Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 164
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781100, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686474

ABSTRACT

Multiple studies have investigated the role of blood circulating proteins in COVID-19 disease using the Olink affinity proteomics platform. However, study inclusion criteria and sample collection conditions varied between studies, leading to sometimes incongruent associations. To identify the most robust protein markers of the disease and the underlying pathways that are relevant under all conditions, it is essential to identify proteins that replicate most widely. Here we combined the Olink proteomics profiles of two newly recruited COVID-19 studies (N=68 and N=98) with those of three previously published COVID-19 studies (N=383, N=83, N=57). For these studies, three Olink panels (Inflammation and Cardiovascular II & III) with 253 unique proteins were compared. Case/control analysis revealed thirteen proteins (CCL16, CCL7, CXCL10, CCL8, LGALS9, CXCL11, IL1RN, CCL2, CD274, IL6, IL18, MERTK, IFNγ, and IL18R1) that were differentially expressed in COVID-19 patients in all five studies. Except CCL16, which was higher in controls, all proteins were overexpressed in COVID-19 patients. Pathway analysis revealed concordant trends across all studies with pathways related to cytokine-cytokine interaction, IL18 signaling, fluid shear stress and rheumatoid arthritis. Our results reaffirm previous findings related to a COVID-19 cytokine storm syndrome. Cross-study robustness of COVID-19 specific protein expression profiles support the utility of affinity proteomics as a tool and for the identification of potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Transcriptome/genetics , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction
2.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685790

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, causes mild to moderate disease in most patients but carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Seriously affected individuals manifest disorders of hemostasis and a cytokine storm, but it is not understood how these manifestations of severe COVID-19 are linked. Here, we showed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein engaged the CD42b receptor to activate platelets via 2 distinct signaling pathways and promoted platelet-monocyte communication through the engagement of P selectin/PGSL-1 and CD40L/CD40, which led to proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytes. These results explain why hypercoagulation, monocyte activation, and a cytokine storm are correlated in patients severely affected by COVID-19 and suggest a potential target for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , CD40 Antigens/blood , CD40 Ligand/blood , Cell Communication , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , HEK293 Cells , Humans , P-Selectin/blood
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 104: 108502, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the abnormal induction of cytokines and a dysregulated hyperinflammatory state that is implicated in disease severity and risk of death. There are several molecules present in blood associated with immune cellular response, inflammation, and oxidative stress that could be used as severity markers in respiratory viral infections such as COVID-19. However, there is a lack of clinical studies evaluating the role of oxidative stress-related molecules including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in COVID-19 pathogenesis. AIM: To evaluate the role of oxidative stress-related molecules in COVID-19. METHOD: An observational study with 93 Brazilian participants from September 2020 to April 2021, comprising 23 patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), 19 outpatients with COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms, 17 individuals reporting a COVID-19 history, and 34 healthy controls. Blood samples were taken from all participants and western blot assay was used to determine the RAGE, HMGB1, GFAP, and COX-2 immunocontent. RESULTS: We found that GFAP levels were higher in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 compared to outpatients (p = 0.030) and controls (p < 0.001). A significant increase in immunocontents of RAGE (p < 0.001) and HMGB1 (p < 0.001) were also found among patients admitted to the ICU compared to healthy controls, as well as an overexpression of the inducible COX-2 (p < 0.001). In addition, we found a moderate to strong correlation between RAGE, GFAP and HMGB1 proteins. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the upregulation of GFAP, RAGE, HMGB1, and COX-2 in patients with the most severe forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cyclooxygenase 2/blood , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/blood , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/blood , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/blood , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
4.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 27(1): 6, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622208

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with a high mortality rate. The majority of deaths in this disease are caused by ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) followed by cytokine storm and coagulation complications. Although alterations in the level of the number of coagulation factors have been detected in samples from COVID-19 patients, the direct molecular mechanism which has been involved in this pathologic process has not been explored yet. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is an intracellular pathway which plays a central role in cell survival. Also, in recent years the association between this pathway and coagulopathies has been well clarified. Therefore, based on the evidence on over-activity of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the current review, the probable role of this cellular pathway as a therapeutic target for the prevention of coagulation complications in patients with COVID-19 is discussed.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Virol J ; 18(1): 211, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causing agent of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by a huge pro-inflammatory response and coagulation disorders that may lead to for its severe forms, in organ failure or even death. As major players of thrombo-inflammation, platelets release large amounts of immunomodulatory molecules and regulate leukocyte and endothelial activity, which are both altered in COVID-19. Altogether, this makes platelets a very likely actor of the thrombo-inflammatory complications of COVID-19. Thus, we propose to identify a platelet inflammatory signature of severe COVID-19 specifically modulated throughout the course of the disease. METHODS: Luminex technology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess plasma levels of platelet inflammatory markers in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection on admission and for 14 days afterwards. RESULTS: In accordance with the observations of other teams, we evidence that the plasma levels of the platelet soluble (s)CD40L is significantly elevated in the early stages of the disease. Interestingly we observe that the plasma level of sCD40L decreases overtime while that of sCD62P increases significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that there is a platelet signature of inflammatory response to SARS-COv-2 infection which varies overtime and could serve as monitoring biomarkers of patient inflammatory state. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 2020-A01100-39; title: Human Ab Response & immunoMONItoring of COVID-19 Patients, registration date: 05/25/2020; URL of the registry: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/history/NCT04373200?V_5=View .


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19 , Inflammation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 779453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566650

ABSTRACT

Introduction of vaccines against COVID-19 has provided the most promising chance to control the world-wide COVID-19 pandemic. However, the adenovirus-vector based Oxford/AstraZeneca [ChAdOx1] (AZ) and Johnson & Johnson [Ad26.CoV2.S] COVID-19 vaccines have been linked with serious thromboembolic events combined with thrombocytopenia, denominated Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT). The pathogenesis of COVID-19 VITT remain incompletely understood; especially the initial events that trigger platelet activation, platelet factor (PF)4 release, complex formation and PF4 antibody production are puzzling. This is a prospective study investigating the impact of different COVID-19 vaccines on inflammation (CRP, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), vascular endothelial activation (syndecan-1, thrombomodulin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, ICAM-3, VCAM-1), platelet activation (P-selectin, TGF-ß, sCD40L) and aggregation (Multiplate® impedance aggregometry), whole blood coagulation (ROTEM®), thrombin generation and PF4 antibodies to reveal potential differences between AZ and mRNA vaccines in individuals without VITT. The study included 80 (55 AZ and 55 mRNA) vaccinated individuals and 55 non-vaccinated age- and gender matched healthy controls. The main findings where that both vaccines enhanced inflammation and platelet activation, though AZ vaccination induced a more pronounced increase in several inflammatory and platelet activation markers compared to mRNA vaccination and that post-vaccination thrombin generation was higher following AZ vaccination compared to mRNA vaccination. No difference in neither the PF4 antibody level nor the proportion of individuals with positive PF4 antibodies were observed between the vaccine groups. This is the first study to report enhanced inflammation, platelet activation and thrombin generation following AZ vaccination compared to mRNA vaccination in a head-to-head comparison. We speculate that specific components of the AZ adenovirus vector may serve as initial trigger(s) of (hyper)inflammation, platelet activation and thrombin generation, potentially lowering the threshold for a cascade of events that both trigger complications related to excessive inflammation, platelet and coagulation activation as observed in epidemiological studies and promote development of VITT when combined with high-titer functionally active PF4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Inflammation/blood , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Blood Coagulation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombelastography , Thrombin/metabolism , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis
8.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(1): e24162, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555764

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Most patients infected with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), as the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, show mild symptoms, but some of them develop severe illness. The purpose of this study was to analyze the blood markers of COVID-19 patients and to investigate the correlation between serum inflammatory cytokines and the disease severity. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 50 patients with COVID-19 and 20 patients without COVID-19 were enrolled. According to ICU admission criteria, patients were divided into two groups of non-severe and severe. Differences in the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lymphocytes (LYM) count, and neutrophils (NEU) count between the two groups were determined and analyzed. RESULTS: Out of the 50 patients with COVID-19, 14 were diagnosed as severe cases. There was no significant difference between the two groups of COVID-19 patients in terms of gender and age. Blood tests of COVID-19 patients showed a significant decrease and increase in NEU and LYM counts, respectively. There were significant differences in the serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP between the severe and non-severe groups, which were higher in the severe group. Also, there was a significant correlation between the disease severity and CRP with ESR (r = 0.79), CRP with IL-6 (r = 0.74), LYM with NEU (r = -0.97), and ESR with TNF-α (r = 0.7). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study, as the first study in Iran, suggest that the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, ESR, and CRP could be used to predict the severity of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/blood , Adult , Aged , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Young Adult
9.
Ann Hematol ; 101(3): 513-520, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549412

