Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 61
Filter
1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 24, 2023 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tungiasis is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans. Female fleas penetrate the skin, particularly at the feet, and cause severe inflammation. This study aimed to characterize disease burden in two highly affected regions in Kenya, to test the use of thermography to detect tungiasis-associated inflammation and to create a new two-level classification of disease severity suitable for mapping, targeting, and monitoring interventions. METHODS: From February 2020 to April 2021, 3532 pupils age 8-14 years were quasi-randomly selected in 35 public primary schools and examined for tungiasis and associated symptoms. Of the infected pupils, 266 were quasi-randomly selected and their households visited, where an additional 1138 family members were examined. Inflammation was assessed using infra-red thermography. A Clinical score was created combining the number of locations on the feet with acute and chronic symptoms and infra-red hotspots. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tungiasis among all the school pupils who were randomly selected during survey rounds 1 and 3 was 9.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8.4-10.3]. Based on mixed effects logistic models, the odds of infection with tungiasis among school pupils was three times higher in Kwale (coastal Kenya) than in Siaya [western Kenya; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.74]; three times higher in males than in females (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 2.32-3.91) and three times lower among pupils sleeping in a house with a concrete floor (aOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.24-0.44). The odds of finding an infected person among the household population during surveys before the COVID-19 pandemic was a third (aOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.19-0.53) of that when schools were closed due to COVID-19 restrictions and approximately half (aOR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29-0.68) in surveys done after school re-opening (round 3). Infection intensity was positively correlated with inflammation as measured by thermography (Spearman's rho = 0.68, P < 0.001) and with the clinical score (rho = 0.86, P < 0.001). Based on the two-level classification, severe cases were associated with a threefold higher level of pain (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.02-4.43) and itching (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 2.24-4.89) than mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Thermography was a valuable addition for assessing morbidity and the proposed two-level classification of disease severity clearly separated patients with mild and severe impacts. The burden of tungiasis was considerably higher in households surveyed during COVID-19 restrictions suggesting underlying risks are found in the home environment more than in school.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tungiasis , Male , Animals , Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tungiasis/diagnosis , Tungiasis/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Thermography , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cost of Illness , Tunga , Inflammation/epidemiology , Schools
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1145044, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286092

