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2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1106520, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318106

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer and pancreatic cancer are two common cancer types characterized by high prevalence and high mortality rates, respectively. However, breast cancer has been more well-studied than pancreatic cancer. This narrative review curated inflammation-associated biomarkers from clinical studies that were systematically selected for both breast and pancreatic cancers and discusses some of the common and unique elements between the two endocrine-regulated malignant diseases. Finding common ground between the two cancer types and specifically analyzing breast cancer study results, we hoped to explore potential feasible methods and biomarkers that may be useful also in diagnosing and treating pancreatic cancer. A PubMed MEDLINE search was used to identify articles that were published between 2015-2022 of different kinds of clinical trials that measured immune-modulatory biomarkers and biomarker changes of inflammation defined in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and pancreatic cancer patients. A total of 105 papers (pancreatic cancer 23, breast cancer 82) were input into Covidence for the title and abstract screening. The final number of articles included in this review was 73 (pancreatic cancer 19, breast cancer 54). The results showed some of the frequently cited inflammatory biomarkers for breast and pancreatic cancers included IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CD8+ T cells and VEGF. Regarding unique markers, CA15-3 and TNF-alpha were two of several breast cancer-specific, and CA19 and IL-18 were pancreatic cancer-specific. Moreover, we discussed leptin and MMPs as emerging biomarker targets with potential use for managing pancreatic cancer based on breast cancer studies in the future, based on inflammatory mechanisms. Overall, the similarity in how both types of cancers respond to or result in further disruptive inflammatory signaling, and that point to a list of markers that have been shown useful in diagnosis and/or treatment method response or efficacy in managing breast cancer could potentially provide insights into developing the same or more useful diagnostic and treatment measurement inflammatory biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. More research is needed to investigate the relationship and associated inflammatory markers between the similar immune-associated biological mechanisms that contribute to breast and pancreatic cancer etiology, drive disease progression or that impact treatment response and reflect survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Humans , Female , Biomarkers , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Inflammation/diagnosis
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1411: 135-160, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301272

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have investigated the role of inflammation in psychiatric disorders, by demonstrating how an altered/dysfunctional immunological and inflammatory system may underpin a psychiatric condition. Particularly, several studies specifically investigated the role of a neuroinflammatory biomarker, named C-reactive protein (CRP), in psychiatric disorders. Overall, even though scientific literature so far published still does not appear definitive, CRP is more likely reported to be elevated in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, a low-grade inflammation (CRP >3 mg/L) has been more likely observed in a subgroup of patients affected with a more severe psychopathological symptomatology, more treatment resistance and worst clinical mental illness course, strengthening the hypothesis of the need for a different clinical and prognostic characterization based on this concomitant neuroinflammatory predisposition. However, even though further research studies are needed to confirm this preliminary evidence, CRP may represent a potential clinical routine biomarker which could be integrated in the clinical routine practice to better characterize clinical picture and course as well as address clinicians towards a personalized treatment.


