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1.
Crit Care Med ; 51(6): 817-825, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255043

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Interindividual variability in the clinical progression of COVID-19 may be explained by host genetics. Emerging literature supports a potential inherited predisposition to severe forms of COVID-19. Demographic and inflammatory characteristics of COVID-19 suggest that acquired hematologic mutations leading to clonal hematopoiesis (CH) may further increase vulnerability to adverse sequelae. This review summarizes the available literature examining genetic predispositions to severe COVID-19 and describes how these findings could eventually be used to improve its clinical management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed literature search was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Studies examining the significance of inherited genetic variation or acquired CH mutations in severe COVID-19 were selected for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant genetic association data and aspects of study design were qualitatively assessed and narratively synthesized. DATA SYNTHESIS: Genetic variants affecting inflammatory responses may increase susceptibility to severe COVID-19. Genome-wide association studies and candidate gene approaches have identified a list of inherited mutations, which likely alter cytokine and interferon secretion, and lung-specific mechanisms of immunity in COVID-19. The potential role of CH in COVID-19 is more uncertain at present; however, the available evidence suggests that the various types of acquired mutations and their differential influence on immune cell function must be carefully considered. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature supports the hypothesis that host genetic factors affect vulnerability to severe COVID-19. Further research is required to confirm the full scope of relevant variants and the causal mechanisms underlying these associations. Clinical approaches, which consider the genetic basis of interindividual variability in COVID-19 and potentially other causes of critical illness, could optimize hospital resource allocation, predict responsiveness to treatment, identify more efficacious drug targets, and ultimately improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Genome-Wide Association Study , Inflammation/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
2.
Nat Cell Biol ; 25(4): 526-527, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249840
3.
PLoS Genet ; 19(3): e1010387, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem globally, even compared to COVID-19. Genome-wide studies have failed to discover genes that explain a large proportion of genetic risk for adult pulmonary TB, and even fewer have examined genetic factors underlying TB severity, an intermediate trait impacting disease experience, quality of life, and risk of mortality. No prior severity analyses used a genome-wide approach. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As part of our ongoing household contact study in Kampala, Uganda, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TB severity measured by TBScore, in two independent cohorts of culture-confirmed adult TB cases (n = 149 and n = 179). We identified 3 SNPs (P<1.0 x 10-7) including one on chromosome 5, rs1848553, that was GWAS significant (meta-analysis p = 2.97x10-8). All three SNPs are in introns of RGS7BP and have effect sizes corresponding to clinically meaningful reductions in disease severity. RGS7BP is highly expressed in blood vessels and plays a role in infectious disease pathogenesis. Other genes with suggestive associations defined gene sets involved in platelet homeostasis and transport of organic anions. To explore functional implications of the TB severity-associated variants, we conducted eQTL analyses using expression data from Mtb-stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages. A single variant (rs2976562) associated with monocyte SLA expression (p = 0.03) and subsequent analyses indicated that SLA downregulation following MTB stimulation associated with increased TB severity. Src Like Adaptor (SLAP-1), encoded by SLA, is highly expressed in immune cells and negatively regulates T cell receptor signaling, providing a potential mechanistic link to TB severity. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses reveal new insights into the genetics of TB severity with regulation of platelet homeostasis and vascular biology being central to consequences for active TB patients. This analysis also reveals genes that regulate inflammation can lead to differences in severity. Our findings provide an important step in improving TB patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Adult , Humans , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Inflammation/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Quality of Life , Tuberculosis/genetics , Uganda , Quantitative Trait Loci
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 108, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268983