ABSTRACT

Hyperferritinemia comes to light frequently in general practice. However, the characteristics of COVID-19-associated hyperferritinemia and the relationship with the prognosis were not well described. The retrospective study included 268 documented COVID-19 patients. They were divided into the hyperferritinemia group (≥ 500 µg/L) and the non-hyperferritinemia group (< 500 µg/L). The prevalence of fever and thrombocytopenia and the proportion of patients with mechanical ventilator support and in-hospital death were much higher in the hyperferritinemia group (P < 0.001). The hyperferritinemia patients showed higher median IL-6, D-dimer, and hsCRP (P < 0.001) and lowered FIB level (P = 0.036). The hyperferritinemia group had a higher proportion of patients with AKI, ARDS, and CSAC (P < 0.001). According to the multivariate analysis, age, chronic pulmonary disease, and hyperferritinemia were found to be significant independent predictors for in-hospital mortality [HR 1.041 (95% CI 1.015-1.068), P = 0.002; HR 0.427 (95% CI 0.206-0.882), P = 0.022; HR 6.176 (95% CI 2.447-15.587), P < 0.001, respectively]. The AUROC curve was 0.88, with a cut-off value of ≥ 971 µg/L. COVID-19 patients with hyperferritinemia had a high proportion of organ dysfunction, were more likely to show hyper-inflammation, progressed to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and indicated a higher proportion of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperferritinemia/blood , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperferritinemia/etiology , Hyperferritinemia/immunology , Hyperferritinemia/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546957

ABSTRACT

Several reports highlighted the central role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) disease. Also, the hyper-inflammatory response that is triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrom-Covid-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was believed to play an essential role in disease severity and adverse clinical course. For that reason, the classical inflammatory markers were proposed as a possible indicator for COVID-19 severity. However, an extensive analysis of the predictive value of inflammatory biomarkers in large patients' cohorts is still limited and critically needed. In this study we investigated the predictive value of the classical inflammatory biomarkers in a patient cohort consists of 541 COVID-19 patients admitted to Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE. A detailed analysis of the association between the essential inflammatory markers and clinical characteristics as well as clinical outcome of the patients were made. In addition, the correlation between those markers and a wide range of laboratory biomarkers and incidence of acute organs injury were investigated. Our results showed a significant elevation of many inflammatory markers including white cell count (WBC) count, neutrophils count, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimer, ferritin, procalcitonin (PCT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with more severe illness. Also, our results highlighted that higher levels of those markers can predict worse patient outcome including the need of ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, multiple organs dysfunction as well as death. In addition, Our results showed that the presence of lymphopenia and lower absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at the time of admission were associated with severe to critical COVID-19 illness (P<0.0001), presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P<0.0001) and the need for ventilation and ICU admission., Moreover, our results showed a strong association between lower ALC count and multiple organs dysfunction and patient's death (P<0.0001). In conclusion, our results highlighted the possible use of classical inflammatory biomarkers at time of admission as a potential predictive marker for more severe clinical course in COVID-19 patients that might need more aggressive therapeutic approach including the need of ventilators and ICU admission. The presence of such predictive markers might improve patient's stratification and help in the direction of the available resources to patients in need, which in turn help in improving our response to the disease pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Calcitonin/blood , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Patient Acuity , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
11.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542798