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Biomarkers/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Inflammation/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis
4.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(4): 722-728, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine age-related differences in hemogram parameters and hematologic inflammatory markers in pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included children aged 2 months to 18 years (n = 208) who have a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and a control group comprising 117 healthy children between February 2021 and July 2021. The analysis of subgroup hematological values were performed according to the children's age cutoffs. RESULTS: The most significant difference between pediatric patients with COVID-19 and controls were peripheral blood eosinophil counts and eosinophil-to-monocyte ratio (EMR) levels on admission. The levels of monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, aggeregate index of systemic inflammation (neutrophil × platelet × monocyte/lymphocyte), neutrophil-to- lymphocyte × platelet ratio, and systemic inflammation response index (neutrophil × monocyte/ lymphocyte) were higher in patients than in controls. EMR had the highest area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.777, with a cutoff value of 0.26. The sensitivity for EMR was 75% under 2 years of age, and between 78.6-87.5% in the other age groups. CONCLUSION: In children younger than 6 months, the discriminative power of hematological indices is low, while the discriminative power of EMR is high at all ages when age appropriate cutoffs are used. Hematological inflammatory parameters may be particularly practical in pediatric clinics to help identify COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
5.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 116(4): 183-191, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with an inflammatory cytokine burst and a prothrombotic coagulopathy. Platelets may contribute to microthrombosis, and constitute a therapeutic target in COVID-19 therapy. AIM: To assess if platelet activation influences mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: We explored two cohorts of patients with COVID-19. Cohort A included 208 ambulatory and hospitalized patients with varying clinical severities and non-COVID patients as controls, in whom plasma concentrations of the soluble platelet activation biomarkers CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and P-selectin (sP-sel) were quantified within the first 48hours following hospitalization. Cohort B was a multicentre cohort of 2878 patients initially admitted to a medical ward. In both cohorts, the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In cohort A, median circulating concentrations of sCD40L and sP-sel were only increased in the 89 critical patients compared with non-COVID controls: sP-sel 40,059 (interquartile range 26,876-54,678)pg/mL; sCD40L 1914 (interquartile range 1410-2367)pg/mL (P<0.001 for both). A strong association existed between sP-sel concentration and in-hospital mortality (Kaplan-Meier log-rank P=0.004). However, in a Cox model considering biomarkers of immunothrombosis, sP-sel was no longer associated with mortality, in contrast to coagulopathy evaluated with D-dimer concentration (hazard ratio 4.86, 95% confidence interval 1.64-12.50). Moreover, in cohort B, a Cox model adjusted for co-morbidities suggested that prehospitalization antiplatelet agents had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.80-1.37; P=0.73). CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed an association between excessive biomarkers of platelet activation and in-hospital mortality, our findings rather suggest that coagulopathy is more central in driving disease progression, which may explain why prehospitalization antiplatelet drugs were not a protective factor against mortality in our multicentre cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Activation , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/drug therapy , Biomarkers
6.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 375, 2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196284

ABSTRACT

We recently reported in the phase 3 PANAMO trial that selectively blocking complement 5a (C5a) with vilobelimab led to improved survival in critically ill COVID-19 patients. C5a is an important contributor to the innate immune system and can also activate the coagulation system. High C5a levels have been reported in severely ill COVID-19 patients and correlate with disease severity and mortality. Previously, we assessed the potential benefit and safety of vilobelimab in severe COVID-19 patients. In the current substudy of the phase 2 PANAMO trial, we aim to explore the effects of vilobelimab on various biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation. Between March 31 and April 24, 2020, 17 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled in an exploratory, open-label, randomised phase 2 trial. Blood markers of complement, endothelial activation, epithelial barrier disruption, inflammation, neutrophil activation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and coagulopathy were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or utilizing the Luminex platform. During the first 15 days after inclusion, change in biomarker concentrations between the two groups were modelled with linear mixed-effects models with spatial splines and compared. Eight patients were randomized to vilobelimab treatment plus best supportive care (BSC) and nine patients were randomized to BSC only. A significant decrease over time was seen in the vilobelimab plus BSC group for C5a compared to the BSC only group (p < 0.001). ADAMTS13 levels decreased over time in the BSC only group compared to the vilobelimab plus BSC group (p < 0.01) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were statistically more suppressed in the vilobelimab plus BSC group compared to the BSC group (p = 0.03). Our preliminary results show that C5a inhibition decreases the inflammatory response and hypercoagulability, which likely explains the beneficial effect of vilobelimab in severe COVID-19 patients. Validation of these results in a larger sample size is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Complement C5a , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/drug therapy , Biomarkers
7.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 19(1): 4-6, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154507
8.
Digit J Ophthalmol ; 28(3): 69-73, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144828

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old man presented to an urgent care facility with sudden loss of vision in his right eye, diplopia, and anosmia. He tested positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nine days later, he presented at our emergency department, at which time ophthalmic examination revealed reduced visual acuity in the right eye, with poor color vision and a relative afferent pupillary defect. He had a moderate adduction deficit and mild hypertropia of the right eye, with an intermittent exotropia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed asymmetric, abnormal enhancement of the right optic nerve sheath extending to the right orbital apex. His ocular symptoms resolved completely with systemic steroids. All infectious and inflammatory labs returned negative except for COVID-19. Ocular findings have been consistently implicated throughout this pandemic. This case highlights an unidentified presentation with optic nerve involvement and orbital inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diplopia
9.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(10): 1093-1099, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residual alveolar inflammation seems to be paramount in post-COVID pathophysiology. Currently, we still lack a reliable marker to detect and track alveolar phlogosis in these patients. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) pH has robust evidences highlighting its correlation with lung phlogosis in various diseases. We aim to define the reliability of alveolar and bronchial EBC pH in the assessment and in the follow up of post-COVID-related inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 10 patients previously hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia. We performed a complete follow-up after 3 months and 6 months from discharge. Each visit included routine blood tests, arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walking test, spirometry, diffusing capacity and body plethysmography. Finally, bronchial and alveolar EBC were collected at the end of each visit. RESULTS: Alveolar EBC pH was significantly lower than bronchial EBC pH at T1, alveolar EBC pH tended to be more acid after 3 months from hospital discharge compared to the same sample 6 months later. Serum inflammatory biomarkers showed no significant differences from T1 to T2. Alveolar EBC pH was positively correlated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Collecting EBC pH could help to understand pathophysiologic mechanism as well as monitoring alveolar inflammation in the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , COVID-19 , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Biomarkers/analysis , Inflammation/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Exhalation/physiology
10.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(6): 481-485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042400

ABSTRACT

Persisting inflammation has been discovered in lungs and other parenchymatous organs of some COVID-19 convalescents. Calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), syndecan-1 and neopterin are general key inflammatory markers, and systemically enhanced levels of them may remain after the COVID-19 infection. These inflammatory markers were therefore measured in serum samples of 129 COVID-19 convalescent and 27 healthy blood donors or employees at Oslo Blood bank, Norway. Also antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were measured, and timing of sampling and severity of infection noted. Whereas neopterin and NETs values remained low and those for syndecan-1 were not raised to statistically significant level, concentrations for calprotectin, as measured by a novel mixed monoclonal assay, were significantly increased in the convalescents. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were elevated, but did not correlate with levels of inflammatory markers. Difference between the groups in only one biomarker makes evaluation of ongoing or residual inflammation in the convalescents difficult. If there is a low-grade inflammation, it would in that case involve neutrophils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neopterin , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
11.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932793

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, much research has focused on the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the symptomatic phase preceding the onset of clinical arthritis. Observational studies on imaging have revealed that subclinical joint inflammation in patients with arthralgia at risk for RA precedes and predicts the onset of clinically apparent arthritis. Moreover, the results of two placebo-controlled randomised proof-of-concept trials in patients with arthralgia and MRI-detected subclinical inflammation studies will soon be available. The initial results are encouraging and suggest a beneficial effect of DMARD treatment on subclinical inflammation. Since this may increase the necessity to detect subclinical joint inflammation in persons with arthralgia that are at risk for RA, we will here review what has been learnt about subclinical inflammation in at-risk individuals by means of imaging. We will focus on MRI as this method has the best sensitivity and reproducibility. We evaluate the prognostic value of MRI-detected subclinical inflammation and assess the lessons learnt from MRIs about the tissues that are inflamed early on and are associated with the clinical phenotype in arthralgia at risk for RA, for example, subclinical tenosynovitis underlying pain and impaired hand function. Finally, because long scan times and the need for intravenous-contrast agent contribute to high costs and limited feasibility of current MRI protocols, we discuss progress that is being made in the field of MRI and that can result in a future-proof way of imaging that is useful for assessment of joint inflammation on a large scale, also in a society with social distancing due to COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Arthralgia/diagnosis , Arthralgia/etiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901949