ABSTRACT

Cardiopulmonary complications are major drivers of mortality caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Interleukin-18, an inflammasome-induced cytokine, has emerged as a novel mediator of cardiopulmonary pathologies but its regulation via SARS-CoV-2 signaling remains unknown. Based on a screening panel, IL-18 was identified amongst 19 cytokines to stratify mortality and hospitalization burden in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Supporting clinical data, administration of SARS-CoV-2 Spike 1 (S1) glycoprotein or receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins into human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction associated with higher NF-κB phosphorylation (pNF-κB) and cardiopulmonary-derived IL-18 and NLRP3 expression. IL-18 inhibition via IL-18BP resulted in decreased cardiac pNF-κB and improved cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in S1- or RBD-exposed hACE2 mice. Through in vivo and in vitro work, both S1 and RBD proteins induced NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-18 expression by inhibiting mitophagy and increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygenation species. Enhancing mitophagy prevented Spike protein-mediated IL-18 expression. Moreover, IL-18 inhibition reduced Spike protein-mediated pNF-κB and EC permeability. Overall, the link between reduced mitophagy and inflammasome activation represents a novel mechanism during COVID-19 pathogenesis and suggests IL-18 and mitophagy as potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Mice , Animals , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Mitophagy/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Cytokines
5.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(3): e809, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe and fatal respiratory disease. SIRT6 exerts pivotal activities in the process of lung diseases, but whether SIRT6 impacts ALI has not been covered. METHODS: Lentivirus recombinant expressing vector SIRT6 gene (Lent-SIRT6) was constructed in mice, and there were control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + Vehicle, and LPS + Lent SIRT6 groups. RT-qPCR and western blot detected SIRT6 expression in lung tissues. HE staining observed pathological alternations in lung tissues. Wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs was then measured. The cell count of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated. Serum inflammation was examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and western blot were to measure apoptosis. Western blot tested the expression of ACE2/STAT3/PIM1 signaling-associated factors. At the cellular level, LPS was used to induce lung epithelial cells BEAS-2B to establish cell injury models. SIRT6 was overexpressed and ACE2 expression was inhibited by cell transfection, and the mechanism of SIRT6 in LPS-induced lung injury model was further explored by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), western blot, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, TUNEL, and other techniques. RESULTS: The results of animal experiments showed that SIRT6 overexpression could reduce LPS-induced lung pathological injury, pulmonary edema, and BALF cell ratio and attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory response and cell apoptosis. In the above process, ACE2, STAT3, p-STAT3, and PIM1 expression were affected. In cell experiments, SIRT6 expression was reduced in LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of ACE2 expression could reverse the inhibitory effect of SIRT6 overexpression on ACE2/STAT3/PIM1 pathway, and cellular inflammatory response and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: SIRT6 eased LPS-evoked inflammation and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells in ALI through ACE2/STAT3/PIM1 signaling.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Sirtuins , Animals , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/pathology , Sirtuins/genetics , Sirtuins/metabolism
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215274

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods: We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results: We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion: Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Transcriptome , Down-Regulation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics
7.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 55, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections by viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could cause organ inflammations such as myocarditis, pneumonia and encephalitis. Innate immunity to viral nucleic acids mediates antiviral immunity as well as inflammatory organ injury. However, the innate immune mechanisms that control viral induced organ inflammations are unclear. METHODS: To understand the role of the E3 ligase TRIM18 in controlling viral myocarditis and organ inflammation, wild-type and Trim18 knockout mice were infected with coxsackievirus B3 for inducing viral myocarditis, influenza A virus PR8 strain and human adenovirus for inducing viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex virus type I for inducing herpes simplex encephalitis. Mice survivals were monitored, and heart, lung and brain were harvested for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Real-time PCR, co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, luciferase assay, flow cytometry, over-expression and knockdown techniques were used to understand the molecular mechanisms of TRIM18 in regulating type I interferon (IFN) production after virus infection in this study. RESULTS: We find that knockdown or deletion of TRIM18 in human or mouse macrophages enhances production of type I IFN in response to double strand (ds) RNA and dsDNA or RNA and DNA virus infection. Importantly, deletion of TRIM18 protects mice from viral myocarditis, viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex encephalitis due to enhanced type I IFN production in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that TRIM18 recruits protein phosphatase 1A (PPM1A) to dephosphorylate TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which inactivates TBK1 to block TBK1 from interacting with its upstream adaptors, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby dampening antiviral signaling during viral infections. Moreover, TRIM18 stabilizes PPM1A by inducing K63-linked ubiquitination of PPM1A. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that TRIM18 serves as a negative regulator of viral myocarditis, lung inflammation and brain damage by downregulating innate immune activation induced by both RNA and DNA viruses. Our data reveal that TRIM18 is a critical regulator of innate immunity in viral induced diseases, thereby identifying a potential therapeutic target for treatment.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Myocarditis , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Virus Diseases , Animals , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Myocarditis/genetics , Myocarditis/virology , Protein Phosphatase 2C , RNA , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123706

