recruitment after major events and clonal hematopoiesis related mechanisms have provided an improved understanding of factors regulating inflammatory phenomena. Trials with inflammation antagonists have led to an extensive evaluation of biomarkers such as the high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), not exerting a causative role, but frequently indicative of the individual cardiovascular (CV) risk. Aim of this review is to provide indication on the anti-inflammatory profile of agents of general use in CV prevention, i.e. affecting lipids, blood pressure, diabetes as well nutraceuticals such as n-3 fatty acids. A crucial issue in the evaluation of the benefit of the anti-inflammatory activity is the frequent discordance between a beneficial activity on a major risk factor and associated changes of hsCRP, as in the case of statins vs PCSK9 antagonists. In hypertension, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors exert an optimal anti-inflammatory activity, vs the case of sartans. The remarkable preventive activity of SLGT-2 inhibitors in heart failure is not associated with a clear anti-inflammatory mechanism. Finally, icosapent ethyl has been shown to reduce the CV risk in hypertriglyceridemia, with a 27 % reduction of hsCRP. The inflammation-based approach to arterial disease has considerably gained from an improved understanding of the clinical diagnostic strategy and from a better knowledge on the mode of action of numerous agents, including nutraceuticals.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation/drug therapy , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dietary Supplements , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Risk Assessment , Signal Transduction
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