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1.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 55, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections by viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could cause organ inflammations such as myocarditis, pneumonia and encephalitis. Innate immunity to viral nucleic acids mediates antiviral immunity as well as inflammatory organ injury. However, the innate immune mechanisms that control viral induced organ inflammations are unclear. METHODS: To understand the role of the E3 ligase TRIM18 in controlling viral myocarditis and organ inflammation, wild-type and Trim18 knockout mice were infected with coxsackievirus B3 for inducing viral myocarditis, influenza A virus PR8 strain and human adenovirus for inducing viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex virus type I for inducing herpes simplex encephalitis. Mice survivals were monitored, and heart, lung and brain were harvested for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Real-time PCR, co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, luciferase assay, flow cytometry, over-expression and knockdown techniques were used to understand the molecular mechanisms of TRIM18 in regulating type I interferon (IFN) production after virus infection in this study. RESULTS: We find that knockdown or deletion of TRIM18 in human or mouse macrophages enhances production of type I IFN in response to double strand (ds) RNA and dsDNA or RNA and DNA virus infection. Importantly, deletion of TRIM18 protects mice from viral myocarditis, viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex encephalitis due to enhanced type I IFN production in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that TRIM18 recruits protein phosphatase 1A (PPM1A) to dephosphorylate TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which inactivates TBK1 to block TBK1 from interacting with its upstream adaptors, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby dampening antiviral signaling during viral infections. Moreover, TRIM18 stabilizes PPM1A by inducing K63-linked ubiquitination of PPM1A. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that TRIM18 serves as a negative regulator of viral myocarditis, lung inflammation and brain damage by downregulating innate immune activation induced by both RNA and DNA viruses. Our data reveal that TRIM18 is a critical regulator of innate immunity in viral induced diseases, thereby identifying a potential therapeutic target for treatment.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Myocarditis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Myocarditis/genetics , Myocarditis/virology , Protein Phosphatase 2C , RNA , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
2.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089429

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil infiltration and dysfunction contribute to the progression and severity of hyper-inflammatory syndrome, such as in severe COVID19. In the current study, we re-analysed published scRNA-seq datasets of mouse and human neutrophils to classify and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying neutrophil differentiation and inflammatory responses. Distinct sets of TF modules regulate neutrophil maturation, function, and inflammatory responses under the steady state and inflammatory conditions. In COVID19 patients, neutrophil activation was associated with the selective activation of inflammation-specific TF modules. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive neutrophils showed a higher expression of type I interferon response TF IRF7. Furthermore, IRF7 expression was abundant in neutrophils from severe patients in progression stage. Neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses positively correlate with the expressional level of IRF7. Based on these results, we suggest that differential activation of activation-related TFs, such as IRF7 mediate neutrophil inflammatory responses during inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/physiology , Neutrophils/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(11): 1307-1320, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053481

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation promotes thrombosis via a VWF (von Willebrand factor)-mediated mechanism. VWF plays an essential role in maintaining the balance between blood coagulation and bleeding, and inflammation can lead to aberrant regulation. VWF is regulated on a transcriptional and (post-)translational level, and its secretion into the circulation captures platelets upon endothelial activation. The significant progress that has been made in understanding transcriptional and translational regulation of VWF is described in this review. First, we describe how VWF is regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational level with a specific focus on the influence of inflammatory and immune responses. Next, we describe how changes in regulation are linked with various cardiovascular diseases. Recent insights from clinical diseases provide evidence for direct molecular links between inflammation and thrombosis, including atherosclerosis, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and COVID-19. Finally, we will briefly describe clinical implications for antithrombotic treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , von Willebrand Diseases , Humans , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets , Inflammation/genetics
4.
Sci Adv ; 8(37): eabo0732, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic turned the whole world upside down in a short time. One of the main challenges faced has been to understand COVID-19-associated life-threatening hyperinflammation, the so-called cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). We report here the proinflammatory role of Spike (S) proteins from different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern in zebrafish. We found that wild-type/Wuhan variant S1 (S1WT) promoted neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, local and systemic hyperinflammation, emergency myelopoiesis, and hemorrhages. In addition, S1γ was more proinflammatory S1δ was less proinflammatory than S1WT, and, notably, S1ß promoted delayed and long-lasting inflammation. Pharmacological inhibition of the canonical inflammasome alleviated S1-induced inflammation and emergency myelopoiesis. In contrast, genetic inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 strengthened the proinflammatory activity of S1, and angiotensin (1-7) fully rescued S1-induced hyperinflammation and hemorrhages. These results shed light into the mechanisms orchestrating the COVID-19-associated CSS and the host immune response to different SARS-CoV-2 S protein variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism
5.
Alcohol ; 103: 1-7, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035682