ABSTRACT

The epithelial barrier's primary role is to protect against entry of foreign and pathogenic elements. Both COVID-19 and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) show commonalities in symptoms and treatment with sensitization of the epithelial barrier inviting an immune response. In this study we use a multi-omics strategy to identify a common signature of immune disease that may be able to predict for more severe patient outcomes. Global proteomic approaches were applied to transcriptome and proteome. Further semi- and relative- quantitative targeted mass spectrometry methods were developed to substantiate the proteomic and metabolomics changes in nasal swabs from healthy, COVID-19 (24 h and 3 weeks post infection); serums from Crohn's disease patients (scored for epithelial leak), terminal ileum tissue biopsies (patient matched inflamed and non-inflamed regions, and controls). We found that the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism pathway is a 'hub' regulator of canonical and non-canonical transcription, macrophage release of cytokines and significant changes in the immune and metabolic status with increasing severity and disease course. Significantly modified pathways include stress response regulator EIF2 signaling (p = 1 × 10-3); energy metabolism, KYNU (p = 4 × 10-4), WARS (p = 1 × 10-7); inflammation, and IDO activity (p = 1 × 10-6). Heightened levels of PARP1, WARS and KYNU are predictive at the acute stage of infection for resilience, while in contrast, levels remained high and are predictive of persistent and more severe outcomes in COVID disease. Generation of a targeted marker profile showed these changes in immune disease underlay resolution of epithelial barrier function and have the potential to define disease trajectory and more severe patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Tryptophan/metabolism , Proteomics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Transcriptome
9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089429

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil infiltration and dysfunction contribute to the progression and severity of hyper-inflammatory syndrome, such as in severe COVID19. In the current study, we re-analysed published scRNA-seq datasets of mouse and human neutrophils to classify and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying neutrophil differentiation and inflammatory responses. Distinct sets of TF modules regulate neutrophil maturation, function, and inflammatory responses under the steady state and inflammatory conditions. In COVID19 patients, neutrophil activation was associated with the selective activation of inflammation-specific TF modules. SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive neutrophils showed a higher expression of type I interferon response TF IRF7. Furthermore, IRF7 expression was abundant in neutrophils from severe patients in progression stage. Neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses positively correlate with the expressional level of IRF7. Based on these results, we suggest that differential activation of activation-related TFs, such as IRF7 mediate neutrophil inflammatory responses during inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neutrophils , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/physiology , Neutrophils/metabolism , RNA, Viral , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(11): 1307-1320, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053481

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation promotes thrombosis via a VWF (von Willebrand factor)-mediated mechanism. VWF plays an essential role in maintaining the balance between blood coagulation and bleeding, and inflammation can lead to aberrant regulation. VWF is regulated on a transcriptional and (post-)translational level, and its secretion into the circulation captures platelets upon endothelial activation. The significant progress that has been made in understanding transcriptional and translational regulation of VWF is described in this review. First, we describe how VWF is regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational level with a specific focus on the influence of inflammatory and immune responses. Next, we describe how changes in regulation are linked with various cardiovascular diseases. Recent insights from clinical diseases provide evidence for direct molecular links between inflammation and thrombosis, including atherosclerosis, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and COVID-19. Finally, we will briefly describe clinical implications for antithrombotic treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , von Willebrand Diseases , Humans , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets , Inflammation/genetics
11.
Sci Adv ; 8(37): eabo0732, 2022 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic turned the whole world upside down in a short time. One of the main challenges faced has been to understand COVID-19-associated life-threatening hyperinflammation, the so-called cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). We report here the proinflammatory role of Spike (S) proteins from different severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern in zebrafish. We found that wild-type/Wuhan variant S1 (S1WT) promoted neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, local and systemic hyperinflammation, emergency myelopoiesis, and hemorrhages. In addition, S1γ was more proinflammatory S1δ was less proinflammatory than S1WT, and, notably, S1ß promoted delayed and long-lasting inflammation. Pharmacological inhibition of the canonical inflammasome alleviated S1-induced inflammation and emergency myelopoiesis. In contrast, genetic inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 strengthened the proinflammatory activity of S1, and angiotensin (1-7) fully rescued S1-induced hyperinflammation and hemorrhages. These results shed light into the mechanisms orchestrating the COVID-19-associated CSS and the host immune response to different SARS-CoV-2 S protein variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Humans , Inflammasomes , Inflammation/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism
12.
Alcohol ; 103: 1-7, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035682

ABSTRACT

On November 19th, 2021, the annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The 2021 meeting focused on how alcohol misuse is linked to immune system derangements, leading to tissue and organ damage, and how this research can be translated into improving treatment of alcohol-related disease. This meeting was divided into three plenary sessions: the first session focused on how alcohol misuse affects different parts of the immune system, the second session presented research on mechanisms of organ damage from alcohol misuse, and the final session highlighted research on potential therapeutic targets for treating alcohol-mediated tissue damage. Diverse areas of alcohol research were covered during the meeting, from alcohol's effect on pulmonary systems and neuroinflammation to epigenetic changes, senescence markers, and microvesicle particles. These presentations yielded a thoughtful discussion on how the findings can lead to therapeutic treatments for people suffering from alcohol-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alcoholism/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Ethanol/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Public Opinion
13.
Biologicals ; 80: 27-34, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031158

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to scrutinize the expression profile of inflammatory-related genes (IFI-16, NOTCH2, CXCL8, and THBS1) from acute to post-acute stage of this infectious epidemic. The current cross-sectional study consisted of 53 acute-phase COVID-19 patients and 53 healthy individuals between February and March 2021. The extraction of total RNA was performed from PBMC specimens and also expression level of selected genes (IFI-16, NOTCH2, CXCL8, and THBS1) was evaluated by real-time PCR. Subsequently, levels of these factors were re-measured six weeks after the acute phase to determine if the levels of chosen genes returned to normal after the acute phase of COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to test potential of genes as a diagnostic biomarker. The expression levels of inflammatory-related genes were significantly different between healthy and COVID-19 subjects. Besides, a significant higher CXCL8 level was found in the acute-phase COVID-19 compared to post-acute-phase infection which may be able to be considered as a potential biomarker for distinguishing between the acute phases from the post-acute-phase status. Deregulation of the inflammatory-related genes in COVID-19 patients, especially CXCL-8, can be serving as potent biomarkers to manage the COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Inflammation/genetics , Biomarkers , Receptor, Notch2
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 318, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028663

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis and lethality of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the N proteins of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), were found to bind MASP-2, a key serine protease in the lectin pathway of complement activation, resulting in excessive complement activation by potentiating MBL-dependent MASP-2 activation, and the deposition of MASP-2, C4b, activated C3 and C5b-9. Aggravated inflammatory lung injury was observed in mice infected with adenovirus expressing the N protein. Complement hyperactivation was also observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Either blocking the N protein:MASP-2 interaction, MASP-2 depletion or suppressing complement activation can significantly alleviate N protein-induced complement hyperactivation and lung injury in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these data suggested that complement suppression may represent a novel therapeutic approach for pneumonia induced by these highly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases/genetics , Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 110: 109040, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991087

ABSTRACT

Known as a pivotal immunohemostatic response, immunothrombosis is activated to restrict the diffusion of pathogens. This beneficial intravascular defensive mechanism represents the close interaction between the immune and coagulation systems. However, its uncontrolled form can be life-threatening to patients with the critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hyperinflammation and ensuing cytokine storm underlie the activation of the coagulation system, something which results in the provocation of more immune-inflammatory responses by the thrombotic mediators. This vicious cycle causes grave clinical complications and higher risks of mortality. Classified as an evolutionarily conserved family of the small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as the fine-tuners of genes expression and play a key role in balancing the pro/anticoagulant and pro-/anti-inflammatory factors maintaining homeostasis. Therefore, any deviation from their optimal expression levels or efficient functions can lead to severe complications. Despite their extensive effects on the molecules and processes involved in uncontrolled immunothrombosis, some genetic agents and uncontrolled immunothrombosis-induced interfering factors (e.g., miRNA-single nucleotide polymorphysms (miR-SNPs), the complement system components, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) have apparently disrupted their expressions/functions. This review study aims to give an overview of the role of miRNAs in the context of uncontrolled immunothrombosis/thromboinflammation accompanied by some presumptive interfering factors affecting their expressions/functions in the critical COVID-19. Detecting, monitoring, and resolving these interfering agents mafy facilitate the design and development of the novel miRNAs-based therapeutic approaches to the reduction of complications incidence and mortality in patients with the critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Thrombosis , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/genetics
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 921728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987494

ABSTRACT

Fibroblasts of different origins are known to possess stromal memory after inflammatory episodes. However, there are no studies exploring human lung fibroblast memory which may predict a subsequent inflammatory response in chronic respiratory diseases and COVID-19. MRC-5 and HF19 human lung fibroblast cell lines were treated using different primary and secondary stimulus combinations: TNFα-WD-TNFα, Poly (I:C)-WD-TNFα, TNFα-WD-Poly (I:C), or LPS-WD-TNFα with a 24-h rest period (withdrawal period; WD) between the two 24-h stimulations. TLR3 and NF-κB inhibitors were used to determine pathways involved. The effect of SARS-Cov-2 spike protein to inflammatory response of lung fibroblasts was also investigated. mRNA expressions of genes and IL6 release were measured using qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Statistical significance was determined by using one- or two-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc analysis for comparison of multiple groups. Preexposure with Poly (I:C) significantly increased TNFα-induced IL6 gene expression and IL6 release in both cell lines, while it affected neither gene expressions of IL1B, IL2, IL8, and MMP8 nor fibrosis-related genes: ACTA2, COL1A1, POSTN, and TGFB1. Inhibition of TLR3 or NF-κB during primary stimulation significantly downregulated IL6 release. Simultaneous treatment of MRC-5 cells with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein further increased TNFα-induced IL6 release; however, preexposure to Poly (I:C) did not affect it. Human lung fibroblasts are capable of retaining inflammatory memory and showed an augmented response upon secondary exposure. These results may contribute to the possibility of training human lung fibroblasts to respond suitably on inflammatory episodes after viral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Poly I-C/metabolism , Poly I-C/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 261, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967592

