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1.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 93-104, 2021 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947806

ABSTRACT

The aging immune system is characterized by a low-grade chronic systemic inflammatory state ("inflammaging") marked by elevated serum levels of inflammatory molecules such as interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). These inflammatory markers were also reported to be strong predictors for the development/severity of Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and COVID-19. The levels of these markers have been positively associated with those of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) generated via non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids during normal aging and metabolism. Based on the above observations, it is clinically important to elucidate how dietary AGEs modulate inflammation and might thus increase the risk for aging-exacerbated diseases. The present narrative review discusses the potential pro-inflammatory properties of dietary AGEs with a focus on the inflammatory mediators CRP, IL-6 and ferritin, and their relations to aging in general and Type 2 diabetes in particular. In addition, underlying mechanisms - including those related to gut microbiota and the receptors for AGEs, and the roles AGEs might play in affecting physiologies of the healthy elderly, obese individuals, and diabetics are discussed in regard to any greater susceptibility to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aging , Animals , Diet , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Glycation End Products, Advanced/immunology , Homeostasis , Humans , Immunity , Lipid Metabolism
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 837288, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902994

ABSTRACT

Summary: Mild, subacute COVID-19 in young people show inflammatory enhancement, but normal pulmonary function. Inflammatory markers are associated with age and male sex, whereas clinical symptoms are associated with age and female sex, but not with objective disease markers. Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is widespread among adolescents and young adults across the globe. The present study aimed to compare inflammatory markers, pulmonary function and clinical symptoms across non-hospitalized, 12 - 25 years old COVID-19 cases and non-COVID-19 controls, and to investigate associations between inflammatory markers, clinical symptoms, pulmonary function and background variables in the COVID-19 group. Methods: The present paper presents baseline data from an ongoing longitudinal observational cohort study (Long-Term Effects of COVID-19 in Adolescents, LoTECA, ClinicalTrials ID: NCT04686734). A total of 31 plasma cytokines and complement activation products were assayed by multiplex and ELISA methodologies. Pulmonary function and clinical symptoms were investigated by spirometry and questionnaires, respectively. Results: A total of 405 COVID-19 cases and 111 non-COVID-19 controls were included. The COVID-19 group had significantly higher plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, TNF, IP-10, eotaxin, GM-CSF, bFGF, complement TCC and C3bc, and significantly lower levels of IL-13 and MIP-1α, as compared to controls. Spirometry did not detect any significant differences across the groups. IL-4, IL-7, TNF and eotaxin were negatively associated with female sex; eotaxin and IL-4 were positively associated with age. Clinical symptoms were positively associated with female sex and age, but not with objective disease markers. Conclusions: Among non-hospitalized adolescents and young adults with COVID-19 there was significant alterations of plasma inflammatory markers in the subacute stage of the infection. Still, pulmonary function was normal. Clinical symptoms were independent of inflammatory and pulmonary function markers, but positively associated with age and female sex.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , Child , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Respiratory Function Tests , Young Adult
3.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(8): 961-972, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874929

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Autopsy and biomarker studies suggest that endotheliopathy contributes to coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effects of COVID-19 on the lung endothelium are not well defined. We hypothesized that the lung endotheliopathy of COVID-19 is caused by circulating host factors and direct endothelial infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of SARS-CoV-2 or sera from patients with COVID-19 on the permeability and inflammatory activation of lung microvascular endothelial cells. Methods: Human lung microvascular endothelial cells were treated with live SARS-CoV-2; inactivated viral particles; or sera from patients with COVID-19, patients without COVID-19, and healthy volunteers. Permeability was determined by measuring transendothelial resistance to electrical current flow, where decreased resistance signifies increased permeability. Inflammatory mediators were quantified in culture supernatants. Endothelial biomarkers were quantified in patient sera. Measurements and Main Results: Viral PCR confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 enters and replicates in endothelial cells. Live SARS-CoV-2, but not dead virus or spike protein, induces endothelial permeability and secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. There was substantial variability in the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on endothelial cells from different donors. Sera from patients with COVID-19 induced endothelial permeability, which correlated with disease severity. Serum levels of endothelial activation and injury biomarkers were increased in patients with COVID-19 and correlated with severity of illness. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infects and dysregulates endothelial cell functions. Circulating factors in patients with COVID-19 also induce endothelial cell dysfunction. Our data point to roles for both systemic factors acting on lung endothelial cells and viral infection of endothelial cells in COVID-19-associated endotheliopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Biomarkers/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vascular Diseases/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
4.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(11): 725-739, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821594