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the associations between the overall burden of comorbidity, inflammatory indicators in plasma and Ct values among the elderly with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study. The results of each nucleic acid test of during hospitalization were obtained. Linear regression models assessed the associations between the overall burden of comorbidity, inflammatory indicators in plasma and Ct values among the elderly. A causal mediation analysis was performed to assess the mediation effects of inflammatory indicators on the association between the overall burden of comorbidity and Ct values. Results: A total of 767 COVID-19 patients aged ≥ 60 years were included between April 2022 and May 2022. Patients with a high burden of comorbidity had significantly lower Ct values of the ORF gene than subjects with a low burden of comorbidity (median, 24.81 VS 26.58, P < 0.05). Linear regression models showed that a high burden of comorbidity was significantly associated with higher inflammatory responses, including white blood cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein. Also, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and the overall burden of comorbidity assessed by age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index were independent risk factors for the Ct values. A mediation analysis detected the mediation effect of white blood cells on the association between the burden of comorbidity and Ct values, with the indirect effect estimates of 0.381 (95% CI: 0.166, 0.632, P < 0.001). Similarly, the indirect effect of C-reactive protein was -0.307 (95% CI: -0.645, -0.064, P = 0.034). White blood cells and C-reactive protein significantly mediated the relationship between the burden of comorbidity and Ct values by 29.56% and 18.13% of the total effect size, respectively. Conclusions: Inflammation mediated the association between the overall burden of comorbidity and Ct values among elderly with COVID-19, which suggests that combined immunomodulatory therapies could reduce the Ct values for such patients with a high burden of comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Comorbidity
3.
J Neuroimmunol ; 370: 577928, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various vaccines, tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha inhibitors (TNFAIs), immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and other immunomodulators have been linked to inflammatory CNS events. The prevalence of iatrogenic events in the neuroimmunology clinic is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of iatrogenic CNS inflammation in a tertiary neuroimmunology clinic. METHODS: We analyzed 422 consecutive patients seen over five years at a tertiary neuroimmunology clinic who were systematically screened for exposure to vaccines, TNFAIs, ICIs, or other immunomodulators. In patients with suspected iatrogenic events, the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale was used to score the probability of iatrogenicity. RESULTS: In total, 27 potential iatrogenic events were observed, accounting for 6.4% of all new referrals. The average Naranjo score was 5.78 +/- 1.65 with 74% of the cases scored as probable and 26% scored as possible. The clinical phenotypes included MS relapses (37%); autoimmune encephalitis (30%); NMOSD attacks (15%); transverse myelitis (11%); optic neuritis (4%); and MOGAD attacks (4%). A monophasic course was observed in 44% of cases while 41% had a relapsing course. All patients stopped or interrupted treatment with the offending agent. In addition, 41% of the iatrogenic events were fully responsive to corticosteroids; 22% were partially responsive; and 15% resolved spontaneously. The most common potential triggers were vaccines (37%) followed by TNFAIs (33%) then ICIs (26%). A significantly higher number of probable iatrogenic events were observed among the ICI and vaccine groups compared to a higher number of possible events among the TNFAI group. The latter group also had a significantly longer interval since exposure. The ICI group was more likely to present with monophasic autoimmune encephalitis. CONCLUSION: Iatrogenic CNS inflammation is rare and typically involves steroid-responsive monophasic events. A subset of iatrogenic events can unmask or worsen relapsing disorders. The probability of iatrogenicity was higher in vaccine and ICI-related events compared to TNFAI-related events.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis , Neuromyelitis Optica , Autoantibodies/therapeutic use , Encephalitis/chemically induced , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/epidemiology , Prevalence
4.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(10): 4107-4113, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delayed inflammatory reactions (DIRs) to hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers following COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in a few anecdotal reports and small series of cases. AIM: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, incidence, and management options relevant to BNT162b2 vaccination-associated DIR-A nationwide survey was conducted. METHODS: An online self-administered survey was sent to physicians who actively practice tissue filler injections. The data acquired included demographic and clinical characteristics of relevant DIR cases. RESULTS: Out of 262 responders, 20 cases with DIR following the vaccination were reported. 35% and 65% occurred shortly after the first and second vaccination dose, respectively. Overall, 65% of the DIRs appeared ≤5 days after vaccine administration and most DIRs resolved within 21 days. The filler's volume (p = 0.016) was associated with higher DIR severity, and the same tendency was noted among some filler types and locations of injection. Medical intervention was provided in 12 (60%) cases. CONCLUSION: DIR associated with BNT162b2 vaccination is rare and tends to resolve spontaneously or with short-term medical intervention.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Dermal Fillers , Hyaluronic Acid , Inflammation , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Cosmetic Techniques/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dermal Fillers/adverse effects , Hyaluronic Acid/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/epidemiology
5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 53-54, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719338

ABSTRACT

While all groups are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the elderly, underrepresented minorities, and those with underlying medical conditions are at the greatest risk. The high rate of consumption of diets high in saturated fats, sugars, and refined carbohydrates (collectively called Western diet, WD) worldwide, contribute to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and could place these populations at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 pathology and mortality. WD consumption activates the innate immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defense against viruses. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation caused by COVID-19 may have long-term consequences in those that recover, leading to chronic medical conditions such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease, likely through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that can be compounded by an unhealthy diet. Thus, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a top priority and individuals should be mindful of healthy eating habits to reduce susceptibility to and long-term complications from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Western/statistics & numerical data , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diet , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Nutritional Status , Obesity/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 52(1): 6-13, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709002

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To prospectively evaluate the frequency of ocular findings and inflammation markers levels in patients treated in the intensive care unit due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to determine the relationship between these parameters and mortality. Materials and Methods: We prospectively evaluated 53 patients who were treated in the intensive care unit of a pandemic hospital between January 1 and June 30, 2021 and whose SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test from nasopharyngeal swab samples. Ocular findings were evaluated together with white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels, and mortality rate. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte count elevation and the frequency of inflammatory eye signs (p=0.308, p=0.694, p=0.535, p=0.374). In multivariate analyses, no statistically significant correlation was observed between ferritin level and the frequency of inflammatory eye findings (p=0.087). In addition, for each 1 mg/dL increase in C-reactive protein level, the detection of inflammatory eye findings decreased by 1.9% (95% confidence interval: 3.3%-0.4%; p=0.015). It was determined that 7 of 13 patients with inflammatory eye findings died and this was not statistically significant (p=0.810). Conclusion: Inflammatory examination findings of the ocular surface were detected in 13 (24.5%) of 53 patients treated in the intensive care unit for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ocular surface examination of patients treated in the intensive care unit due to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic is important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 98, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty, determined by the Canadian Study of Health and Aging-Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), is strongly associated with clinical outcomes including mortality in patients with COVID-19. However, the relationship between frailty and other recognised prognostic factors including age, nutritional status, obesity, sarcopenia and systemic inflammation is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between frailty and other prognostic domains, in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients who presented to our institutions between 1st April 2020-6th July 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 were assessed for inclusion. Data collected included general demographic details, clinicopathological variables, CFS admission assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), CT-BC measurements and markers of systemic inflammation. RESULTS: 106 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were aged ≥ 70 years (67%), male (53%) and frail (scoring > 3 on the CFS, 72%). The majority of patients were not malnourished (MUST 0, 58%), had ≥ 1 co-morbidity (87%), were sarcopenic (low SMI, 80%) and had systemic inflammation (mGPS ≥ 1, 81%, NLR > 5, 55%). On multivariate binary logistics regression analysis, age (p < 0.01), COPD (p < 0.05) and NLR (p < 0.05) remained independently associated with frailty. On univariate binary logistics regression, NLR (p < 0.05) was significantly associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Frailty was independently associated with age, co-morbidity, and systemic inflammation. The basis of the relationship between frailty and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 requires further study. Trial registration Registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04484545).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Body Composition , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/diagnostic imaging , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnostic imaging , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 626, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565709

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on population mental health is of global concern. Inflammatory processes are thought to contribute to mental ill-health, but their role in experiences of psychological distress during the pandemic has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that elevated inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity plasma C-reactive protein [CRP] and plasma fibrinogen) measured pre-pandemic would be positively predictive of increased depressive symptoms experienced during the pandemic. Data were analysed from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), with 3574 individuals aged >50 for CRP and 3314 for fibrinogen measured in waves 8 (2016/17) or 9 (2018/19). Depressive symptoms were measured with a short version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) pre-pandemic (2016-2019) and during the pandemic (June/July 2020). Participants with higher baseline CRP concentrations had 40% higher odds of developing depressive symptoms during the pandemic (ORadjusted = 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.73, p = 0.003) after full adjustment. Fibrinogen concentrations were also associated with depressive symptoms during the pandemic (ORadjusted = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.46, p = 0.019), but this association was no longer significant after controlling for lifestyle factors (smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity). In this large population study, systemic inflammation measured 1-3 years pre-pandemic was associated with greater depressed mood during the early months of the pandemic. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that higher levels of inflammation increase the vulnerability of older people to impaired mental health in the presence of the widespread stress of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542691

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on how nutrition may help prevent and/or assist with recovery from the harmful effects of strenuous acute exercise and physical training (decreased immunity, organ injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fatigue), with a focus on nutritional supplements. First, the effects of ketogenic diets on metabolism and inflammation are considered. Second, the effects of various supplements on immune function are discussed, including antioxidant defense modulators (vitamin C, sulforaphane, taheebo), and inflammation reducers (colostrum and hyperimmunized milk). Third, how 3-hydroxy-3-methyl butyrate monohydrate (HMB) may offset muscle damage is reviewed. Fourth and finally, the relationship between exercise, nutrition and COVID-19 infection is briefly mentioned. While additional verification of the safety and efficacy of these supplements is still necessary, current evidence suggests that these supplements have potential applications for health promotion and disease prevention among athletes and more diverse populations.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Athletes , Dietary Supplements , Exercise/immunology , Oxidative Stress , Physical Endurance , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Physical Endurance/drug effects , Physical Endurance/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sports Nutritional Sciences
10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3487-3496, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Black individuals have been disproportionately affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether there are any biological factors that predispose Black patients to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To compare in-hospital morbidity, mortality, and inflammatory marker levels between Black and White hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed data for Black and White patients aged ≥18 years hospitalized with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test between March 1, 2020, and August 4, 2020. MAIN MEASURES: The exposure was self-identified race documented in the medical record. The primary outcome of was in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admission, hospital morbidities, and inflammatory marker levels. KEY RESULTS: A total of 1,424 Black and White patients were identified. The mean ± SD age was 56.1 ± 17.4 years, and 663 (44.5%) were female. There were 683 (48.0%) Black and 741 (52.0%) White patients. In the univariate analysis, Black patients had longer hospital stays (8.1 ± 10.2 vs. 6.7 ± 8.3 days, p = 0.011) and tended to have higher rates of in-hospital death (11.0% vs. 7.3%), myocardial infarction (6.9% vs. 4.5%), pulmonary embolism (PE; 5.0% vs. 2.3%), and acute kidney injury (AKI; 39.4% vs. 23.1%) than White patients (p <0.05). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, only PE (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.07, 95% CI, 1.13-3.79) and AKI (aOR 2.16, 95% CI, 1.57-2.97) were statistically significantly associated with Black race. In comparison with White patients, Black patients had statistically significantly higher peak plasma D-dimer (standardized ß = 0.10), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (standardized ß = 0.13), ferritin (standardized ß = 0.09), and lactate dehydrogenase (standardized ß = 0.11), after adjusting for potential confounders (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Black hospitalized COVID-19 patients had increased risks of developing PE and AKI and higher inflammatory marker levels compared with White patients. This observation may be explained by differences in the prevalence and severity of underlying comorbidities and other unmeasured biologic risk factors between Black and White patients. Future research is needed to investigate the mechanism of these observed differences in outcomes of severe COVID-19 infection in Black versus White patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1636816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455769

ABSTRACT

Respiratory inflammation is caused by an air-mediated disease induced by polluted air, smoke, bacteria, and viruses. The COVID-19 pandemic is also a kind of respiratory disease, induced by a virus causing a serious effect on the lungs, bronchioles, and pharynges that results in oxygen deficiency. Extensive research has been conducted to find out the potent natural products that help to prevent, treat, and manage respiratory diseases. Traditionally, wider floras were reported to be used, such as Morus alba, Artemisia indica, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis gigantea, but only some of the potent compounds from some of the plants have been scientifically validated. Plant-derived natural products such as colchicine, zingerone, forsythiaside A, mangiferin, glycyrrhizin, curcumin, and many other compounds are found to have a promising effect on treating and managing respiratory inflammation. In this review, current clinically approved drugs along with the efficacy and side effects have been studied. The study also focuses on the traditional uses of medicinal plants on reducing respiratory complications and their bioactive phytoconstituents. The pharmacological evidence of lowering respiratory complications by plant-derived natural products has been critically studied with detailed mechanism and action. However, the scientific validation of such compounds requires clinical study and evidence on animal and human models to replace modern commercial medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/epidemiology , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry
12.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(6): 899-909, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447044

ABSTRACT

This review comprehensively summarizes epidemiologic evidence of COVID-19 in patients with Type 2 diabetes, explores pathophysiological mechanisms, and integrates recommendations and guidelines for patient management. We found that diabetes was a risk factor for diagnosed infection and poor prognosis of COVID-19. Patients with diabetes may be more susceptible to adverse outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection due to impaired immune function and possible upregulation of enzymes that mediate viral invasion. The chronic inflammation caused by diabetes, coupled with the acute inflammatory reaction caused by SARS-CoV-2, results in a propensity for inflammatory storm. Patients with diabetes should be aware of their increased risk for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(11): 1822-1831, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317539

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite growing evidence about myocardial injury in hospitalized COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the mechanism behind this injury is only poorly understood and little is known about its association with SARS-CoV-2-mediated myocarditis. Furthermore, definite evidence of the presence and role of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiomyocytes in the clinical scenario is still lacking. METHODS: We histologically characterized myocardial tissue of 40 patients deceased with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of the pandemic. Clinical data were also recorded and analyzed. In case of findings supportive of myocardial inflammation, histological analysis was complemented by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens and in situ RNA hybridization for the detection of viral genomes. RESULTS: Both chronic and acute myocardial damage was invariably present, correlating with the age and comorbidities of our population. Myocarditis of overt entity was found in one case (2.5%). SARS-CoV-2 genome was not found in the cardiomyocytes of the patient with myocarditis, while it was focally and negligibly present in cardiomyocytes of patients with known viral persistence in the lungs and no signs of myocardial inflammation. The presence of myocardial injury was not associated with myocardial inflammatory infiltrates. CONCLUSIONS: In this autopsy cohort of COVID-19 patients, myocarditis is rarely found and not associated with SARS-CoV-2 presence in cardiomyocytes. Chronic and acute forms of myocardial damage are constantly found and correlate with the severity of COVID-19 disease and pre-existing comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/virology , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 663, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with severe illness. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and three electronic Chinese databases were searched from December 1, 2019 to April 29, 2020. Eligible studies reporting potential predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19 were identified. Unadjusted prognostic effect estimates were pooled using the random-effects model if data from at least two studies were available. Adjusted prognostic effect estimates were presented by qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six observational studies were identified, of which 27 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 106 potential risk factors were tested, and the following important predictors were associated with mortality: advanced age, male sex, current smoking status, preexisting comorbidities (especially chronic kidney, respiratory, and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases), symptoms of dyspnea, complications during hospitalization, corticosteroid therapy and a severe condition. Additionally, a series of abnormal laboratory biomarkers of hematologic parameters, hepatorenal function, inflammation, coagulation, and cardiovascular injury were also associated with fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: We identified predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These findings could help healthcare providers take appropriate measures and improve clinical outcomes in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Age Distribution , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Smokers/statistics & numerical data
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285399

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease that causes severe pulmonary damage and hyperinflammation. Vitamin A is a crucial factor in the development of immune functions and is known to be reduced in cases of acute inflammation. This prospective, multicenter observational cross-sectional study analyzed vitamin A plasma levels in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, and 40 hospitalized patients were included. Of these, 22 developed critical disease (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [ARDS]/Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]), 9 developed severe disease (oxygen supplementation), and 9 developed moderate disease (no oxygen supplementation). A total of 47 age-matched convalescent persons that had been earlier infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included as the control group. Vitamin A plasma levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Reduced vitamin A plasma levels correlated significantly with increased levels of inflammatory markers (CRP, ferritin) and with markers of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (reduced lymphocyte count, LDH). Vitamin A levels were significantly lower in hospitalized patients than in convalescent persons (p < 0.01). Of the hospitalized patients, those who were critically ill showed significantly lower vitamin A levels than those who were moderately ill (p < 0.05). Vitamin A plasma levels below 0.2 mg/L were significantly associated with the development of ARDS (OR = 5.54 [1.01-30.26]; p = 0.048) and mortality (OR 5.21 [1.06-25.5], p = 0.042). Taken together, we conclude that vitamin A plasma levels in COVID-19 patients are reduced during acute inflammation and that severely reduced plasma levels of vitamin A are significantly associated with ARDS and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Vitamin A/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264219

ABSTRACT

Most deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occur in older subjects. We assessed the utility of serum inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin (Roche, Indianapolis, IN), and SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and neutralizing antibodies (Diazyme, Poway, CA). In controls, non-hospitalized subjects, and hospitalized subjects assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (n = 278), median IgG levels in arbitrary units (AU)/mL were 0.05 in negative subjects, 14.83 in positive outpatients, and 30.61 in positive hospitalized patients (P<0.0001). Neutralizing antibody levels correlated significantly with IgG (r = 0.875; P<0.0001). Having combined values of IL-6 ≥10 pg/mL and CRP ≥10 mg/L occurred in 97.7% of inpatients versus 1.8% of outpatients (odds ratio 3,861, C statistic 0.976, P = 1.00 x 10-12). Antibody or ferritin levels did not add significantly to predicting hospitalization. Antibody testing in family members and contacts of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive cases (n = 759) was invaluable for case finding. Persistent IgM levels were associated with chronic COVID-19 symptoms. In 81,624 screened subjects, IgG levels were positive (≥1.0 AU/mL) in 5.21%, while IgM levels were positive in 2.96% of subjects. In positive subjects median IgG levels in AU/mL were 3.14 if <30 years of age, 4.38 if 30-44 years of age, 7.89 if 45-54 years of age, 9.52 if 55-64 years of age, and 10.64 if ≥65 years of age (P = 2.96 x 10-38). Our data indicate that: 1) combined IL-6 ≥10 pg/mL and CRP ≥10 mg/L identify SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects requiring hospitalization; 2) IgG levels were significantly correlated with neutralizing antibody levels with a wide range of responses; 3) IgG levels have significant utility for case finding in exposed subjects; 4) persistently elevated IgM levels are associated with chronic symptoms; and 5) IgG levels are significantly higher in positive older subjects than their younger counterparts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Inflammation/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aging , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Ferritins/immunology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(10): 1719-1730, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether obesity is independently associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and inflammatory and thrombotic markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units across the US. Secondary outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT), thrombotic events, and seven blood markers of inflammation and thrombosis. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted models were used. RESULTS: Among the 4,908 study patients, mean (SD) age was 60.9 (14.7) years, 3,095 (62.8%) were male, and 2,552 (52.0%) had obesity. In multivariable models, BMI was not associated with mortality. Higher BMI beginning at 25 kg/m2 was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT but not thrombosis. There was no clinically significant association between BMI and inflammatory or thrombotic markers. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with COVID-19, higher BMI was not associated with death or thrombotic events but was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT. The lack of an association between BMI and circulating biomarkers calls into question the paradigm that obesity contributes to poor outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 by upregulating systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
20.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 466-468, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic inflammation has been reported as a new predictor for COVID-19 outcomes. Thus, we hypothesized that ICU patients infected by COVID-19 had lower blood vitamin D levels and increased systemic inflammation. Therefore, this is the first Brazilian study to evaluate the vitamin D concentrations and NLR as a systemic inflammation in patients infected by COVID-19 admitted in ICU. METHODS: This cross-sectional study selected twenty-six patients from COVID-19 Data Sharing/FAPESP, Brazil. Twenty-five patients were enrolled from a single hospital and those with blood vitamin D and neutrophil and lymphocyte data were included and had all available data analyzed. Patients were divided in two groups: low vitamin D concentration when ≤20 ng/mL (low Vit D group, n = 8, 5M/3F, 62.7 ± 8.4 years old), and normal vitamin D when > 20 ng/mL (normal Vit D group, n = 17, 9M/8F, 74 ± 8.2 years old). Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, C reactive protein (CRP), and count of neutrophils and lymphocytes concentrations were collected from COVID-19 Data Sharing/FAPESP. Statistical analyses were performed using the Prism version 5.0 and Student T test was applied to verify any difference between the groups. RESULTS: Low vitamin D group had 15.5 ± 3.3 ng/mL of 25OH Vit D concentrations and normal vitamin D group had 35.9 ± 8.8 ng/mL. Although no difference between groups for CRP concentrations (low Vit D: 4.5 ± 3.3 vs. normal Vit D: 4.2 ± 4.0 mg/dL, p = 0.45), we found higher neutrophil count and NLR values in the low Vit D group when compared to normal Vit D group (low Vit D: 6049.8 ± 3719.7 vs. normal Vit D: 3741.8 ± 1704.1 ng/mL, p = 0.02) and (low Vit D: 9.0 ± 8.6 vs. normal Vit D: 4.2 ± 4.0 ng/mL, p = 0.03), respectively. CONCLUSION: This data sharing-derived cases of COVID-19 in patients admitted at ICU showed that patients infected by COVID-19 had lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and enhanced systemic inflammation when assessed by NLR values.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Neutrophils/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL