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1.
Ann Neurol ; 91(3): 367-379, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe cerebrovascular, neuropathic, and autonomic features of post-acute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 ((COVID-19) PASC). METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated consecutive patients with chronic fatigue, brain fog, and orthostatic intolerance consistent with PASC. Controls included patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and healthy participants. Analyzed data included surveys and autonomic (Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing, sudomotor, and tilt tests), cerebrovascular (cerebral blood flow velocity [CBFv] monitoring in middle cerebral artery), respiratory (capnography monitoring), and neuropathic (skin biopsies for assessment of small fiber neuropathy) testing and inflammatory/autoimmune markers. RESULTS: Nine patients with PASC were evaluated 0.8 ± 0.3 years after a mild COVID-19 infection, and were treated as home observations. Autonomic, pain, brain fog, fatigue, and dyspnea surveys were abnormal in PASC and POTS (n = 10), compared with controls (n = 15). Tilt table test reproduced the majority of PASC symptoms. Orthostatic CBFv declined in PASC (-20.0 ± 13.4%) and POTS (-20.3 ± 15.1%), compared with controls (-3.0 ± 7.5%, p = 0.001) and was independent of end-tidal carbon dioxide in PASC, but caused by hyperventilation in POTS. Reduced orthostatic CBFv in PASC included both subjects without (n = 6) and with (n = 3) orthostatic tachycardia. Dysautonomia was frequent (100% in both PASC and POTS) but was milder in PASC (p = 0.002). PASC and POTS cohorts diverged in frequency of small fiber neuropathy (89% vs 60%) but not in inflammatory markers (67% vs 70%). Supine and orthostatic hypocapnia was observed in PASC. INTERPRETATION: PASC following mild COVID-19 infection is associated with multisystem involvement including: (1) cerebrovascular dysregulation with persistent cerebral arteriolar vasoconstriction; (2) small fiber neuropathy and related dysautonomia; (3) respiratory dysregulation; and (4) chronic inflammation. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:367-379.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fatigue/blood , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orthostatic Intolerance/blood , Orthostatic Intolerance/diagnosis , Orthostatic Intolerance/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 210-216, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625648

ABSTRACT

A proportion of patients surviving acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection develop post-acute COVID syndrome (long COVID (LC)) lasting longer than 12 weeks. Here, we studied individuals with LC compared to age- and gender-matched recovered individuals without LC, unexposed donors and individuals infected with other coronaviruses. Patients with LC had highly activated innate immune cells, lacked naive T and B cells and showed elevated expression of type I IFN (IFN-ß) and type III IFN (IFN-λ1) that remained persistently high at 8 months after infection. Using a log-linear classification model, we defined an optimal set of analytes that had the strongest association with LC among the 28 analytes measured. Combinations of the inflammatory mediators IFN-ß, PTX3, IFN-γ, IFN-λ2/3 and IL-6 associated with LC with 78.5-81.6% accuracy. This work defines immunological parameters associated with LC and suggests future opportunities for prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Time Factors
3.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211059675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582485

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The fully-human monoclonal anti-interleukin (IL)-1ß antibody canakinumab may inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the hyperinflammatory response potentially leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVES: The goal of our retrospective, observational analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous (s.c.) canakinumab in combination with our standard of care (SOC) treatment of selected patients with COVID-19 with respiratory failure and elevated reactive pro-inflammatory markers. METHODS: Eight participants received two doses of s.c. canakinumab 150 mg (or 2 mg/kg for participants weighing ≤40 kg) in addition to SOC. 12 patients received only SOC treatment. RESULTS: Canakinumab treatment reduced the need for mechanical ventilation and reduced proinflammatory markers, resulting in an amelioration of the final outcome, with respect to the control group who received SOC alone. The treatment was safe and well tolerated; no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The use of canakinumab (300 mg, s.c.) in the early stage of COVID-19 with mild-to-moderate respiratory failure was superior to SOC at preventing clinical deterioration and may warrant further investigation as a treatment option for patients with COVID-19 who experience a hyperinflammatory response in the early stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Interleukin-1beta , Respiration, Artificial , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Immunologic/methods , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Selection , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 789735, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581322

