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1.
Digit J Ophthalmol ; 28(3): 69-73, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144828

ABSTRACT

A 25-year-old man presented to an urgent care facility with sudden loss of vision in his right eye, diplopia, and anosmia. He tested positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nine days later, he presented at our emergency department, at which time ophthalmic examination revealed reduced visual acuity in the right eye, with poor color vision and a relative afferent pupillary defect. He had a moderate adduction deficit and mild hypertropia of the right eye, with an intermittent exotropia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed asymmetric, abnormal enhancement of the right optic nerve sheath extending to the right orbital apex. His ocular symptoms resolved completely with systemic steroids. All infectious and inflammatory labs returned negative except for COVID-19. Ocular findings have been consistently implicated throughout this pandemic. This case highlights an unidentified presentation with optic nerve involvement and orbital inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diplopia
2.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(10): 1093-1099, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residual alveolar inflammation seems to be paramount in post-COVID pathophysiology. Currently, we still lack a reliable marker to detect and track alveolar phlogosis in these patients. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) pH has robust evidences highlighting its correlation with lung phlogosis in various diseases. We aim to define the reliability of alveolar and bronchial EBC pH in the assessment and in the follow up of post-COVID-related inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 10 patients previously hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia. We performed a complete follow-up after 3 months and 6 months from discharge. Each visit included routine blood tests, arterial blood gas analysis, 6-minute walking test, spirometry, diffusing capacity and body plethysmography. Finally, bronchial and alveolar EBC were collected at the end of each visit. RESULTS: Alveolar EBC pH was significantly lower than bronchial EBC pH at T1, alveolar EBC pH tended to be more acid after 3 months from hospital discharge compared to the same sample 6 months later. Serum inflammatory biomarkers showed no significant differences from T1 to T2. Alveolar EBC pH was positively correlated with neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Collecting EBC pH could help to understand pathophysiologic mechanism as well as monitoring alveolar inflammation in the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , COVID-19 , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Biomarkers/analysis , Inflammation/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Exhalation/physiology
3.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 82(6): 481-485, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042400

ABSTRACT

Persisting inflammation has been discovered in lungs and other parenchymatous organs of some COVID-19 convalescents. Calprotectin, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), syndecan-1 and neopterin are general key inflammatory markers, and systemically enhanced levels of them may remain after the COVID-19 infection. These inflammatory markers were therefore measured in serum samples of 129 COVID-19 convalescent and 27 healthy blood donors or employees at Oslo Blood bank, Norway. Also antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were measured, and timing of sampling and severity of infection noted. Whereas neopterin and NETs values remained low and those for syndecan-1 were not raised to statistically significant level, concentrations for calprotectin, as measured by a novel mixed monoclonal assay, were significantly increased in the convalescents. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were elevated, but did not correlate with levels of inflammatory markers. Difference between the groups in only one biomarker makes evaluation of ongoing or residual inflammation in the convalescents difficult. If there is a low-grade inflammation, it would in that case involve neutrophils.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Neopterin , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndecan-1
4.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932793

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, much research has focused on the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the symptomatic phase preceding the onset of clinical arthritis. Observational studies on imaging have revealed that subclinical joint inflammation in patients with arthralgia at risk for RA precedes and predicts the onset of clinically apparent arthritis. Moreover, the results of two placebo-controlled randomised proof-of-concept trials in patients with arthralgia and MRI-detected subclinical inflammation studies will soon be available. The initial results are encouraging and suggest a beneficial effect of DMARD treatment on subclinical inflammation. Since this may increase the necessity to detect subclinical joint inflammation in persons with arthralgia that are at risk for RA, we will here review what has been learnt about subclinical inflammation in at-risk individuals by means of imaging. We will focus on MRI as this method has the best sensitivity and reproducibility. We evaluate the prognostic value of MRI-detected subclinical inflammation and assess the lessons learnt from MRIs about the tissues that are inflamed early on and are associated with the clinical phenotype in arthralgia at risk for RA, for example, subclinical tenosynovitis underlying pain and impaired hand function. Finally, because long scan times and the need for intravenous-contrast agent contribute to high costs and limited feasibility of current MRI protocols, we discuss progress that is being made in the field of MRI and that can result in a future-proof way of imaging that is useful for assessment of joint inflammation on a large scale, also in a society with social distancing due to COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Arthralgia/diagnosis , Arthralgia/etiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Reproducibility of Results
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901949