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) plays a pivotal role in lipid including cholesterol metabolism. The APOE ε4 (APOE4) allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases. Although APOE has recently been associated with increased susceptibility to infections of several viruses, whether and how APOE and its isoforms affect SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Here, we show that serum concentrations of APOE correlate inversely with levels of cytokine/chemokine in 73 COVID-19 patients. Utilizing multiple protein interaction assays, we demonstrate that APOE3 and APOE4 interact with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2; and APOE/ACE2 interactions require zinc metallopeptidase domain of ACE2, a key docking site for SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. In addition, immuno-imaging assays using confocal, super-resolution, and transmission electron microscopies reveal that both APOE3 and APOE4 reduce ACE2/Spike-mediated viral entry into cells. Interestingly, while having a comparable binding affinity to ACE2, APOE4 inhibits viral entry to a lesser extent compared to APOE3, which is likely due to APOE4's more compact structure and smaller spatial obstacle to compete against Spike binding to ACE2. Furthermore, APOE ε4 carriers clinically correlate with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection and elevated serum inflammatory factors in 142 COVID-19 patients assessed. Our study suggests a regulatory mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection through APOE interactions with ACE2, which may explain in part increased COVID-19 infection and disease severity in APOE ε4 carriers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Apolipoprotein E3/metabolism , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/metabolism , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Nature ; 607(7918): 249-255, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947377

ABSTRACT

Our body has a remarkable ability to remember its past encounters with allergens, pathogens, wounds and irritants, and to react more quickly to the next experience. This accentuated sensitivity also helps us to cope with new threats. Despite maintaining a state of readiness and broadened resistance to subsequent pathogens, memories can also be maladaptive, leading to chronic inflammatory disorders and cancers. With the ever-increasing emergence of new pathogens, allergens and pollutants in our world, the urgency to unravel the molecular underpinnings of these phenomena has risen to new heights. Here we reflect on how the field of inflammatory memory has evolved, since 2007, when researchers realized that non-specific memory is contained in the nucleus and propagated at the epigenetic level. We review the flurry of recent discoveries revealing that memory is not just a privilege of the immune system but also extends to epithelia of the skin, lung, intestine and pancreas, and to neurons. Although still unfolding, epigenetic memories of inflammation have now been linked to possible brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease, and to an elevated risk of cancer. In this Review, we consider the consequences-good and bad-of these epigenetic memories and their implications for human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Epigenesis, Genetic , Health , Inflammation , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934131

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN) signaling resulting from external or internal inflammatory processes initiates the rapid release of cytokines and chemokines to target viral or bacterial invasion, as well as cancer and other diseases. Prolonged exposure to IFNs, or the overexpression of other cytokines, leads to immune exhaustion, enhancing inflammation and leading to the persistence of infection and promotion of disease. Hence, to control and stabilize an excessive immune response, approaches for the management of inflammation are required. The potential use of peptides as anti-inflammatory agents has been previously demonstrated. Our team discovered, and previously published, a 9-amino-acid cyclic peptide named ALOS4 which exhibits anti-cancer properties in vivo and in vitro. We suggested that the anti-cancer effect of ALOS4 arises from interaction with the immune system, possibly through the modulation of inflammatory processes. Here, we show that treatment with ALOS4 decreases basal cytokine levels in mice with chronic inflammation and prolongs the lifespan of mice with acute systemic inflammation induced by irradiation. We also show that pretreatment with ALOS4 reduces the expression of IFN alpha, IFN lambda, and selected interferon-response genes triggered by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, while upregulating the expression of other genes with antiviral activity. Hence, we conclude that ALOS4 does not prevent IFN signaling, but rather supports the antiviral response by upregulating the expression of interferon-response genes in an interferon-independent manner.


Subject(s)
Interferon-alpha , Interferons , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Interferons/genetics , Mice , Poly I-C/pharmacology
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