ABSTRACT

Overactivation of the complement system has been characterized in severe COVID-19 cases. Complement components are known to trigger NETosis via the coagulation cascade and have also been reported in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In this longitudinal study, we investigated systemic and local complement activation and NETosis in COVID-19 patients that underwent mechanical ventilation. Results confirmed significantly higher baseline levels of serum C5a (24.5 ± 39.0 ng/mL) and TCC (11.03 ± 8.52 µg/mL) in patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, systemic NETosis was significantly augmented in patients (5.87 (±3.71) × 106 neutrophils/mL) compared to healthy controls (0.82 (±0.74) × 106 neutrophils/mL) (p < 0.0001). In tracheal fluid, baseline TCC levels but not C5a and NETosis, were significantly higher in patients. Kinetic studies of systemic complement activation revealed markedly higher levels of TCC and CRP in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. In contrast, kinetic studies showed decreased local NETosis in tracheal fluid but comparable local complement activation in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. Systemic TCC and NETosis were significantly correlated with inflammation and coagulation markers. We propose that a ratio comprising systemic inflammation, complement activation, and chest X-ray score could be rendered as a predictive parameter of patient outcome in severe SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Complement C5a , Cytokines/blood , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Viral Load
12.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 277, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, all organs can be affected including the brain. To date, specific investigations of brain injury markers (BIM) and endothelial injury markers (EIM) have been limited. Additionally, a male bias in disease severity and mortality after COVID-19 is evident globally. Sex differences in the immune response to COVID-19 may mediate this disparity. We investigated BIM, EIM and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine (CC) levels after COVID-19 and in across sexes. METHODS: Plasma samples from 57 subjects at < 48 h of COVID-19 hospitalization, and 20 matched controls were interrogated for the levels of six BIMs-including GFAP, S100B, Syndecan-1, UCHLI, MAP2 and NSE, two EIMs-including sICAM1 and sVCAM1. Additionally, several cytokines/chemokines were analyzed by multiplex. Statistical and bioinformatics methods were used to measure differences in the marker profiles across (a) COVID-19 vs. controls and (b) men vs. women. RESULTS: Three BIMs: MAP2, NSE and S100B, two EIMs: sICAM1 and sVCAM1 and seven CCs: GRO IL10, sCD40L, IP10, IL1Ra, MCP1 and TNFα were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the COVID-19 cohort compared to controls. Bioinformatics analysis reveal a stronger positive association between BIM/CC/EIMs in the COVID-19 cohort. Analysis across sex revealed that several BIMs and CCs including NSE, IL10, IL15 and IL8 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in men compared to women. Men also expressed a more robust BIM/ EIM/CC association profile compared to women. CONCLUSION: The acute elevation of BIMs, CCs, and EIMs and the robust associations among them at COVID-19 hospitalization are suggestive of brain and endothelial injury. Higher BIM and inflammatory markers in men additionally suggest that men are more susceptible to the risk compared to women.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/complications , Brain Injuries/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/blood , Endothelium/pathology , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Brain Injuries/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
13.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0075221, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526451

ABSTRACT

During the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), immune response and inflammation reactions are dynamic events that develop rapidly and are associated with the severity of disease. Here, we aimed to develop a predictive model based on the immune and inflammatory response to discriminate patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and their demographic and immune inflammatory reaction indicators were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors, which were further used to construct a predictive model. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve, and optimal diagnostic threshold was calculated; these were further validated by 5-fold cross-validation and external validation. We screened three key indicators, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and IgA, for predicting severe COVID-19 and obtained a combined neutrophil, eosinophil, and IgA ratio (NEAR) model (NEU [109/liter] - 150×EOS [109/liter] + 3×IgA [g/liter]). NEAR achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.961, and when a threshold of 9 was applied, the sensitivity and specificity of the predicting model were 100% and 88.89%, respectively. Thus, NEAR is an effective index for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and can be used as a powerful tool for clinicians to make better clinical decisions. IMPORTANCE The immune inflammatory response changes rapidly with the progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is responsible for clearance of the virus and further recovery from the infection. However, the intensified immune and inflammatory response in the development of the disease may lead to more serious and fatal consequences, which indicates that immune indicators have the potential to predict serious cases. Here, we identified both eosinophils and serum IgA as prognostic markers of COVID-19, which sheds light on new research directions and is worthy of further research in the scientific research field as well as clinical application. In this study, the combination of NEU count, EOS count, and IgA level was included in a new predictive model of the severity of COVID-19, which can be used as a powerful tool for better clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Decision Rules , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 169: 105689, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525917