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C deficiency, historically known as scurvy, was associated with sailors in the Victorian times, however, a global review in 2020 suggests it still exists in certain at-risk groups.A case is presented of a young non-verbal child with learning difficulties and on a restricted diet, in which the primary symptom was gingival inflammation. It posed a diagnostic dilemma due to the non-specific symptoms, and a delay in the diagnosis, until vitamin C deficiency was confirmed.Gingival inflammation is one of the common findings in vitamin C deficiency and dental professionals may be the first point of contact. The importance of dietary evaluation, identifying and looking for other signs and liaising with the medical colleagues are discussed.This case highlights the role of the dentist in identifying latent cases of vitamin C deficiency and to consider this as a differential diagnosis especially in certain at-risk groups.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency , Scurvy , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/complications , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/diagnosis , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Scurvy/complications , Scurvy/diagnosis
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875484

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important part of the immune system's reaction to various pathological impulses such as bacterial infections, systemic inflammation, and internal organ failures. An increased CRP level serves to diagnose the mentioned pathological states. Both standard laboratory methods and simple point-of-care devices such as lateral flow tests and immunoturbidimetric assays serve for the instrumental diagnoses based on CRP. The current method for CRP has many flaws and limitations in its use. Biosensor and bioassay analytical devices are presently researched by many teams to provide more sensitive and better-suited tools for point-of-care tests of CRP in biological samples when compared to the standard methods. This review article is focused on mapping the diagnostical relevance of CRP, the applicability of the current analytical methods, and the recent innovations in the measurement of CRP level.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Point-of-Care Testing , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(8): 1980-1987, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO ordinal severity scale has been used to predict mortality and guide trials in COVID-19. However, it has its limitations. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare three classificatory and predictive models: the WHO ordinal severity scale, the model based on inflammation grades, and the hybrid model. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with patient data collected and followed up from March 1, 2020, to May 1, 2021, from the nationwide SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. The primary study outcome was in-hospital mortality. As this was a hospital-based study, the patients included corresponded to categories 3 to 7 of the WHO ordinal scale. Categories 6 and 7 were grouped in the same category. KEY RESULTS: A total of 17,225 patients were included in the study. Patients classified as high risk in each of the WHO categories according to the degree of inflammation were as follows: 63.8% vs. 79.9% vs. 90.2% vs. 95.1% (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality for WHO ordinal scale categories 3 to 6/7 was as follows: 0.8% vs. 24.3% vs. 45.3% vs. 34% (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality for the combined categories of ordinal scale 3a to 5b was as follows: 0.4% vs. 1.1% vs. 11.2% vs. 27.5% vs. 35.5% vs. 41.1% (p<0.001). The predictive regression model for in-hospital mortality with our proposed combined ordinal scale reached an AUC=0.871, superior to the two models separately. CONCLUSIONS: The present study proposes a new severity grading scale for COVID-19 hospitalized patients. In our opinion, it is the most informative, representative, and predictive scale in COVID-19 patients to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 300, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe inflammation and one or more extrapulmonary organ dysfunctions have been reported and this clinical picture is defined as "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults" (MIS-A) in severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the effect of LDH/lymphocyte ratio (LLR) on the development of MIS-A. METHODS: The data of 2333 patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: MIS-A rate was found to be 9.9% and MIS-A related mortality was 35.3%. LRR level above 0.24 was found to predict MIS-A development with 70% sensitivity and 65.2% specificity. The risk of MIS-A development was found to be 3.64 times higher in those with LRR levels above 0.24 compared to those with 0.24 and below. In patients with MIS-A, LRR level above 0.32 predicts mortality with 78% sensitivity and 70% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of MIS-A with high sensitivity and specificity in a practical ratio is very important in terms new studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 104: 108502, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the abnormal induction of cytokines and a dysregulated hyperinflammatory state that is implicated in disease severity and risk of death. There are several molecules present in blood associated with immune cellular response, inflammation, and oxidative stress that could be used as severity markers in respiratory viral infections such as COVID-19. However, there is a lack of clinical studies evaluating the role of oxidative stress-related molecules including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in COVID-19 pathogenesis. AIM: To evaluate the role of oxidative stress-related molecules in COVID-19. METHOD: An observational study with 93 Brazilian participants from September 2020 to April 2021, comprising 23 patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), 19 outpatients with COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms, 17 individuals reporting a COVID-19 history, and 34 healthy controls. Blood samples were taken from all participants and western blot assay was used to determine the RAGE, HMGB1, GFAP, and COX-2 immunocontent. RESULTS: We found that GFAP levels were higher in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 compared to outpatients (p = 0.030) and controls (p < 0.001). A significant increase in immunocontents of RAGE (p < 0.001) and HMGB1 (p < 0.001) were also found among patients admitted to the ICU compared to healthy controls, as well as an overexpression of the inducible COX-2 (p < 0.001). In addition, we found a moderate to strong correlation between RAGE, GFAP and HMGB1 proteins. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the upregulation of GFAP, RAGE, HMGB1, and COX-2 in patients with the most severe forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cyclooxygenase 2/blood , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/blood , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/blood , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/blood , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
17.
J Immunol ; 208(4): 979-990, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631932

ABSTRACT

Calprotectin is released by activated neutrophils along with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteases. It plays numerous roles in inflammation and infection, and is used as an inflammatory biomarker. However, calprotectin is readily oxidized by MPO-derived hypohalous acids to form covalent dimers of its S100A8 and S100A9 subunits. The dimers are susceptible to degradation by proteases. We show that detection of human calprotectin by ELISA declines markedly because of its oxidation by hypochlorous acid and subsequent degradation. Also, proteolysis liberates specific peptides from oxidized calprotectin that is present at inflammatory sites. We identified six calprotectin-derived peptides by mass spectrometry and detected them in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the peptides as biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation and infection. The content of the calprotectin peptide ILVI was related to calprotectin (r = 0.72, p = 0.01, n = 10). Four of the peptides were correlated with the concentration of MPO (r > 0.7, p ≤ 0.01, n = 21), while three were higher (p < 0.05) in neutrophil elastase-positive (n = 14) than -negative samples (n = 7). Also, five of the peptides were higher (p < 0.05) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with CF with infections (n = 21) than from non-CF children without infections (n = 6). The specific peptides liberated from calprotectin will signal uncontrolled activity of proteases and MPO during inflammation. They may prove useful in tracking inflammation in respiratory diseases dominated by neutrophils, including coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/genetics , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , Male , Neutrophil Activation , Oxidation-Reduction , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Proteolysis
19.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
20.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0075221, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526451

ABSTRACT

During the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), immune response and inflammation reactions are dynamic events that develop rapidly and are associated with the severity of disease. Here, we aimed to develop a predictive model based on the immune and inflammatory response to discriminate patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and their demographic and immune inflammatory reaction indicators were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors, which were further used to construct a predictive model. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve, and optimal diagnostic threshold was calculated; these were further validated by 5-fold cross-validation and external validation. We screened three key indicators, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and IgA, for predicting severe COVID-19 and obtained a combined neutrophil, eosinophil, and IgA ratio (NEAR) model (NEU [109/liter] - 150×EOS [109/liter] + 3×IgA [g/liter]). NEAR achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.961, and when a threshold of 9 was applied, the sensitivity and specificity of the predicting model were 100% and 88.89%, respectively. Thus, NEAR is an effective index for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and can be used as a powerful tool for clinicians to make better clinical decisions. IMPORTANCE The immune inflammatory response changes rapidly with the progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is responsible for clearance of the virus and further recovery from the infection. However, the intensified immune and inflammatory response in the development of the disease may lead to more serious and fatal consequences, which indicates that immune indicators have the potential to predict serious cases. Here, we identified both eosinophils and serum IgA as prognostic markers of COVID-19, which sheds light on new research directions and is worthy of further research in the scientific research field as well as clinical application. In this study, the combination of NEU count, EOS count, and IgA level was included in a new predictive model of the severity of COVID-19, which can be used as a powerful tool for better clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Decision Rules , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
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