ABSTRACT

On November 19th, 2021, the annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The 2021 meeting focused on how alcohol misuse is linked to immune system derangements, leading to tissue and organ damage, and how this research can be translated into improving treatment of alcohol-related disease. This meeting was divided into three plenary sessions: the first session focused on how alcohol misuse affects different parts of the immune system, the second session presented research on mechanisms of organ damage from alcohol misuse, and the final session highlighted research on potential therapeutic targets for treating alcohol-mediated tissue damage. Diverse areas of alcohol research were covered during the meeting, from alcohol's effect on pulmonary systems and neuroinflammation to epigenetic changes, senescence markers, and microvesicle particles. These presentations yielded a thoughtful discussion on how the findings can lead to therapeutic treatments for people suffering from alcohol-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alcoholism/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Public Opinion
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 318, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028663

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis and lethality of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the N proteins of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), were found to bind MASP-2, a key serine protease in the lectin pathway of complement activation, resulting in excessive complement activation by potentiating MBL-dependent MASP-2 activation, and the deposition of MASP-2, C4b, activated C3 and C5b-9. Aggravated inflammatory lung injury was observed in mice infected with adenovirus expressing the N protein. Complement hyperactivation was also observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Either blocking the N protein:MASP-2 interaction, MASP-2 depletion or suppressing complement activation can significantly alleviate N protein-induced complement hyperactivation and lung injury in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these data suggested that complement suppression may represent a novel therapeutic approach for pneumonia induced by these highly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases/genetics , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 110: 109040, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991087

ABSTRACT

Known as a pivotal immunohemostatic response, immunothrombosis is activated to restrict the diffusion of pathogens. This beneficial intravascular defensive mechanism represents the close interaction between the immune and coagulation systems. However, its uncontrolled form can be life-threatening to patients with the critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hyperinflammation and ensuing cytokine storm underlie the activation of the coagulation system, something which results in the provocation of more immune-inflammatory responses by the thrombotic mediators. This vicious cycle causes grave clinical complications and higher risks of mortality. Classified as an evolutionarily conserved family of the small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as the fine-tuners of genes expression and play a key role in balancing the pro/anticoagulant and pro-/anti-inflammatory factors maintaining homeostasis. Therefore, any deviation from their optimal expression levels or efficient functions can lead to severe complications. Despite their extensive effects on the molecules and processes involved in uncontrolled immunothrombosis, some genetic agents and uncontrolled immunothrombosis-induced interfering factors (e.g., miRNA-single nucleotide polymorphysms (miR-SNPs), the complement system components, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) have apparently disrupted their expressions/functions. This review study aims to give an overview of the role of miRNAs in the context of uncontrolled immunothrombosis/thromboinflammation accompanied by some presumptive interfering factors affecting their expressions/functions in the critical COVID-19. Detecting, monitoring, and resolving these interfering agents mafy facilitate the design and development of the novel miRNAs-based therapeutic approaches to the reduction of complications incidence and mortality in patients with the critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Thrombosis , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/genetics
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987494

ABSTRACT

Fibroblasts of different origins are known to possess stromal memory after inflammatory episodes. However, there are no studies exploring human lung fibroblast memory which may predict a subsequent inflammatory response in chronic respiratory diseases and COVID-19. MRC-5 and HF19 human lung fibroblast cell lines were treated using different primary and secondary stimulus combinations: TNFα-WD-TNFα, Poly (I:C)-WD-TNFα, TNFα-WD-Poly (I:C), or LPS-WD-TNFα with a 24-h rest period (withdrawal period; WD) between the two 24-h stimulations. TLR3 and NF-κB inhibitors were used to determine pathways involved. The effect of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein to inflammatory response of lung fibroblasts was also investigated. mRNA expressions of genes and IL6 release were measured using qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Statistical significance was determined by using one- or two-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc analysis for comparison of multiple groups. Preexposure with Poly (I:C) significantly increased TNFα-induced IL6 gene expression and IL6 release in both cell lines, while it affected neither gene expressions of IL1B, IL2, IL8, and MMP8 nor fibrosis-related genes: ACTA2, COL1A1, POSTN, and TGFB1. Inhibition of TLR3 or NF-κB during primary stimulation significantly downregulated IL6 release. Simultaneous treatment of MRC-5 cells with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein further increased TNFα-induced IL6 release; however, preexposure to Poly (I:C) did not affect it. Human lung fibroblasts are capable of retaining inflammatory memory and showed an augmented response upon secondary exposure. These results may contribute to the possibility of training human lung fibroblasts to respond suitably on inflammatory episodes after viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Poly I-C/metabolism , Poly I-C/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 261, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967592

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a pivotal role in lipid including cholesterol metabolism. The APOE ε4 (APOE4) allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Although APOE has recently been associated with increased susceptibility to infections of several viruses, whether and how APOE and its isoforms affect SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Here, we show that serum concentrations of APOE correlate inversely with levels of cytokine/chemokine in 73 COVID-19 patients. Utilizing multiple protein interaction assays, we demonstrate that APOE3 and APOE4 interact with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2; and APOE/ACE2 interactions require zinc metallopeptidase domain of ACE2, a key docking site for SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. In addition, immuno-imaging assays using confocal, super-resolution, and transmission electron microscopies reveal that both APOE3 and APOE4 reduce ACE2/Spike-mediated viral entry into cells. Interestingly, while having a comparable binding affinity to ACE2, APOE4 inhibits viral entry to a lesser extent compared to APOE3, which is likely due to APOE4's more compact structure and smaller spatial obstacle to compete against Spike binding to ACE2. Furthermore, APOE ε4 carriers clinically correlate with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection and elevated serum inflammatory factors in 142 COVID-19 patients assessed. Our study suggests a regulatory mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection through APOE interactions with ACE2, which may explain in part increased COVID-19 infection and disease severity in APOE ε4 carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Apolipoprotein E3/metabolism , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Nature ; 607(7918): 249-255, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947377

ABSTRACT

Our body has a remarkable ability to remember its past encounters with allergens, pathogens, wounds and irritants, and to react more quickly to the next experience. This accentuated sensitivity also helps us to cope with new threats. Despite maintaining a state of readiness and broadened resistance to subsequent pathogens, memories can also be maladaptive, leading to chronic inflammatory disorders and cancers. With the ever-increasing emergence of new pathogens, allergens and pollutants in our world, the urgency to unravel the molecular underpinnings of these phenomena has risen to new heights. Here we reflect on how the field of inflammatory memory has evolved, since 2007, when researchers realized that non-specific memory is contained in the nucleus and propagated at the epigenetic level. We review the flurry of recent discoveries revealing that memory is not just a privilege of the immune system but also extends to epithelia of the skin, lung, intestine and pancreas, and to neurons. Although still unfolding, epigenetic memories of inflammation have now been linked to possible brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease, and to an elevated risk of cancer. In this Review, we consider the consequences-good and bad-of these epigenetic memories and their implications for human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Epigenesis, Genetic , Health , Inflammation , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934131

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN) signaling resulting from external or internal inflammatory processes initiates the rapid release of cytokines and chemokines to target viral or bacterial invasion, as well as cancer and other diseases. Prolonged exposure to IFNs, or the overexpression of other cytokines, leads to immune exhaustion, enhancing inflammation and leading to the persistence of infection and promotion of disease. Hence, to control and stabilize an excessive immune response, approaches for the management of inflammation are required. The potential use of peptides as anti-inflammatory agents has been previously demonstrated. Our team discovered, and previously published, a 9-amino-acid cyclic peptide named ALOS4 which exhibits anti-cancer properties in vivo and in vitro. We suggested that the anti-cancer effect of ALOS4 arises from interaction with the immune system, possibly through the modulation of inflammatory processes. Here, we show that treatment with ALOS4 decreases basal cytokine levels in mice with chronic inflammation and prolongs the lifespan of mice with acute systemic inflammation induced by irradiation. We also show that pretreatment with ALOS4 reduces the expression of IFN alpha, IFN lambda, and selected interferon-response genes triggered by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, while upregulating the expression of other genes with antiviral activity. Hence, we conclude that ALOS4 does not prevent IFN signaling, but rather supports the antiviral response by upregulating the expression of interferon-response genes in an interferon-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Interferon-alpha , Interferons , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferons/genetics , Mice , Poly I-C/pharmacology
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 881289, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896683

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an emerging coronavirus which causes acute diarrhea and destroys gastrointestinal barrier function in neonatal pigs. Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a protective peptide for maintaining the integrity of gastrointestinal mucosa and reducing intestinal inflammation. However, its role in protecting intestinal epithelium against PEDV infection is still unclear. In this study, we discovered that TFF1 expression was activated in the jejunum of pigs with PEDV infection and TFF1 is required for the growth of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. For instance, inhibited cell proliferation and cell arrest were observed when TFF1 is genetically knocked-out using CRISPR-Cas9. Additionally, TFF1 depletion increased viral copy number and PEDV titer, along with the elevated genes involved in antiviral and inflammatory cytokines. The decreased TFF1 mRNA expression is in line with hypermethylation on the gene promoter. Notably, the strong interactions of protein-DNA complexes containing CCAAT motif significantly increased C/EBPα accessibility, whereas hypermethylation of mC-6 loci decreased C/EBPα binding occupancies in TFF1 promoter. Overall, our findings show that PEDV triggers the C/EBPα-mediated epigenetic regulation of TFF1 in intestine epithelium and facilitates host resistance to PEDV and other Coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epigenesis, Genetic , Inflammation/genetics , Jejunum , Methylation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Trefoil Factor-1/genetics
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875646

ABSTRACT

In the present decade, we are seeing a rapid increase in available genetics and multiomics information on blood and vascular components of the human and mammalian circulation, involved in haemostasis, athero- and venous thrombosis, and thrombo-inflammation [...].


Subject(s)
Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Animals , Hemostasis/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Mammals , Thrombosis/genetics
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875642

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an overactivated inflammatory response caused by direct or indirect injuries that destroy lung parenchymal cells and dramatically reduce lung function. Although some research progress has been made in recent years, the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS remains unclear due to its heterogeneity and etiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of small noncoding RNA, play a vital role in various diseases. In ALI/ARDS, miRNAs can regulate inflammatory and immune responses by targeting specific molecules. Regulation of miRNA expression can reduce damage and promote the recovery of ALI/ARDS. Consequently, miRNAs are considered as potential diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of ALI/ARDS. Given that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, we review the miRNAs involved in the inflammatory process of ALI/ARDS to provide new ideas for the pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, and treatment of ALI/ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Lung/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics
16.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 26(3): 102354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803609

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: One of the hallmarks of COVID-19 is overwhelming inflammation, which plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Thus, identification of inflammatory factors that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 can be very important to control and diagnose the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns of inflammation-related non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including MALAT-1, NEAT-1, THRIL, and miR-155-5p from the acute phase to the recovery phase of COVID-19. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC) samples of 20 patients with acute COVID-19 infection and 20 healthy individuals and the expression levels of MALAT-1, NEAT-1, THRIL, and miR-155-5p were evaluated by real-time PCR assay. Besides, in order to monitor the expression pattern of selected ncRNAs from the acute phase to the recovery phase of COVID-19 disease, the levels of ncRNAs were re-measured 6‒7 weeks after the acute phase. RESULT: The mean expression levels of MALAT-1, THRIL, and miR-155-5p were significantly increased in the acute phase of COVID-19 compared with a healthy control group. In addition, the expression levels of MALAT-1 and THRIL in the post-acute phase of COVID-19 were significantly lower than in the acute phase of COVID-19. According to the ROC curve analysis, these ncRNAs could be considered useful biomarkers for COVID-19 diagnosis and for discriminating between acute and post-acute phase of COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Inflammation-related ncRNAs (MALAT-1, THRIL, and miR-150-5p) can act as hopeful biomarkers for the monitoring and diagnosis of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , RNA, Long Noncoding , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Immunol ; 208(8): 1968-1977, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776404

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has caused >5 million deaths in the world. One of the leading causes of the severe form of COVID-19 is the production of massive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone/DNA methylation, miRNA, and long noncoding RNA, are known to play important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In this study, we investigated if hospitalized COVID-19 patients exhibit alterations in epigenetic pathways in their PBMCs. We also compared gene expression profiles between healthy controls and COVID-19 patients. Despite individual variations, the expressions of many inflammation-related genes, such as arginase 1 and IL-1 receptor 2, were significantly upregulated in COVID-19 patients. We also found the expressions of coagulation-related genes Von Willebrand factor and protein S were altered in COVID-19 patients. The expression patterns of some genes, such as IL-1 receptor 2, correlated with their histone methylation marks. Pathway analysis indicated that most of those dysregulated genes were in the TGF-ß, IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-17 pathways. A targeting pathway revealed that the majority of those altered genes were targets of dexamethasone, which is an approved drug for COVID-19 treatment. We also found that the expression of bone marrow kinase on chromosome X, a member of TEC family kinases, was increased in the PBMCs of COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, some inhibitors of TEC family kinases have been used to treat COVID-19. Overall, this study provides important information toward identifying potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology , Gene Expression , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-1/metabolism , Transcriptome
19.
Redox Rep ; 27(1): 85-91, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774187

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Due to the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, it is biologically plausible that inter-individual differences in patients' clinical manifestations might be affected by antioxidant genetic profile. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of antioxidant genetic polymorphisms Nrf2 rs6721961, SOD2 rs4880, GPX1 rs1050450, GPX3 rs8177412, and GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) haplotype in COVID-19 patients and controls, with special emphasis on their association with laboratory biochemical parameters.Methods: The antioxidant genetic polymorphisms were assessed by appropriate PCR methods in 229 COVID-19 patients and 229 matched healthy individuals.Results: Among examined polymorphisms, only GSTP1 haplotype was associated with COVID-19 risk (p = 0.009). Polymorphisms of SOD2 and GPX1 influenced COVID-19 patients' laboratory biochemical profile: SOD2*Val allele was associated with increased levels of fibrinogen (p = 0.040) and ferritin (p = 0.033), whereas GPX1*Leu allele was associated with D-dimmer (p = 0.009).Discussion: Our findings regarding the influence of SOD2 and GPX1 polymorphisms on inflammation and coagulation parameters might be of clinical importance. If confirmed in larger cohorts, these developments could provide a more personalized approach for better recognition of patients prone to thrombosis and those for the need of targeted antiox-idant therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glutathione Peroxidase , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/genetics , Glutathione Peroxidase/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Serbia , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics
20.
mBio ; 13(2): e0040222, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765083

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers cytokine-mediated inflammation, leading to a myriad of clinical presentations in COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 8 (ORF8) is a secreted and rapidly evolving glycoprotein. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants with ORF8 deleted are associated with mild disease outcomes, but the molecular mechanism behind this is unknown. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 is a viral cytokine that is similar to but distinct from interleukin 17A (IL-17A) as it induces stronger and broader human IL-17 receptor (hIL-17R) signaling than IL-17A. ORF8 primarily targeted blood monocytes and induced the heterodimerization of hIL-17RA and hIL-17RC, triggering a robust inflammatory response. Transcriptome analysis revealed that besides its activation of the hIL-17R pathway, ORF8 upregulated gene expression for fibrosis signaling and coagulation dysregulation. A naturally occurring ORF8 L84S variant that was highly associated with mild COVID-19 showed reduced hIL-17RA binding and attenuated inflammatory responses. This study reveals how SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 by a viral mimicry of the IL-17 cytokine contributes to COVID-19 severe inflammation. IMPORTANCE Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants lacking open reading frame 8 (ORF8) have been associated with milder infection and disease outcome, but the molecular mechanism behind how this viral accessory protein mediates disease pathogenesis is not yet known. In our study, we revealed that secreted ORF8 protein mimics host IL-17 to activate IL-17 receptors A and C (IL-17RA/C) and induces a significantly stronger inflammatory response than host IL-17A, providing molecular insights into the role of ORF8 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and serving as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Interleukin-17/genetics , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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