ABSTRACT

Genome wide association, epidemiological, and clinical studies have established high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Lp(a) is an apoB100 containing lipoprotein covalently bound to apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], a glycoprotein. Plasma Lp(a) levels are to a large extent determined by genetics. Its link to cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be driven by its pro-inflammatory effects, of which its association with oxidized phospholipids (oxPL) bound to Lp(a) is the most studied. Various inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and chronic renal failure are associated with high Lp(a) levels. In cases of RA, high Lp(a) levels are reversed by interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) blockade by tocilizumab, suggesting a potential role for IL-6 in regulating Lp(a) plasma levels. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-6R polymorphisms are associated with CVD. Therapies aimed at lowering apo(a) and thereby reducing plasma Lp(a) levels are in clinical trials. Their results will determine if reductions in apo(a) and Lp(a) decrease cardiovascular outcomes. As we enter this new arena of available treatments, there is a need to improve our understanding of mechanisms. This review will focus on the role of Lp(a) in inflammation and CVD.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Lipoprotein(a)/metabolism , Lipoprotein(a)/physiology
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518484

ABSTRACT

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A systemic hyper-inflammation characterizes severe COVID-19 disease, often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Blood biomarkers capable of risk stratification are of great importance in effective triage and critical care of severe COVID-19 patients. Flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing were done on peripheral blood cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and cytokines were measured from and mass spectrometry-based proteomics was done on plasma samples from an Indian cohort of COVID-19 patients. Publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed for validation of primary data. Statistical analyses were performed to validate risk stratification. We report here higher plasma abundance of suPAR, expressed by an abnormally expanded myeloid cell population, in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The plasma suPAR level was found to be linked to a characteristic plasma proteome, associated with coagulation disorders and complement activation. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis to predict mortality identified a cutoff value of suPAR at 1,996.809 pg/ml (odds ratio: 2.9286, 95% confidence interval 1.0427-8.2257). Lower-than-cutoff suPAR levels were associated with a differential expression of the immune transcriptome as well as favorable clinical outcomes, in terms of both survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.3615, 95% confidence interval 0.1433-0.912) and faster disease remission in our patient cohort. Thus, we identified suPAR as a key pathogenic circulating molecule linking systemic hyperinflammation to the hypercoagulable state and stratifying clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(3): 639-648, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Objective of this study was to assess the association between testosterone (T) levels and biochemical markers in a cohort of female patients admitted for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). METHODS: A consecutive series of 17 women affected by SARSCoV-2 pneumonia and recovered in the RICU of the Hospital of Mantua were analyzed. Biochemical inflammatory markers as well as total testosterone (TT), calculated free T (cFT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined. RESULTS: TT and cFT were significantly and positively associated with PCT, CRP, and fibrinogen as well as with a worse hospital course. We did not observe any significant association between TT and cFT with LH; conversely, both TT and cFT showed a positive correlation with cortisol. By LOWESS analysis, a linear relationship could be assumed for CRP and fibrinogen, while a threshold effect was apparent in the relationship between TT and procalcitonin, LDH and ferritin. When the TT threshold value of 1 nmol/L was used, significant associations between TT and PCT, LDH or ferritin were observed for values above this value. For LDH and ferritin, this was confirmed also in an age-adjusted model. Similar results were found for the association of cFT with the inflammatory markers with a threshold effect towards LDH and ferritin with increased LDH and ferritin levels for values above cFT 5 pmol/L. Cortisol is associated with serum inflammatory markers with similar trends observed for TT; conversely, the relationship between LH and inflammatory markers had different trends. CONCLUSION: Opposite to men, in women with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, higher TT and cFT are associated with a stronger inflammatory status, probably related to adrenal cortex hyperactivity.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258963, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) provokes early injury response, represented in part by dynamic changes in the inflammatory markers. The association of self-expanding valves (SEVs) and balloon-expandable valves (BEVs) with the consequent inflammatory response remains uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI: SEVs or BEVs, from January 2010 to December 2019 were enrolled. Whole white blood cells (WBC) and subpopulation dynamics as well the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated. RESULTS: Three-hundred seventy consecutive patients (mean age 81.75 ± 6.8 years, 199 women's) were enrolled. In the entire population, significant kinetic changes in the WBC response (p <0.0001) between admission and first 24 hours post procedure, with a significant increase in total WBC (7.46 ± 2.26 to 10.08 ± 3.55) and absolute neutrophil count (4.97 ± 2.06 to 8.19 ± 3.43), NL ratio (3.72 ± 2.8 to 9.76 ± 7.29), and a meaningful decrease in absolute lymphocytes count (1.67 ± 1.1 to 1.1 ± 0.76). When compared between the types of valves, SEVs were associated with a more pronounced inflammatory response than BEVs, with total WBC (10.44 ± 3.86 vs. 9.45 ± 3.19) neutrophils (8.56 ± 3.75 vs. 7.55 ± 3.06) with p 0.016 and 0.012 respectively. CONCLUSION: This is the first description of a differential inflammatory response between the two leading delivery systems. SEV appears to trigger a more robust inflammatory response as compared to BEV. Clinical studies are warranted to assess the long term effect of our findings.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Stenosis/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Inflammation/etiology , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Valve Stenosis/blood , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Lymphocytes , Male , Neutrophils , Postoperative Complications/blood , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(4): 735-740, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a pandemic viral disease that has affected the Indian population very badly with more than 8.46 million cases and > 0.125 million deaths. AIM: Primary objective of the study is to establish the role of hematological, coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers in early identification of clinically severe covid-19 cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted from July 2020 to August 2020 at a dedicated COVID-19 referral hospital in central India. Only RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 positive 300 cases admitted in the hospital were included in this study. Based on the clinical assessment, patients were categorised as mild, moderate, and severe groups as per ICMR guidelines. Blood samples of all cases were tested for haematological, coagulation and inflammatory biomarkers and mean values were compared among the three groups of patients. RESULTS: 46% patients belonged to >60 years of age group. Hematological parameters like total leukocyte count, absolute neutrophil count, Neutrophil: Lymphocyte ratio, Platelet: Lymphocyte ratio significantly increased with lymphocytopenia (P=0.001). Coagulation profile(D-dimer and PT) and inflammatory biomarkers like CRP, LDH, ferritin, procalcitonin and NT- Pro BNP, all were significantly increased with severity of patients(p=0.001). ROC plotted for all the parameters between severe v/s non-severe cases showed that CRP, LDH and D-dimer had a good discriminative precision with AUC >0.8. CONCLUSION: We suggest that biochemical markers like CRP, LDH and D-dimer can be used as a screening tool to differentiate severe patients from non-severe patients of Covid-19 disease in order to identify severe disease at early stage for optimal utilization of resources & reducing further morbidity & mortality.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Early Diagnosis , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1839-1848, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The biological processes associated with postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC) are unknown. METHODS: We measured soluble markers of inflammation in a SARS-CoV-2 recovery cohort at early (<90 days) and late (>90 days) timepoints. We defined PASC as the presence of 1 or more coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-attributed symptoms beyond 90 days. We compared fold-changes in marker values between those with and without PASC using mixed-effects models with terms for PASC and early and late recovery time periods. RESULTS: During early recovery, those who went on to develop PASC generally had higher levels of cytokine biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor-α (1.14-fold higher mean ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.28]; P = .028) and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (1.28-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, 1.01-1.62]; P = .038). Among those with PASC, there was a trend toward higher interleukin 6 levels during early recovery (1.29-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, .98-1.70]; P = .07), which became more pronounced in late recovery (1.44-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, 1.11-1.86]; P < .001). These differences were more pronounced among those with a greater number of PASC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent immune activation may be associated with ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Further characterization of these processes might identify therapeutic targets for those experiencing PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258684, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480452

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities have a significantly increased risk for a critical course of COVID-19. As the SARS-CoV2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor II (ACE2), drugs which interact with the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) were suspected to influence disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 1946 consecutive patients with cardiovascular comorbidities or hypertension enrolled in one of the largest European COVID-19 registries, the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 (LEOSS) registry. Here, we show that angiotensin II receptor blocker intake is associated with decreased mortality in patients with COVID-19 [OR 0.75 (95% CI 0,59-0.96; p = 0.013)]. This effect was mainly driven by patients, who presented in an early phase of COVID-19 at baseline [OR 0,64 (95% CI 0,43-0,96; p = 0.029)]. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of death in patients on an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) (n = 33/318;10,4%) compared to patients using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) (n = 60/348;17,2%) or patients who received neither an ACE-inhibitor nor an ARB at baseline in the uncomplicated phase (n = 90/466; 19,3%; p<0.034). Patients taking an ARB were significantly less frequently reaching the mortality predicting threshold for leukocytes (p<0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.002) and the inflammatory markers CRP (p = 0.021), procalcitonin (p = 0.001) and IL-6 (p = 0.049). ACE2 expression levels in human lung samples were not altered in patients taking RAAS modulators. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a beneficial effect of ARBs on disease severity in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19, which is linked to dampened systemic inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL