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2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
3.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0075221, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526451

ABSTRACT

During the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), immune response and inflammation reactions are dynamic events that develop rapidly and are associated with the severity of disease. Here, we aimed to develop a predictive model based on the immune and inflammatory response to discriminate patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and their demographic and immune inflammatory reaction indicators were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors, which were further used to construct a predictive model. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve, and optimal diagnostic threshold was calculated; these were further validated by 5-fold cross-validation and external validation. We screened three key indicators, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and IgA, for predicting severe COVID-19 and obtained a combined neutrophil, eosinophil, and IgA ratio (NEAR) model (NEU [109/liter] - 150×EOS [109/liter] + 3×IgA [g/liter]). NEAR achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.961, and when a threshold of 9 was applied, the sensitivity and specificity of the predicting model were 100% and 88.89%, respectively. Thus, NEAR is an effective index for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and can be used as a powerful tool for clinicians to make better clinical decisions. IMPORTANCE The immune inflammatory response changes rapidly with the progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is responsible for clearance of the virus and further recovery from the infection. However, the intensified immune and inflammatory response in the development of the disease may lead to more serious and fatal consequences, which indicates that immune indicators have the potential to predict serious cases. Here, we identified both eosinophils and serum IgA as prognostic markers of COVID-19, which sheds light on new research directions and is worthy of further research in the scientific research field as well as clinical application. In this study, the combination of NEU count, EOS count, and IgA level was included in a new predictive model of the severity of COVID-19, which can be used as a powerful tool for better clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Decision Rules , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506190

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic, challenging both the medical and scientific community for the development of novel vaccines and a greater understanding of the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 has been associated with a pronounced and out-of-control inflammatory response. Studies have sought to understand the effects of inflammatory response markers to prognosticate the disease. Herein, we aimed to review the evidence of 11 groups of systemic inflammatory markers for risk-stratifying patients and prognosticating outcomes related to COVID-19. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in prognosticating patient outcomes, including but not limited to severe disease, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, and death. A few markers outperformed NLR in predicting outcomes, including 1) systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), 2) prognostic nutritional index (PNI), 3) C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) and high-sensitivity CAR (hsCAR), and 4) CRP to prealbumin ratio (CPAR) and high-sensitivity CPAR (hsCPAR). However, there are a limited number of studies comparing NLR with these markers, and such conclusions require larger validation studies. Overall, the evidence suggests that most of the studied markers are able to predict COVID-19 prognosis, however NLR seems to be the most robust marker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammation/diagnosis , Lymphocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922281, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden and serious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a novel target for inflammatory disease, and ibudilast (IBU), a PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits inflammatory response. Our study investigated the effect of IBU on the pathogenesis of neonatal ARDS and the underlying mechanism related to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of PDE4, CXCR4, SDF-1, CXCR5, CXCL1, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins related to cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Pulmonary edema score was used to assess the degree of lung water accumulation after pulmonary injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1) in serum. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS Increased expression of PDE4 was observed in an LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model, and IBU ameliorated LPS-induced pathological manifestations and pulmonary edema in lung tissue. In addition, IBU attenuated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by inactivating the chemokine axis in the LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model. Finally, IBU significantly reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis in lung tissue. CONCLUSIONS IBU, a PDE4 inhibitor, protected against ARDS by interfering with pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a novel and promising strategy to regulate pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
6.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(3): 425-431, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375609

ABSTRACT

The immune response plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from protection to tissue damage and all occur in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS patients display elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and innate immune cells, and T and B cell lymphocytes have been implicated in this dysregulated immune response. Mast cells are abundant resident cells of the respiratory tract and are able to release different inflammatory mediators rapidly following stimulation. Recently, mast cells have been associated with tissue damage during viral infections, but their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the profile of mast cell activation markers in the serum of COVID-19 patients. We noticed that SARS-CoV-2-infected patients showed increased carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) and decreased serotonin levels in their serum when compared with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. CPA3 levels correlated with C-reactive protein, the number of circulating neutrophils, and quick SOFA. CPA3 in serum was a good biomarker for identifying severe COVID-19 patients, whereas serotonin was a good predictor of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In summary, our results show that serum CPA3 and serotonin levels are relevant biomarkers during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that mast cells and basophils are relevant players in the inflammatory response in COVID-19 and may represent targets for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carboxypeptidases A/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/diagnosis , Mast Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serotonin/metabolism , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Mast Cells/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(20): e2100955, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368425