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C deficiency, historically known as scurvy, was associated with sailors in the Victorian times, however, a global review in 2020 suggests it still exists in certain at-risk groups.A case is presented of a young non-verbal child with learning difficulties and on a restricted diet, in which the primary symptom was gingival inflammation. It posed a diagnostic dilemma due to the non-specific symptoms, and a delay in the diagnosis, until vitamin C deficiency was confirmed.Gingival inflammation is one of the common findings in vitamin C deficiency and dental professionals may be the first point of contact. The importance of dietary evaluation, identifying and looking for other signs and liaising with the medical colleagues are discussed.This case highlights the role of the dentist in identifying latent cases of vitamin C deficiency and to consider this as a differential diagnosis especially in certain at-risk groups.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency , Scurvy , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/complications , Ascorbic Acid Deficiency/diagnosis , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Scurvy/complications , Scurvy/diagnosis
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875484

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important part of the immune system's reaction to various pathological impulses such as bacterial infections, systemic inflammation, and internal organ failures. An increased CRP level serves to diagnose the mentioned pathological states. Both standard laboratory methods and simple point-of-care devices such as lateral flow tests and immunoturbidimetric assays serve for the instrumental diagnoses based on CRP. The current method for CRP has many flaws and limitations in its use. Biosensor and bioassay analytical devices are presently researched by many teams to provide more sensitive and better-suited tools for point-of-care tests of CRP in biological samples when compared to the standard methods. This review article is focused on mapping the diagnostical relevance of CRP, the applicability of the current analytical methods, and the recent innovations in the measurement of CRP level.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Point-of-Care Testing , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(4): 722-728, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine age-related differences in hemogram parameters and hematologic inflammatory markers in pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included children aged 2 months to 18 years (n = 208) who have a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and a control group comprising 117 healthy children between February 2021 and July 2021. The analysis of subgroup hematological values were performed according to the children's age cutoffs. RESULTS: The most significant difference between pediatric patients with COVID-19 and controls were peripheral blood eosinophil counts and eosinophil-to-monocyte ratio (EMR) levels on admission. The levels of monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, aggeregate index of systemic inflammation (neutrophil × platelet × monocyte/lymphocyte), neutrophil-to- lymphocyte × platelet ratio, and systemic inflammation response index (neutrophil × monocyte/ lymphocyte) were higher in patients than in controls. EMR had the highest area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.777, with a cutoff value of 0.26. The sensitivity for EMR was 75% under 2 years of age, and between 78.6-87.5% in the other age groups. CONCLUSION: In children younger than 6 months, the discriminative power of hematological indices is low, while the discriminative power of EMR is high at all ages when age appropriate cutoffs are used. Hematological inflammatory parameters may be particularly practical in pediatric clinics to help identify COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(8): 1980-1987, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO ordinal severity scale has been used to predict mortality and guide trials in COVID-19. However, it has its limitations. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare three classificatory and predictive models: the WHO ordinal severity scale, the model based on inflammation grades, and the hybrid model. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with patient data collected and followed up from March 1, 2020, to May 1, 2021, from the nationwide SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. The primary study outcome was in-hospital mortality. As this was a hospital-based study, the patients included corresponded to categories 3 to 7 of the WHO ordinal scale. Categories 6 and 7 were grouped in the same category. KEY RESULTS: A total of 17,225 patients were included in the study. Patients classified as high risk in each of the WHO categories according to the degree of inflammation were as follows: 63.8% vs. 79.9% vs. 90.2% vs. 95.1% (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality for WHO ordinal scale categories 3 to 6/7 was as follows: 0.8% vs. 24.3% vs. 45.3% vs. 34% (p<0.001). In-hospital mortality for the combined categories of ordinal scale 3a to 5b was as follows: 0.4% vs. 1.1% vs. 11.2% vs. 27.5% vs. 35.5% vs. 41.1% (p<0.001). The predictive regression model for in-hospital mortality with our proposed combined ordinal scale reached an AUC=0.871, superior to the two models separately. CONCLUSIONS: The present study proposes a new severity grading scale for COVID-19 hospitalized patients. In our opinion, it is the most informative, representative, and predictive scale in COVID-19 patients to date.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , World Health Organization
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 300, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe inflammation and one or more extrapulmonary organ dysfunctions have been reported and this clinical picture is defined as "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults" (MIS-A) in severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the effect of LDH/lymphocyte ratio (LLR) on the development of MIS-A. METHODS: The data of 2333 patients were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: MIS-A rate was found to be 9.9% and MIS-A related mortality was 35.3%. LRR level above 0.24 was found to predict MIS-A development with 70% sensitivity and 65.2% specificity. The risk of MIS-A development was found to be 3.64 times higher in those with LRR levels above 0.24 compared to those with 0.24 and below. In patients with MIS-A, LRR level above 0.32 predicts mortality with 78% sensitivity and 70% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of MIS-A with high sensitivity and specificity in a practical ratio is very important in terms new studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 104: 108502, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to the abnormal induction of cytokines and a dysregulated hyperinflammatory state that is implicated in disease severity and risk of death. There are several molecules present in blood associated with immune cellular response, inflammation, and oxidative stress that could be used as severity markers in respiratory viral infections such as COVID-19. However, there is a lack of clinical studies evaluating the role of oxidative stress-related molecules including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) in COVID-19 pathogenesis. AIM: To evaluate the role of oxidative stress-related molecules in COVID-19. METHOD: An observational study with 93 Brazilian participants from September 2020 to April 2021, comprising 23 patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), 19 outpatients with COVID-19 with mild to moderate symptoms, 17 individuals reporting a COVID-19 history, and 34 healthy controls. Blood samples were taken from all participants and western blot assay was used to determine the RAGE, HMGB1, GFAP, and COX-2 immunocontent. RESULTS: We found that GFAP levels were higher in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 compared to outpatients (p = 0.030) and controls (p < 0.001). A significant increase in immunocontents of RAGE (p < 0.001) and HMGB1 (p < 0.001) were also found among patients admitted to the ICU compared to healthy controls, as well as an overexpression of the inducible COX-2 (p < 0.001). In addition, we found a moderate to strong correlation between RAGE, GFAP and HMGB1 proteins. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the upregulation of GFAP, RAGE, HMGB1, and COX-2 in patients with the most severe forms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cyclooxygenase 2/blood , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/blood , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/blood , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/blood , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation/immunology , Young Adult
11.
J Immunol ; 208(4): 979-990, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631932

ABSTRACT

Calprotectin is released by activated neutrophils along with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteases. It plays numerous roles in inflammation and infection, and is used as an inflammatory biomarker. However, calprotectin is readily oxidized by MPO-derived hypohalous acids to form covalent dimers of its S100A8 and S100A9 subunits. The dimers are susceptible to degradation by proteases. We show that detection of human calprotectin by ELISA declines markedly because of its oxidation by hypochlorous acid and subsequent degradation. Also, proteolysis liberates specific peptides from oxidized calprotectin that is present at inflammatory sites. We identified six calprotectin-derived peptides by mass spectrometry and detected them in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We assessed the peptides as biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation and infection. The content of the calprotectin peptide ILVI was related to calprotectin (r = 0.72, p = 0.01, n = 10). Four of the peptides were correlated with the concentration of MPO (r > 0.7, p ≤ 0.01, n = 21), while three were higher (p < 0.05) in neutrophil elastase-positive (n = 14) than -negative samples (n = 7). Also, five of the peptides were higher (p < 0.05) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with CF with infections (n = 21) than from non-CF children without infections (n = 6). The specific peptides liberated from calprotectin will signal uncontrolled activity of proteases and MPO during inflammation. They may prove useful in tracking inflammation in respiratory diseases dominated by neutrophils, including coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Cystic Fibrosis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/genetics , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/immunology , Male , Neutrophil Activation , Oxidation-Reduction , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Proteolysis
13.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
14.
mSphere ; 6(5): e0075221, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526451

ABSTRACT

During the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), immune response and inflammation reactions are dynamic events that develop rapidly and are associated with the severity of disease. Here, we aimed to develop a predictive model based on the immune and inflammatory response to discriminate patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and their demographic and immune inflammatory reaction indicators were collected and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors, which were further used to construct a predictive model. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve, and optimal diagnostic threshold was calculated; these were further validated by 5-fold cross-validation and external validation. We screened three key indicators, including neutrophils, eosinophils, and IgA, for predicting severe COVID-19 and obtained a combined neutrophil, eosinophil, and IgA ratio (NEAR) model (NEU [109/liter] - 150×EOS [109/liter] + 3×IgA [g/liter]). NEAR achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.961, and when a threshold of 9 was applied, the sensitivity and specificity of the predicting model were 100% and 88.89%, respectively. Thus, NEAR is an effective index for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and can be used as a powerful tool for clinicians to make better clinical decisions. IMPORTANCE The immune inflammatory response changes rapidly with the progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is responsible for clearance of the virus and further recovery from the infection. However, the intensified immune and inflammatory response in the development of the disease may lead to more serious and fatal consequences, which indicates that immune indicators have the potential to predict serious cases. Here, we identified both eosinophils and serum IgA as prognostic markers of COVID-19, which sheds light on new research directions and is worthy of further research in the scientific research field as well as clinical application. In this study, the combination of NEU count, EOS count, and IgA level was included in a new predictive model of the severity of COVID-19, which can be used as a powerful tool for better clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Decision Rules , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/virology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741061, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506190

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic, challenging both the medical and scientific community for the development of novel vaccines and a greater understanding of the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. COVID-19 has been associated with a pronounced and out-of-control inflammatory response. Studies have sought to understand the effects of inflammatory response markers to prognosticate the disease. Herein, we aimed to review the evidence of 11 groups of systemic inflammatory markers for risk-stratifying patients and prognosticating outcomes related to COVID-19. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in prognosticating patient outcomes, including but not limited to severe disease, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, and death. A few markers outperformed NLR in predicting outcomes, including 1) systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), 2) prognostic nutritional index (PNI), 3) C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CAR) and high-sensitivity CAR (hsCAR), and 4) CRP to prealbumin ratio (CPAR) and high-sensitivity CPAR (hsCPAR). However, there are a limited number of studies comparing NLR with these markers, and such conclusions require larger validation studies. Overall, the evidence suggests that most of the studied markers are able to predict COVID-19 prognosis, however NLR seems to be the most robust marker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Inflammation/diagnosis , Lymphocytes/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Disease Progression , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(4): 1275-1288, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess for histopathological changes within the retina and the choroid and determine the long-term sequelae of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Eyes from seven COVID-19-positive and six similar age-matched control donors with a negative test for SARS-CoV-2 were assessed. Globes were evaluated ex vivo with macroscopic, SLO and OCT imaging. Macula and peripheral regions were processed for Epon embedding and immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Fundus analysis shows hemorrhagic spots and increased vitreous debris in several of the COVID-19 eyes compared to the controls. OCT-based measurements indicated an increased trend in retinal thickness in the COVID-19 eyes; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Histology of the retina showed presence of hemorrhages and central cystoid degeneration in several of the donors. Whole mount analysis of the retina labeled with markers showed changes in retinal microvasculature, increased inflammation, and gliosis in the COVID-19 eyes compared to the controls. The choroidal vasculature displayed localized changes in density and signs of increased inflammation in the COVID-19 samples. CONCLUSIONS: In situ analysis of the retinal tissue suggests that there are severe subclinical abnormalities that could be detected in the COVID-19 eyes. This study provides a rationale for evaluating the ocular physiology of patients that have recovered from COVID-19 infections to further understand the long-term effects caused by this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macula Lutea , COVID-19/complications , Choroid/pathology , Gliosis/diagnosis , Gliosis/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/pathology , Retina , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922281, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden and serious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a novel target for inflammatory disease, and ibudilast (IBU), a PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits inflammatory response. Our study investigated the effect of IBU on the pathogenesis of neonatal ARDS and the underlying mechanism related to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of PDE4, CXCR4, SDF-1, CXCR5, CXCL1, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins related to cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Pulmonary edema score was used to assess the degree of lung water accumulation after pulmonary injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1) in serum. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS Increased expression of PDE4 was observed in an LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model, and IBU ameliorated LPS-induced pathological manifestations and pulmonary edema in lung tissue. In addition, IBU attenuated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by inactivating the chemokine axis in the LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model. Finally, IBU significantly reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis in lung tissue. CONCLUSIONS IBU, a PDE4 inhibitor, protected against ARDS by interfering with pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a novel and promising strategy to regulate pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
18.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(6): 899-909, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447044

ABSTRACT

This review comprehensively summarizes epidemiologic evidence of COVID-19 in patients with Type 2 diabetes, explores pathophysiological mechanisms, and integrates recommendations and guidelines for patient management. We found that diabetes was a risk factor for diagnosed infection and poor prognosis of COVID-19. Patients with diabetes may be more susceptible to adverse outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection due to impaired immune function and possible upregulation of enzymes that mediate viral invasion. The chronic inflammation caused by diabetes, coupled with the acute inflammatory reaction caused by SARS-CoV-2, results in a propensity for inflammatory storm. Patients with diabetes should be aware of their increased risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(3): 425-431, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375609

ABSTRACT

The immune response plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from protection to tissue damage and all occur in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS patients display elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines and innate immune cells, and T and B cell lymphocytes have been implicated in this dysregulated immune response. Mast cells are abundant resident cells of the respiratory tract and are able to release different inflammatory mediators rapidly following stimulation. Recently, mast cells have been associated with tissue damage during viral infections, but their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the profile of mast cell activation markers in the serum of COVID-19 patients. We noticed that SARS-CoV-2-infected patients showed increased carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) and decreased serotonin levels in their serum when compared with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. CPA3 levels correlated with C-reactive protein, the number of circulating neutrophils, and quick SOFA. CPA3 in serum was a good biomarker for identifying severe COVID-19 patients, whereas serotonin was a good predictor of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In summary, our results show that serum CPA3 and serotonin levels are relevant biomarkers during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that mast cells and basophils are relevant players in the inflammatory response in COVID-19 and may represent targets for therapeutic intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carboxypeptidases A/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/diagnosis , Mast Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serotonin/metabolism , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Mast Cells/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(20): e2100955, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368425

ABSTRACT

An overview of cytokine biosensing is provided, with a focus on the opportunities provided by organic electronic platforms for monitoring these inflammation biomarkers which manifest at ultralow concentration levels in physiopathological conditions. Specifically, two of the field's state-of-the-art technologies-organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and electrolyte gated organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs)-and their use in sensing cytokines and other proteins associated with inflammation are a particular focus. The overview will include an introduction to current clinical and "gold standard" quantification techniques and their limitations in terms of cost, time, and required infrastructure. A critical review of recent progress with OECT- and EGOFET-based protein biosensors is presented, alongside a discussion onthe future of these technologies in the years and decades ahead. This is especially timely as the world grapples with limited healthcare diagnostics during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)pandemic where one of the worst-case scenarios for patients is the "cytokine storm." Clearly, low-cost point-of-care technologies provided by OECTs and EGOFETs can ease the global burden on healthcare systems and support professionals by providing unprecedented wealth of data that can help to monitor disease progression in real time.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Electrolytes , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transistors, Electronic
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