ABSTRACT

Background: The host immune response has a prominent role in the progression and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lymphopenia has been described as an important feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection and has been associated with severe disease manifestation. Lymphocyte dysregulation and hyper-inflammation have been shown to be associated with a more severe clinical course; however, a T cell subpopulation whose dysfunction correlate with disease progression has yet to be identify. Methods: We performed an immuno-phenotypic analysis of T cell sub-populations in peripheral blood from patients affected by different severity of COVID-19 (n=60) and undergoing a different clinical evolution. Clinical severity was established based on a modified WHO score considering both ventilation support and respiratory capacity (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). The ability of circulating cells at baseline to predict the probability of clinical aggravation was explored through multivariate regression analyses. Results: The immuno-phenotypic analysis performed by multi-colour flow cytometry confirmed that patients suffering from severe COVID-19 harboured significantly reduced circulating T cell subsets, especially for CD4+ T, Th1, and regulatory T cells. Peripheral T cells also correlated with parameters associated with disease severity, i.e., PaO2/FiO2 ratio and inflammation markers. CD4+ T cell subsets showed an important significant association with clinical evolution, with patients presenting markedly decreased regulatory T cells at baseline having a significantly higher risk of aggravation. Importantly, the combination of gender and regulatory T cells allowed distinguishing between improved and worsened patients with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 82%. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the association between CD4+ T cell dysregulation and COVID-19 severity and progression. Our results support the importance of analysing baseline regulatory T cell levels, since they were revealed able to predict the clinical worsening during hospitalization. Regulatory T cells assessment soon after hospital admission could thus allow a better clinical stratification and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Hospitalization , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Prognosis , Public Health Surveillance , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6782-6796, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the eicosanoid and pro resolutive parameters in SARS COVID-19 patients with the severe acute respiratory syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fourteen male patients with an acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS COVID-19 and four healthy controls were evaluated by measuring the following parameters in plasma: Polyunsaturated fatty acids: EPA, DHA, ARA, and DPA. Specialized Pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) (including monohydroxy-containing precursors 17-HDHA, 18-HEPE, 14-HDHA) resolvins, maresins, protectins, and lipoxins. The eicosanoids group included prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. RESULTS: Plasma from COVID-19 patients presented higher amounts of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic lipid mediators as compared to healthy subjects (65.7 pg/ml vs. 10.2 pg/ml), including thromboxane (2142.6 pg/ml vs. 10.4 pg/ml), and the ratio between total plasma pro-inflammatory mediators versus total SPM's was 13.2 to 0,4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A clear disbalance favoring the pro-inflammatory axis is described, showing the need to perform future clinical interventions in these patients using SPM's or monohydroxylated lipid mediators derivates from fatty acids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eicosanoids/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/blood , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Thromboxanes/blood
6.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1466-1476, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Together with supportive therapies (ventilation in particular), the suppression of the pro-inflammatory state has been a hypothesized target. Pharmacological therapies with corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonists have reduced mortality. The use of extracorporeal cytokine removal, also known as hemoperfusion (HP), could be a promising non-pharmacological approach to decrease the pro-inflammatory state in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE databases in order to summarize the evidence regarding HP therapy in COVID-19. We included original studies and case series enrolling at least five patients. RESULTS: We included 11 articles and describe the characteristics of the populations studied from both clinical and biological perspectives. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally low. Only two studies had a control group, one of which included 101 patients in total. The remaining studies had a range between 10 and 50 patients included. There was large variability in the HP techniques implemented and in clinical and biological outcomes reported. Most studies described decreasing levels of IL-6 after HP treatment. CONCLUSION: Our review does not support strong conclusions regarding the role of HP in COVID-19. Considering the very low level of clinical evidence detected, starting HP therapies in COVID-19 patients does not seem supported outside of clinical trials. Prospective randomized data are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Hemoperfusion , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hemoperfusion/adverse effects , Hemoperfusion/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Respir Med ; 189: 106669, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482946