ABSTRACT

An overview of cytokine biosensing is provided, with a focus on the opportunities provided by organic electronic platforms for monitoring these inflammation biomarkers which manifest at ultralow concentration levels in physiopathological conditions. Specifically, two of the field's state-of-the-art technologies-organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs)-and their use in sensing cytokines and other proteins associated with inflammation are a particular focus. The overview will include an introduction to current clinical and "gold standard" quantification techniques and their limitations in terms of cost, time, and required infrastructure. A critical review of recent progress with OECT- and EGOFET-based protein biosensors is presented, alongside a discussion onthe future of these technologies in the years and decades ahead. This is especially timely as the world grapples with limited healthcare diagnostics during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)pandemic where one of the worst-case scenarios for patients is the "cytokine storm." Clearly, low-cost point-of-care technologies provided by OECTs and EGOFETs can ease the global burden on healthcare systems and support professionals by providing unprecedented wealth of data that can help to monitor disease progression in real time.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Electrolytes , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transistors, Electronic
8.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prognostic performances of oxidative stress (OS), inflammatory and cell activation biomarkers measured at admission in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: retrospective monocentric study. SETTING: patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) admitted to the hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and sixty documented and unselected COVID-19-patients. Disease severity (from mild to critical) was scored according to NIH's classification. INTERVENTIONS: none. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We measured OS biomarkers (thiol, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA)), inflammation biomarkers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), presepsin) and cellular activation biomarkers (calprotectin) in plasma at admission. Thiol concentrations decreased while IMA, IL-6, calprotectin and PSEP increased with disease severity in COVID-19 patients and were associated with increased O2 needs and ICU admission. The best area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve (AUC) for the prediction of ICU admission was for thiol (AUC = 0.762). A thiol concentration <154 µmol/L was predictive for ICU admission (79.7% sensitivity, 64.6% specificity, 58.8% positive predictive value, 78.9% negative predictive value). In a stepwise logistic regression, we found that being overweight, having dyspnoea, and thiol and IL-6 plasmatic concentrations were independently associated with ICU admission. In contrast, calprotectin was the best biomarker to predict mortality (AUC = 0.792), with an optimal threshold at 24.1 mg/L (94.1% sensitivity, 64.9% specificity, 97.1% positive predictive value and 98.9% negative predictive value), and survival curves indicated that high IL-6 and calprotectin concentrations were associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Thiol measurement at admission is a promising tool to predict ICU admission in COVID-19-patients, whereas IL-6 and calprotectin measurements effectively predict mortality.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inflammation/diagnosis , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
10.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305816

ABSTRACT

Accurate detection of human respiratory viral infections is highly topical. We investigated how strongly inflammatory biomarkers (FeNO, eosinophils, neutrophils, and cytokines in nasal lavage fluid) and lung function parameters change upon rhinovirus 16 infection, in order to explore their potential use for infection detection. To this end, within a longitudinal cohort study, healthy and mildly asthmatic volunteers were experimentally inoculated with rhinovirus 16, and time series of these parameters/biomarkers were systematically recorded and compared between the pre- and post-infection phases of the study, which lasted two months and one month, respectively. We found that the parameters'/biomarkers' ability to discriminate between the infected and the uninfected state varied over the observation time period. Consistently over time, the concentration of cytokines, in nasal lavage fluid, showed moderate to very good discrimination performance, thereby qualifying for disease progression monitoring, whereas lung function and FeNO, while quickly and non-invasively measurable using cheap portable devices (e.g., at airports), performed poorly.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , Asthma/virology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adult , Biomarkers/analysis , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Nose/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Rhinovirus , Young Adult
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302193

ABSTRACT

Chronic inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by uncontrolled immune response in the airways as their main pathophysiological manifestation. The lack of specific diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for many pulmonary diseases represents a major challenge for pulmonologists. The majority of the currently approved therapeutic approaches are focused on achieving disease remission, although there is no guarantee of complete recovery. It is known that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an important counter-regulatory component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), is expressed in the airways. It has been shown that ACE2 plays a role in systemic regulation of the cardiovascular and renal systems, lungs and liver by acting on blood pressure, electrolyte balance control mechanisms and inflammation. Its protective role in the lungs has also been presented, but the exact pathophysiological mechanism of action is still elusive. The aim of this study is to review and discuss recent findings about ACE2, including its potential role in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory lung diseases:, i.e., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, in the light of the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), we will discuss the role of ACE2 in the pathophysiology of this disease, mainly represented by different grades of pulmonary problems. We believe that these insights will open up new perspectives for the future use of ACE2 as a potential biomarker for early diagnosis and monitoring of chronic inflammatory lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Asthma/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/enzymology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Lung/enzymology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asthma/enzymology , Asthma/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/enzymology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/genetics , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/enzymology , Inflammation/genetics , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/enzymology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264219