ABSTRACT

Obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease are risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney failure. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is recognized as a major pathogenic mechanism that underlies the association between CKD and obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and diabetes, through interaction between resident and/or circulating immune cells with parenchymal cells. Thus, considerable interest exists in approaches that target inflammation as a strategy to manage CKD. The initial phase of the inflammatory response to injury or metabolic dysfunction reflects the release of pro-inflammatory mediators including peptides, lipids and cytokines, and the recruitment of leukocytes. In self-limiting inflammation, the evolving inflammatory response is coupled to distinct processes that promote the resolution of inflammation and restore homeostasis. The discovery of endogenously generated lipid mediators - specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids - which promote the resolution of inflammation and attenuate the microvascular and macrovascular complications of obesity and diabetes mellitus highlights novel opportunities for potential therapeutic intervention through the targeting of pro-resolution, rather than anti-inflammatory pathways.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Angiopathies/metabolism , Humans , Obesity/metabolism
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112753, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707727

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a lethal disease caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which continues to be a public health threat. COVID-19 is principally a respiratory disease and is often associated with sputum retention and cytokine storm, for which there are limited therapeutic options. In this regard, we evaluated the use of BromAc®, a combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (NAC). Both drugs present mucolytic effect and have been studied to treat COVID-19. Therefore, we sought to examine the mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® in tracheal aspirate samples from critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. METHOD: Tracheal aspirate samples from COVID-19 patients were collected following next of kin consent and mucolysis, rheometry and cytokine analysis using Luminex kit was performed. RESULTS: BromAc® displayed a robust mucolytic effect in a dose dependent manner on COVID-19 sputum ex vivo. BromAc® showed anti-inflammatory activity, reducing the action of cytokine storm, chemokines including MIP-1alpha, CXCL8, MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IP-10, and regulatory cytokines IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 IL-1Ra and total reduction for IL-9 compared to NAC alone and control. BromAc® acted on IL-6, demonstrating a reduction in G-CSF and VEGF-D at concentrations of 125 and 250 µg. CONCLUSION: These results indicate robust mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® ex vivo in tracheal aspirates from critically ill COVID-19 patients, indicating its potential to be further assessed as pharmacological treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromelains/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokines/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Sputum/cytology , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bromelains/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Down-Regulation , Drug Combinations , Expectorants/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/pathology , Young Adult
6.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674519

ABSTRACT

Cancer cachexia remains a serious public health concern worldwide, particularly as cancer rates rise. Treatment is endangered, and survival is reduced, because this illness is commonly misdiagnosed and undertreated. Although weight loss is the most evident sign of cachexia, there are other early metabolic and inflammatory changes that occur before the most obvious symptoms appear. Cachexia-related inflammation is induced by a combination of factors, one of which is the release of inflammation-promoting chemicals by the tumor. Today, more scientists are beginning to believe that the development of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) related cachexia is similar to cancer-related cachexia. It is worth noting that patients infected with COVID-19 have a significant inflammatory response and can develop cachexia. These correlations provide feasible reasons for the variance in the occurrence and severity of cachexia in human malignancies, therefore, specific therapeutic options for these individuals must be addressed based on disease types. In this review, we highlighted the role of key chemokines, cytokines, and clinical management in relation to cancer cachexia and its long-term impact on COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cachexia/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cachexia/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 785946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674333

ABSTRACT

Although cellular and molecular mediators of the immune system have the potential to be prognostic indicators of disease outcomes, temporal interference between diseases might affect the immune mediators, and make them difficult to predict disease complications. Today one of the most important challenges is predicting the prognosis of COVID-19 in the context of other inflammatory diseases such as traumatic injuries. Many diseases with inflammatory properties are usually polyphasic and the kinetics of inflammatory mediators in various inflammatory diseases might be different. To find the most appropriate evaluation time of immune mediators to accurately predict COVID-19 prognosis in the trauma environment, researchers must investigate and compare cellular and molecular alterations based on their kinetics after the start of COVID-19 symptoms and traumatic injuries. The current review aimed to investigate the similarities and differences of common inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, and serum amyloid A), cytokine/chemokine levels (IFNs, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-4), and immune cell subtypes (neutrophil, monocyte, Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg and CTL) based on the kinetics between patients with COVID-19 and trauma. The mediators may help us to accurately predict the severity of COVID-19 complications and follow up subsequent clinical interventions. These findings could potentially help in a better understanding of COVID-19 and trauma pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Prognosis , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds and Injuries/immunology
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1856, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671631

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is associated with a systemic hyperinflammatory response leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ failure, and death. Galectin-3 is a ß-galactoside binding lectin known to drive neutrophil infiltration and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines contributing to airway inflammation. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential of galectin-3 as a biomarker of severe COVID-19 outcomes. We prospectively included 156 patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19. A severe outcome was defined as the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and/or in-hospital death. A non-severe outcome was defined as discharge without IMV requirement. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine the prognostic ability of serum galectin-3 for a severe outcome. Galectin-3 levels discriminated well between severe and non-severe outcomes and correlated with markers of COVID-19 severity, (CRP, NLR, D-dimer, and neutrophil count). Using a forward-stepwise logistic regression analysis we identified galectin-3 [odds ratio (OR) 3.68 (95% CI 1.47-9.20), p < 0.01] to be an independent predictor of severe outcome. Furthermore, galectin-3 in combination with CRP, albumin and CT pulmonary affection > 50%, had significantly improved ability to predict severe outcomes [AUC 0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.91, p < 0.0001)]. Based on the evidence presented here, we recommend clinicians measure galectin-3 levels upon admission to facilitate allocation of appropriate resources in a timely manner to COVID-19 patients at highest risk of severe outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Galectins/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Infiltration , Patient Acuity , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633064

ABSTRACT

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) belong to the innate and adaptive immune system and are highly sensitive and responsive to changes in their systemic environment. In this study, we focused on the time course of transcriptional changes in freshly isolated human PBMCs 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after onset of stimulation with the active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Taking all four time points together, 662 target genes were identified and segregated either by time of differential gene expression into 179 primary and 483 secondary targets or by driver of expression change into 293 direct and 369 indirect targets. The latter classification revealed that more than 50% of target genes were primarily driven by the cells' response to ex vivo exposure than by the nuclear hormone and largely explained its down-regulatory effect. Functional analysis indicated vitamin D's role in the suppression of the inflammatory and adaptive immune response by down-regulating ten major histocompatibility complex class II genes, five alarmins of the S100 calcium binding protein A family and by affecting six chemokines of the C-X-C motif ligand family. Taken together, studying time-resolved responses allows to better contextualize the effects of vitamin D on the immune system.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Transcriptome , Vitamin D/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/pharmacology
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 45, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625575

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus that has rapidly spread, causing a global pandemic. In the majority of infected patients, SARS-CoV-2 leads to mild disease; however, in a significant proportion of infections, individuals develop severe symptoms that can lead to long-lasting lung damage or death. These severe cases are often associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low antiviral responses, which can cause systemic complications. Here, we have evaluated transcriptional and cytokine secretion profiles and detected a distinct upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in infected cell cultures and samples taken from infected patients. Building on these observations, we found a specific activation of NF-κB and a block of IRF3 nuclear translocation in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. This NF-κB response was mediated by cGAS-STING activation and could be attenuated through several STING-targeting drugs. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 directs a cGAS-STING mediated, NF-κB-driven inflammatory immune response in human epithelial cells that likely contributes to inflammatory responses seen in patients and could be therapeutically targeted to suppress severe disease symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction
11.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 159: 106619, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616705

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is an essential protective response against harmful stimuli, such as invading pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Physiological inflammation eliminates pathogens and promotes tissue repair and healing. Effective immune response in humans depends on a tightly regulated balance among inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms involving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Excessive inflammation can become pathological and induce detrimental effects. If this process is not self-limited, an inappropriate remodeling of the tissues and organs can occur and lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases. A wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious agents may activate the inflammation, via the release of mediators and cytokines by distinct subtypes of lymphocytes and macrophages. Several molecular mechanisms regulate the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. All these steps, even the termination of this process, are active and not passive events. In particular, a complex interplay exists between mediators (belonging to the group of Eicosanoids), which induce the beginning of inflammation, such as Prostaglandins (PGE2), Leukotrienes (LT), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and molecules which display a key role in counteracting this process and in promoting its proper resolution. The latter group of mediators includes: ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA)-derived metabolites, such as Lipoxins (LXs), ω -3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived mediators, such as E-series Resolvins (RvEs), and ω -3 docosahexaenoic (DHA)-derived mediators, such as D-series Resolvins (RvDs), Protectins (PDs) and Maresins (MaRs). Overall, these mediators are defined as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Reduced synthesis of these molecules may lead to uncontrolled inflammation with possible harmful effects. ω-3 fatty acids are widely used in clinical practice as rather inexpensive, safe, readily available supplemental therapy. Taking advantage of this evidence, several researchers are suggesting that SPMs may have beneficial effects in the complementary treatment of patients with severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 related infection, to counteract the "cytokine storm" observed in these individuals. Well-designed and sized trials in patients suffering from COVID-19 with different degrees of severity are needed to investigate the real impact in the clinical practice of this promising therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Docosahexaenoic Acids/metabolism , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Micronutrients , Vitamins
12.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613925

ABSTRACT

Despite the ongoing vaccination efforts, there is still an urgent need for safe and effective treatments to help curb the debilitating effects of COVID-19 disease. This systematic review aimed to investigate the efficacy of supplemental curcumin treatment on clinical outcomes and inflammation-related biomarker profiles in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, ProQuest, and Ovid databases up to 30 June 2021 to find studies that assessed the effects of curcumin-related compounds in mild to severe COVID-19 patients. Six studies were identified which showed that curcumin supplementation led to a significant decrease in common symptoms, duration of hospitalization and deaths. In addition, all of these studies showed that the intervention led to amelioration of cytokine storm effects thought to be a driving force in severe COVID-19 cases. This was seen as a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in proinflammatory cytokines such as IL1ß and IL6, with a concomitant significant (p < 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-35 and TGF-α. Taken together, these findings suggested that curcumin exerts its beneficial effects through at least partial restoration of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance. In conclusion, curcumin supplementation may offer an efficacious and safe option for improving COVID-19 disease outcomes. We highlight the point that future clinical studies of COVID-19 disease should employ larger cohorts of patients in different clinical settings with standardized preparations of curcumin-related compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Hospitalization , Phytotherapy/methods , Curcumin/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukins/metabolism , Male , Patient Acuity , Transforming Growth Factor alpha/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
13.
Anaesthesia ; 77 Suppl 1: 49-58, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612834

ABSTRACT

Delirium is a common condition affecting hospital inpatients, including those having surgery and on the intensive care unit. Delirium is also common in patients with COVID-19 in hospital settings, and the occurrence is higher than expected for similar infections. The short-term outcomes of those with COVID-19 delirium are similar to that of classical delirium and include increased length of stay and increased mortality. Management of delirium in COVID-19 in the context of a global pandemic is limited by the severity of the syndrome and compounded by the environmental constraints. Practical management includes effective screening, early identification and appropriate treatment aimed at minimising complications and timely escalation decisions. The pandemic has played out on the national stage and the effect of delirium on patients, relatives and healthcare workers remains unknown but evidence from the previous SARS outbreak suggests there may be long-lasting psychological damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/metabolism , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intensive Care Units/trends
14.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 2, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental illnesses in the U.S. and are estimated to consume one-third of the country's mental health treatment cost. Although anxiolytic therapies are available, many patients still exhibit treatment resistance, relapse, or substantial side effects. Further, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home order, social isolation, fear of the pandemic, and unprecedented times, the incidence of anxiety has dramatically increased. Previously, we have demonstrated dihydromyricetin (DHM), the major bioactive flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, exhibits anxiolytic properties in a mouse model of social isolation-induced anxiety. Because GABAergic transmission modulates the immune system in addition to the inhibitory signal transmission, we investigated the effects of short-term social isolation on the neuroimmune system. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were housed under absolute social isolation for 4 weeks. The anxiety-like behaviors after DHM treatment were examined using elevated plus-maze and open field behavioral tests. Gephyrin protein expression, microglial profile changes, NF-κB pathway activation, cytokine level, and serum corticosterone were measured. RESULTS: Socially isolated mice showed increased anxiety levels, reduced exploratory behaviors, and reduced gephyrin levels. Also, a dynamic alteration in hippocampal microglia were detected illustrated as a decline in microglia number and overactivation as determined by significant morphological changes including decreases in lacunarity, perimeter, and cell size and increase in cell density. Moreover, social isolation induced an increase in serum corticosterone level and activation in NF-κB pathway. Notably, DHM treatment counteracted these changes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that social isolation contributes to neuroinflammation, while DHM has the ability to improve neuroinflammation induced by anxiety.


Subject(s)
Flavonols/pharmacology , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Microglia/metabolism , Social Isolation/psychology , Animals , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , Flavonols/therapeutic use , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/physiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 789735, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581322

ABSTRACT

Background: The host immune response has a prominent role in the progression and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lymphopenia has been described as an important feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection and has been associated with severe disease manifestation. Lymphocyte dysregulation and hyper-inflammation have been shown to be associated with a more severe clinical course; however, a T cell subpopulation whose dysfunction correlate with disease progression has yet to be identify. Methods: We performed an immuno-phenotypic analysis of T cell sub-populations in peripheral blood from patients affected by different severity of COVID-19 (n=60) and undergoing a different clinical evolution. Clinical severity was established based on a modified WHO score considering both ventilation support and respiratory capacity (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). The ability of circulating cells at baseline to predict the probability of clinical aggravation was explored through multivariate regression analyses. Results: The immuno-phenotypic analysis performed by multi-colour flow cytometry confirmed that patients suffering from severe COVID-19 harboured significantly reduced circulating T cell subsets, especially for CD4+ T, Th1, and regulatory T cells. Peripheral T cells also correlated with parameters associated with disease severity, i.e., PaO2/FiO2 ratio and inflammation markers. CD4+ T cell subsets showed an important significant association with clinical evolution, with patients presenting markedly decreased regulatory T cells at baseline having a significantly higher risk of aggravation. Importantly, the combination of gender and regulatory T cells allowed distinguishing between improved and worsened patients with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 82%. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the association between CD4+ T cell dysregulation and COVID-19 severity and progression. Our results support the importance of analysing baseline regulatory T cell levels, since they were revealed able to predict the clinical worsening during hospitalization. Regulatory T cells assessment soon after hospital admission could thus allow a better clinical stratification and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Hospitalization , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Prognosis , Public Health Surveillance , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism
17.
Gastroenterology ; 160(3): 925-928.e4, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575253
18.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(6): R833-R843, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541942

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a membrane-bound protein containing 805 amino acids. ACE2 shows approximately 42% sequence similarity to somatic ACE but has different biochemical activities. The key role of ACE2 is to catalyze the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin (ANG) II to Ang-(1-7), thus regulating the two major counterbalancing pathways of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this way, ACE2 plays a protective role in end-organ damage by protecting tissues from the proinflammatory actions of ANG II. The circulating RAS is activated in normal pregnancy and is essential for maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure. Renin-angiotensin systems are also found in the conceptus. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation and function of circulating and uteroplacental ACE2 in uncomplicated and complicated pregnancies, including those affected by preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Since ACE2 is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and COVID-19 in pregnancy is associated with more severe disease and increased risk of abnormal pregnancy outcomes, we also discuss the role of ACE2 in mediating some of these adverse consequences. We propose that dysregulation of ACE2 plays a critical role in the development of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and COVID-19-associated pregnancy pathologies and suggest that human recombinant soluble ACE2 could be a novel therapeutic to treat and/or prevent these pregnancy complications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Placenta/enzymology , Pregnancy Complications/enzymology , Renin-Angiotensin System , Uterus/enzymology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/therapeutic use , Animals , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fetal Growth Retardation/enzymology , Fetal Growth Retardation/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Placenta/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia/enzymology , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/enzymology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterus/physiopathology , Water-Electrolyte Balance
19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 195: 114847, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520714

ABSTRACT

The host response to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is highly heterogeneous, ranging from mild/asymptomatic to severe. The moderate to severe forms of COVID-19 often require hospitalization, are associated with a high rate of mortality, and appear to be caused by an inappropriately exaggerated inflammatory response to the virus. Emerging data confirm the involvement of both innate and adaptive immune pathways both in protection from SARS-CoV-2, and in driving the pathology of severe COVID-19. In particular, innate immune cells including neutrophils appear to be key players in the inflammation that causes the vicious cycle of damage and inflammation that underlies the symptomatology of severe COVID-19. Several recent studies support a link between damage and inflammation, with damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) playing a key role in the pathology of severe COVID-19. In this review, we put into perspective the role of DAMPs and of components of the DAMP-signaling cascade, including Siglecs and their cognate ligands CD24 and CD52, in COVID-19. Further, we review clinical data on proposed therapeutics targeting DAMP pathways to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection and the regulation of these signaling cascades in COVID-19. We also discuss the potential impact of DAMP-mediated inflammation in other indications related to COVID-19, such as ARDS, endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulation, and sepsis.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/pathology
20.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 672-682, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493295

ABSTRACT

While the use of vitamin C as a therapeutic agent has been investigated since the 1950s, there has been substantial recent interest in the role of vitamin C supplementation in critical illness and particularly, sepsis and septic shock. Humans cannot synthesize vitamin C and rely on exogenous intake to maintain a plasma concentration of approximately 70 to 80 µmol/L. Vitamin C, in healthy humans, is involved with antioxidant function, wound healing, endothelial function, and catecholamine synthesis. Its function in the human body informs the theoretical basis for why vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial in sepsis/septic shock.Critically ill patients can be vitamin C deficient due to low dietary intake, increased metabolic demands, inefficient recycling of vitamin C metabolites, and loss due to renal replacement therapy. Intravenous supplementation is required to achieve supraphysiologic serum levels of vitamin C. While some clinical studies of intravenous vitamin C supplementation in sepsis have shown improvements in secondary outcome measures, none of the randomized clinical trials have shown differences between vitamin C supplementation and standard of care and/or placebo in the primary outcome measures of the trials. There are some ongoing studies of high-dose vitamin C administration in patients with sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019; the majority of evidence so far does not support the routine supplementation of vitamin C in patients with sepsis or septic shock.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/physiopathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/adverse effects
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