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cytokine storm is one of the consequences of the severe forms of COVID-19 due to excessive immune response. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of plasmapheresis and its role on the inflammatory cytokines levels in patients suffering from severe COVID-19. METHODS: In plasmapheresis group, 22 severe cases of COVID-19 receiving three cycles of plasmapheresis with time interval of 24-36 h and 22 COVID-19 patients as the control group were enrolled. Clinical history and laboratory parameters as well as IL-1, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokines serum levels in the time points of before and after plasmapheresis were studied. RESULTS: In severe COVID-19 patients, plasmapheresis significantly improved clinical and laboratory parameters such as cough, weakness, fever, blood oxygen saturation and CRP levels. Serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17 in the group of patients receiving plasmapheresis, had a significant decrease following plasmapheresis courses. Although only IL-6 level in the control group had a significant decrease between the days 1-14 of disease. Also, at both time points of before and after plasmapheresis, serum levels of IL-1, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17 were inversely correlated to blood oxygen saturation. CONCLUSION: Based on the obtained results, plasmapheresis therapy in severe forms of COVID-19 can effectively improve the clinical symptoms of the disease and reduce inflammatory markers. Therefore, it is suggested that plasmapheresis can be evaluated in standard treatment protocols for severe forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Plasmapheresis/methods , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-1/blood , Interleukin-17/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Treatment Outcome
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 709759, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450807

ABSTRACT

The clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infection range from asymptomatic to severe disease with life-threatening complications. Understanding the persistence of immune responses in asymptomatic individuals merit special attention because of their importance in controlling the spread of the infections. We here studied the antibody and T cell responses, and a wide range of inflammation markers, in 56 SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive individuals, identified by a population screen after the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These, mostly asymptomatic individuals, were reanalyzed 7-8 months after their infection together with 115 age-matched seronegative controls. We found that 7-8 months after the infection their antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (N) protein declined whereas we found no decrease in the antibodies to Spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) when compared to the findings at seropositivity identification. In contrast to antibodies to N protein, the antibodies to S-RBD correlated with the viral neutralization capacity and with CD4+ T cell responses as measured by antigen-specific upregulation of CD137 and CD69 markers. Unexpectedly we found the asymptomatic antibody-positive individuals to have increased serum levels of S100A12, TGF-alpha, IL18, and OSM, the markers of activated macrophages-monocytes, suggesting long-term persistent inflammatory effect associated with the viral infection in asymptomatic individuals. Our results support the evidence for the long-term persistence of the inflammation process and the need for post-infection clinical monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infected asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-18/blood , Macrophages/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Oncostatin M/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , S100A12 Protein/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/blood
9.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211048026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440891

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly heterogeneous and complex medical disorder; indeed, severe COVID-19 is probably amongst the most complex of medical conditions known to medical science. While enormous strides have been made in understanding the molecular pathways involved in patients infected with coronaviruses an overarching and comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is lacking. Such an understanding is essential in the formulation of effective prophylactic and treatment strategies. Based on clinical, proteomic, and genomic studies as well as autopsy data severe COVID-19 disease can be considered to be the connection of three basic pathologic processes, namely a pulmonary macrophage activation syndrome with uncontrolled inflammation, a complement-mediated endothelialitis together with a procoagulant state with a thrombotic microangiopathy. In addition, platelet activation with the release of serotonin and the activation and degranulation of mast cells contributes to the hyper-inflammatory state. Auto-antibodies have been demonstrated in a large number of hospitalized patients which adds to the end-organ damage and pro-thrombotic state. This paper provides a clinical overview of the major pathogenetic mechanism leading to severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/blood , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/physiopathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/virology , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serotonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/blood , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/immunology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/physiopathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20860-20885, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405570

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to the development of severe Covid-19, prompting us to investigate the serum metabolome of 204 cancer patients enrolled in the ONCOVID trial. We previously described that the immunosuppressive tryptophan/kynurenine metabolite anthranilic acid correlates with poor prognosis in non-cancer patients. In cancer patients, we observed an elevation of anthranilic acid at baseline (without Covid-19 diagnosis) and no further increase with mild or severe Covid-19. We found that, in cancer patients, Covid-19 severity was associated with the depletion of two bacterial metabolites, indole-3-proprionate and 3-phenylproprionate, that both positively correlated with the levels of several inflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, we observed that the levels of acetylated polyamines (in particular N1-acetylspermidine, N1,N8-diacetylspermidine and N1,N12-diacetylspermine), alone or in aggregate, were elevated in severe Covid-19 cancer patients requiring hospitalization as compared to uninfected cancer patients or cancer patients with mild Covid-19. N1-acetylspermidine and N1,N8-diacetylspermidine were also increased in patients exhibiting prolonged viral shedding (>40 days). An abundant literature indicates that such acetylated polyamines increase in the serum from patients with cancer, cardiovascular disease or neurodegeneration, associated with poor prognosis. Our present work supports the contention that acetylated polyamines are associated with severe Covid-19, both in the general population and in patients with malignant disease. Severe Covid-19 is characterized by a specific metabolomic signature suggestive of the overactivation of spermine/spermidine N1-acetyl transferase-1 (SAT1), which catalyzes the first step of polyamine catabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/virology , Polyamines/blood , Acetylation , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Metabolome , Middle Aged , Propionates/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult , ortho-Aminobenzoates/blood
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20906-20914, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common and associated with poor clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Data are lacking whether high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HIVC) could help to ameliorate myocardial injury in the pandemic. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study included consecutive severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury receiving symptomatic supportive treatments alone or together with HIVC. Troponin I and inflammatory markers were collected at admission and day 21 during hospitalization from the electronic medical records. RESULTS: The patients (n = 113) were categorized into the ameliorated cardiac injury (ACI) group (n = 70) and the non-ameliorated cardiac injury (NACI) group (n = 43). Overall, fifty-one (45.1%) patients were administered with HIVC, the percentages of patients with HIVC were higher in the ACI group than those in the NACI group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that HIVC was independently associated with the improvement of myocardial injury. Further analysis showed that inflammatory markers levels significantly decreased at day 21 during hospitalization in patients with HIVC therapy compared to those administered with symptomatic supportive treatments alone. Meanwhile, similar results were also observed regarding changes in inflammatory markers levels from baseline to day 21 during hospitalization in the patients treated with HIVC. CONCLUSIONS: HIVC can ameliorate cardiac injury through alleviating hyperinflammation in severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/drug therapy , Pandemics , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Troponin I/metabolism
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108125, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401542

ABSTRACT

Mucosal barrier alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including COVID-19. In this study we evaluate the association between bacterial translocation markers and systemic inflammation at the earliest time-point after hospitalization and at the last 72 h of hospitalization in survivors and non-survivors COVID-19 patients. Sixty-six SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients and nine non-COVID-19 pneumonia controls were admitted in this study. Blood samples were collected at hospital admission (T1) (Controls and COVID-19 patients) and 0-72 h before hospital discharge (T2, alive or dead) to analyze systemic cytokines and chemokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations and soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels. THP-1 human monocytic cell line was incubated with plasma from survivors and non-survivors COVID-19 patients and their phenotype, activation status, TLR4, and chemokine receptors were analyzed by flow cytometry. COVID-19 patients presented higher IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-ß1, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL4/MIP-1ß, and CCL5/RANTES levels than controls. Moreover, LPS and sCD14 were higher at hospital admission in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Non-survivors COVID-19 patients had increased LPS levels concomitant with higher IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL5/RANTES levels at T2. Increased expression of CD16 and CCR5 were identified in THP-1 cells incubated with the plasma of survivor patients obtained at T2. The incubation of THP-1 with T2 plasma of non-survivors COVID-19 leads to higher TLR4, CCR2, CCR5, CCR7, and CD69 expression. In conclusion, the coexistence of increased microbial translocation and hyperinflammation in patients with severe COVID-19 may lead to higher monocyte activation, which may be associated with worsening outcomes, such as death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/etiology , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Monocytes/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Translocation , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , THP-1 Cells
14.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389719

ABSTRACT

In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fear , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Mortality , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(11): 106063, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364289