ABSTRACT

Most deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occur in older subjects. We assessed the utility of serum inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin (Roche, Indianapolis, IN), and SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and neutralizing antibodies (Diazyme, Poway, CA). In controls, non-hospitalized subjects, and hospitalized subjects assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (n = 278), median IgG levels in arbitrary units (AU)/mL were 0.05 in negative subjects, 14.83 in positive outpatients, and 30.61 in positive hospitalized patients (P<0.0001). Neutralizing antibody levels correlated significantly with IgG (r = 0.875; P<0.0001). Having combined values of IL-6 ≥10 pg/mL and CRP ≥10 mg/L occurred in 97.7% of inpatients versus 1.8% of outpatients (odds ratio 3,861, C statistic 0.976, P = 1.00 x 10-12). Antibody or ferritin levels did not add significantly to predicting hospitalization. Antibody testing in family members and contacts of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive cases (n = 759) was invaluable for case finding. Persistent IgM levels were associated with chronic COVID-19 symptoms. In 81,624 screened subjects, IgG levels were positive (≥1.0 AU/mL) in 5.21%, while IgM levels were positive in 2.96% of subjects. In positive subjects median IgG levels in AU/mL were 3.14 if <30 years of age, 4.38 if 30-44 years of age, 7.89 if 45-54 years of age, 9.52 if 55-64 years of age, and 10.64 if ≥65 years of age (P = 2.96 x 10-38). Our data indicate that: 1) combined IL-6 ≥10 pg/mL and CRP ≥10 mg/L identify SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects requiring hospitalization; 2) IgG levels were significantly correlated with neutralizing antibody levels with a wide range of responses; 3) IgG levels have significant utility for case finding in exposed subjects; 4) persistently elevated IgM levels are associated with chronic symptoms; and 5) IgG levels are significantly higher in positive older subjects than their younger counterparts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aging , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Ferritins/immunology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Inflamm Res ; 70(6): 687-694, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Fecal calprotectin (CLP) is widely known for its detection in stools of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), to investigate the intestinal inflammatory status. Current research is promoting the circulating protein role as a systemic inflammatory marker. However, most studies report serum calprotectin analysis although plasma assay prevents its massive release by granulocytes. In this perspective, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic deserves deployment of convenient and easy-to-dose markers that could reliably address the state of infection. METHODS: We analyzed serum circulating calprotectin (cCLP) levels in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and plasma cCLP levels from patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, then assessed negative or positive on molecular tests. RESULTS: Our results confirm a significant circulating calprotectin increase in infected subjects respect to controls, in serum and plasma. Moreover, plasma calprotectin has higher levels in suspected patients with positive SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR, compared to suspected patients with negative SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR. Furthermore, ROC curves results showed the circulating plasma calprotectin discriminatory ability to differentiate infected SARS-CoV-2 patients at a cutoff value greater than 131.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Our data propose circulating calprotectin as a new, quantitative and predictive marker, which in addition to being an interesting generic inflammatory marker may provide important indications in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930853, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND COVID-19 has become a worldwide epidemic disease and is a public health crisis. We aim to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and assessment of severity by analyzing patients' clinical data and early laboratory results and exploring the correlation between laboratory results and clinical classification. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 283 cases of suspected and diagnosed COVID-19 from 16 hospitals in Jiangsu Province from January to April 2020. The routine laboratory blood examinations, T lymphocyte subsets, and biochemical and coagulation function among different populations were contrasted by t test and chi-square (χ²) test. RESULTS Cough, fever, and dyspnea could be helpful to diagnose COVID-19 infection (P<0.05). Patients who were older or had comorbidities tended to become severe and critical cases. Among all the patients, the most obvious abnormal laboratory results were higher neutrophil count, CRP, total bilirubin, BUN, CRE, APTT, PT, and D-dimer, and lower blood platelet and lymphocyte count. CD3⁺ T cell, CD4⁺ T cell, and CD8⁺ T cell counts gradually decreased with exacerbation of the disease (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Cough and fever were the most common symptom. Patients with comorbidities were in more serious condition. The detection of inflammatory indexes, coagulation function, lymphocyte subsets, and renal function can help diagnose and assess the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/blood , Cough/immunology , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/immunology , Fever/virology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Cytokine ; 143: 155507, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157230