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke, a dreaded complication of SARS-CoV2, has been reported in 0.9 to 5% of SARS-CoV2 patients. There are concerns that SARS-CoV2 infection has a significant independent association with acute ischemic stroke, even in the absence of conventional cerebrovascular risk factors. Whether elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers have predictive value in the occurrence of stroke in SARS-CoV2 is poorly understood. AIM: To profile the characteristics of SARS-CoV2 positive patients with ischemic stroke (COVID-Stroke) and to identify the significance of elevated IBMs in the prediction of ischemic COVID-stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical characteristics, stroke risk factors, laboratory parameters- including levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and outcome of SARS-CoV2 patients with stroke (n=60) were collected. SARS-CoV2 RT- PCR positive age, gender, and pulmonary severity matched non-stroke patients were taken as controls (n = 60). Binary multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictors of ischemic COVID-stroke. RESULTS: D-dimer > 441.8 ng/mL, LDH> 395U/L, ESR >19 mm/h and CRP> 0.2 mg/dL were independently found to be very strong predictors of occurrence of ischemic COVID-stroke (p < 0.001 for each). On multivariate analysis, D-dimer > 441.8 ng/mL, ESR > 19 mm/h, and RDW > 16.1% were found to be the most strong predictors of the occurrence of ischemic COVID-stroke. Conventional CVD risk factors- higher age (> 60years), presence of diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were not found to be significant predictors in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In SARS-CoV2 patients, D-dimer elevated beyond 441.8 ng/mL, ESR greater than 19 mm/h, and RDW widened more than 16.1% were the strongest predictors of the occurrence of ischemic stroke. This is the first study that attempts to find cut-off levels of IBMs in the prediction of ischemic COVID-stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Erythrocyte Indices , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5822259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients can present with neurological manifestations in the form of headache, dizziness, hyposmia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and encephalopathy. Neurological involvement could be due to virus-induced brain hypoxia, brain infection, or immune reaction. We aim to describe the neurological presentation of COVID-19 patients and study their neuroimaging findings and disease outcome. METHOD: The study is a single-centre, retrospective, observational study in Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City (SSMC), Abu Dhabi, UAE. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and May 2020 who presented with neuropathological features with or without respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 were enrolled. Electronic records were studied for age, sex, duration of hospitalization, detailed neurological presentation, history or documented concomitant fever and respiratory features of COVID-19, inflammatory markers, neuroimaging, progress, and disease outcome. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients of 10 nationalities presented with neurological manifestations. Mean (range) age was 51.4 (21-86) years. Twenty-four had comorbidities, and 18 had no prior or concomitant respiratory symptoms. Ten patients presented with encephalopathy and exhibited altered behavior/sensorium: 7 presented with myositis, 8 with stroke, and 4 with seizures, and 4 had peripheral and cranial nerve involvement. The mean (average) duration of hospital stay was 11.4 days (1-38) with the longest observed in stroke patients. Fifteen patients (45%) died and 3 (9%) had residual weakness. Serum ferritin, CRP, and procalcitonin were higher in the severe disease group and correlated with risk of death. Twelve of 22 brain images showed abnormalities including haemorrhage, infarcts, small vessel ischemia, and oedema. Risk of death was higher in older age but did not differ based on the underlying neuropathology. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients who present with neurological involvement have a higher risk of mortality which is aggravated by older age and higher inflammatory markers. The type of neurological pathology does not seem to influence the risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Prognosis , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2619-2627, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the sole causative agent of coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective single-center study of consecutively admitted patients between March 1st and May 15th, 2020, with a definitive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary end-point was to evaluate the association of lipid markers with 30-days all-cause mortality in COVID-19. A total of 654 patients were enrolled, with an estimated 30-day mortality of 22.8% (149 patients). Non-survivors had lower total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels during the entire course of the disease. Both showed a significant inverse correlation with inflammatory markers and a positive correlation with lymphocyte count. In a multivariate analysis, LDL-c ≤ 69 mg/dl (hazard ratio [HR] 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.31), C-reactive protein >88 mg/dl (HR 2.44; 95% CI, 1.41-4.23) and lymphopenia <1000 (HR 2.68; 95% CI, 1.91-3.78) at admission were independently associated with 30-day mortality. This association was maintained 7 days after admission. Survivors presented with complete normalization of their lipid profiles on short-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Hypolipidemia in SARS-CoV-2 infection may be secondary to an immune-inflammatory response, with complete recovery in survivors. Low LDL-c serum levels are independently associated with higher 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Dyslipidemias/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Down-Regulation , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/mortality , Dyslipidemias/therapy , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Spain , Time Factors
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021428, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348207

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), yet the etiology is poorly understood. We determined whether dysfunction is global or regional, and whether it is associated with the cytokine milieu, microangiopathy, or severity of shock. Methods and Results We analyzed echocardiographic parameters of myocardial deformation and compared global and segmental left ventricular strain between 43 cases with MIS-C ≤18 years old and 40 controls. Primary outcomes included left ventricular global longitudinal strain, right ventricular free wall strain), and left atrial strain. We evaluated relationships between strain and profiles of 10 proinflammatory cytokines, microangiopathic features (soluble C5b9), and vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Compared with controls, cases with MIS-C had significant impairments in all parameters of systolic and diastolic function. 65% of cases with MIS-C had abnormal left ventricular function (|global longitudinal strain|<17%), although elevations of cytokines were modest. All left ventricular segments were involved, without apical or basal dominance to suggest acute stress cardiomyopathy. Worse global longitudinal strain correlated with higher ratios of interleukin-6 (ρ -0.43) and interleukin-8 (ρ -0.43) to total hypercytokinemia, but not absolute levels of interleukin-6 or interleukin-8, or total hypercytokinemia. Similarly, worse right ventricular free wall strain correlated with higher relative interleukin-8 expression (ρ -0.59). There were no significant associations between function and microangiopathy or vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Conclusions Myocardial function is globally decreased in MIS-C and not explained by acute stress cardiomyopathy. Cardiac dysfunction may be driven by the relative skew of the immune response toward interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 pathways, more so than degree of hyperinflammation, refining the current paradigm of myocardial involvement in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 773, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345547

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and especially of its complications is still not fully understood. In fact, a very high number of patients with COVID-19 die because of thromboembolic causes. A role of plasminogen, as precursor of fibrinolysis, has been hypothesized. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between plasminogen levels and COVID-19-related outcomes in a population of 55 infected Caucasian patients (mean age: 69.8 ± 14.3, 41.8% female). Low levels of plasminogen were significantly associated with inflammatory markers (CRP, PCT, and IL-6), markers of coagulation (D-dimer, INR, and APTT), and markers of organ dysfunctions (high fasting blood glucose and decrease in the glomerular filtration rate). A multidimensional analysis model, including the correlation of the expression of coagulation with inflammatory parameters, indicated that plasminogen tended to cluster together with IL-6, hence suggesting a common pathway of activation during disease's complication. Moreover, low levels of plasminogen strongly correlated with mortality in COVID-19 patients even after multiple adjustments for presence of confounding. These data suggest that plasminogen may play a pivotal role in controlling the complex mechanisms beyond the COVID-19 complications, and may be useful both as biomarker for prognosis and for therapeutic target against this extremely aggressive infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Plasminogen/analysis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 678661, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337638

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, but the mechanisms are unclear. Besides, patients with severe COVID-19 have been reported to have increased levels of several immune mediators. Methods: Ninety-two proteins were quantified in 315 plasma samples from 118 asthmatics, 99 COPD patients and 98 healthy controls (age 40-90 years), who were recruited in Colombia before the COVID-19 pandemic. Protein levels were compared between each disease group and healthy controls. Significant proteins were compared to the gene signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infection reported in the "COVID-19 Drug and Gene Set Library" and with experimentally tested protein biomarkers of severe COVID-19. Results: Forty-one plasma proteins showed differences between patients and controls. Asthmatic patients have increased levels in IL-6 while COPD patients have a broader systemic inflammatory dysregulation driven by HGF, OPG, and several chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CXCL1, MCP-3, MCP-4, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL11). These proteins are involved in chemokine signaling pathways related with response to viral infections and some, were found up-regulated upon SARS-CoV-2 experimental infection of Calu-3 cells as reported in the COVID-19 Related Gene Sets database. An increase of HPG, CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-6, MCP-3, TNF and EN-RAGE has also been experimentally detected in patients with severe COVID-19. Conclusions: COPD patients have altered levels of plasma proteins that have been reported increased in patients with severe COVID-19. Our study suggests that COPD patients have a systemic dysregulation in chemokine networks (including HGF and CXCL9) that could make them more susceptible to severe COVID-19. Also, that IL-6 levels are increased in some asthmatic patients (especially in females) and this may influence their response to COVID-19. The findings in this study depict a novel panel of inflammatory plasma proteins in COPD patients that may potentially associate with increased susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and might be useful as a biomarker signature after future experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Female , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
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