ABSTRACT

AIM: COVID-19 pandemic has caused extensive burden on public life and health care worldwide. This study aimed to assess circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 and stratified according to age (older or younger than 65 years) aiming to explore associations between these markers of inflammation and comorbidities. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 142 COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of São Carlos, from July to October 2020. Sociodemographic data, chronic comorbidities, and baseline NEWS2 and SOFA for clinical deterioration were obtained at hospital admission. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Older adults with COVID-19 had higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as compared to those under 65 years of age (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). IL-10 was independently associated with age (p = 0.04) and severity of the disease (p = 0.05), whereas serum levels of IL-6 were not directly associated with age (p = 0.5). The comorbidity index seems to be the main responsible for this, being significantly associated with IL-6 levels among those aged 65 and over (p = 0.007), in addition to the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 are associated with the severity of the disease and a higher comorbidity index among adults aged 65 and over with COVID-19. This should raise awareness of the importance of comorbidity index, rather than age, during risk stratification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Brazil , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
18.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(3): 216-218, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154141

ABSTRACT

We analysed RRI and other hemodynamic, re-spiratory and inflammation parameters in critically ill pa-tients affected by severe covid-19 with acute distress respi-ratory syndrome (ARDS) aiming at verifying their modifica-tions during supine and prone positioning and any mutual correlation or interplay with RRI.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Kidney/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Renal Artery/physiopathology , Renal Circulation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Creatinine/blood , Diastole , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Supine Position , Systole
19.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 9, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread worldwide, and the pathogenic mechanism is still under investigation. The presence of a huge inflammatory response, defined as "cytokine storm," is being studied in order to understand what might be the prognostic factors implicated in the progression of the infection, with ferritin being one of such markers. The role of ferritin as a marker of inflammation is already known, and whether it changes differently between COVID and non-COVID patients still remains unclear. The aim of this retrospective analysis is to understand whether the inflammatory process in these two types is different. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we compared 17 patients affected by SARS-CoV-2, who had been admitted between February and April 2020 (group A) along with 30 patients admitted for acute surgical disease with SARS-CoV-2 negative swab (group B). A further subgroup of Covid negative patients with leukocytosis was compared to group A. RESULTS: In group A, the median (interquartile range) serum ferritin was 674 (1284) ng/mL, and it was double the cutoff (300 ng/mL) in 9 out of 17 (52%). The median (IQR) value of ferritin level in the total blood samples of group B was 231, and in the subgroup with leucocytosis, 149 (145). Group A showed a significantly higher ferritin median level compared to the entire group B (two-tailed Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.0001) as well as to the subgroup with leucocytosis (p < 0.0014). CONCLUSIONS: The role of iron metabolism appears to be directly involved in COVID infection. On the other hand, in the acute inflammation of patients admitted for surgery, and probably in other common phlogistic processes, iron modifications appear to be self-limited. However, our finding suggests the use of ferritin as a marker for COVID infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/surgery , Case-Control Studies , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Procedures, Operative
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 631299, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122159

ABSTRACT

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein with a significant importance for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD). The central role of SAA in pathogenesis of IRD has been confirmed by recent discoveries, including its involvement in the activation of the inflammasome cascade and recruitment of interleukin 17 producing T helper cells. Clinical utility of SAA in IRD was originally evaluated nearly half a century ago. From the first findings, it was clear that SAA could be used for evaluating disease severity and monitoring disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and secondary amyloidosis. However, cost-effective and more easily applicable markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), overwhelmed its use in clinical practice. In the light of emerging evidences, SAA has been discerned as a more sensitive biomarker in a wide spectrum of IRD, especially in case of subclinical inflammation. Furthermore, a growing number of studies are confirming the advantages of SAA over many other biomarkers in predicting and monitoring response to biological immunotherapy in IRD patients. Arising scientific discoveries regarding the role of SAA, as well as delineating SAA and its isoforms as the most sensitive biomarkers in various IRD by recently developing proteomic techniques are encouraging the revival of its clinical use. Finally, the most recent findings have shown that SAA is a biomarker of severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this review is to discuss the SAA-involving immune system network with emphasis on mechanisms relevant for IRD, as well as usefulness of SAA as a biomarker in various IRD. Therefore, over a hundred original papers were collected through an extensive PubMed and Scopus databases search. These recently arising insights will hopefully lead to a better management of IRD patients and might even inspire the development of new therapeutic strategies with SAA as a target.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , COVID-19/blood , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Amyloidosis/blood , Amyloidosis/therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Th17 Cells/metabolism
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