Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 391
Filter
1.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(1): 8-15, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly become a great public health hazard globally. Nasal epithelial cells are an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotypes of CRSwNP are characterized by type 1, type 2 and type 3 inflammation according to patterns of inflammatory cells and the cytokines expressed in nasal tissue. Nasal epithelial cells show the highest expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for attachment and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, among all investigated cells in the respiratory tree. SARS-CoV-2 infection likely leads to increased activation of T-helper-1 (Th1) cell responses. Recent studies further suggest that ACE2 may be upregulated by type 1 and downregulated by type 2 inflammatory cytokines in nasal epithelial cells. SUMMARY: Expression of ACE2 in nasal epithelial cells is influenced by inflammatory endotypes of CRSwNP. Type 1 inflammation in nasal tissue may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by upregulating ACE2 expression. However, clinical association between CRSwNP and COVID-19 is still unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Goblet Cells/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Rhinitis/immunology , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/immunology , Virus Internalization
2.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 12(1): 16-20, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311237

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim was to evaluate patient profiles of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) cases with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) postcoronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: A nonrandomized retrospective case-control study. METHODS: The ROCM cases presenting with CRAO were compared with a control ROCM group without CRAO at a tertiary care center. Demography, systemic status, clinical features, histopathology, imaging, and blood profile were assessed for any specific risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients were seen in the CRAO group and 16 in the non-CRAO group. The male-to-female ratio was 3:1 with a mean age of 49.5 years. In the CRAO group, 75% had diabetes mellitus with mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.03%, and 66.7% had received steroid treatment. All cases were histopathologically confirmed positive for mucor. There was a significant difference in mean D-dimer and serum ferritin between the 2 groups, with higher level in the CRAO group. All patients with CRAO had light perception-negative vision, with total ophthalmoplegia and proptosis seen in 66.7% of cases. Four patients had orbital apex involvement, 5 had cavernous sinus involvement, and 8 had intracranial involvement in the CRAO group. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory markers D-dimer and serum ferritin were significantly associated with CRAO, suggestive of hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable state. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in cases with elevated markers and prophylactic anticoagulants can be started to prevent CRAO in a subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Mucormycosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Diseases/blood , Brain Diseases/immunology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Mucormycosis/blood , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/immunology , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Nose Diseases/blood , Nose Diseases/immunology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/blood , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Orbital Diseases/therapy , Retinal Artery Occlusion/blood , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/immunology , Retinal Artery Occlusion/microbiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1108716, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280797

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown the potentially devastating impact of novel respiratory infections worldwide. Insightful data obtained in the last years have shed light on the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of the inflammatory response in driving both the resolution of the disease and uncontrolled deleterious inflammatory status in severe cases. In this mini-review, we cover some important aspects of the role of T cells in COVID-19 with a special focus on the local response in the lung. We focus on the reported T cell phenotypes in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19, focusing on lung inflammation and on both the protective and damaging roles of the T cell response, also highlighting the open questions in the field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Lung , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology
4.
J Immunol ; 207(11): 2625-2630, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283497

ABSTRACT

Metabolism and inflammation have been viewed as two separate processes with distinct but critical functions for our survival: metabolism regulates the utilization of nutrients, and inflammation is responsible for defense and repair. Both respond to an organism's stressors to restore homeostasis. The interplay between metabolic status and immune response (immunometabolism) plays an important role in maintaining health or promoting disease development. Understanding these interactions is critical in developing tools for facilitating novel preventative and therapeutic approaches for diseases, including cancer. This trans-National Institutes of Health workshop brought together basic scientists, technology developers, and clinicians to discuss state-of-the-art, innovative approaches, challenges, and opportunities to understand and harness immunometabolism in modulating inflammation and its resolution.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology
5.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 33(4): 165-177, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281783

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric sequalae to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are beginning to emerge, like previous Spanish influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome episodes. Streptococcal infection in paediatric patients causing obsessive compulsive disorder (PANDAS) is another recent example of an infection-based psychiatric disorder. Inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders has been previously reported but there is no standard clinical management approach established. Part of the reason is that it is unclear what factors determine the specific neuronal vulnerability and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment in neuroinflammation. The emerging COVID-19 data suggested that in the acute stage, widespread neuronal damage appears to be the result of abnormal and overactive immune responses and cytokine storm is associated with poor prognosis. It is still too early to know if there are long-term-specific neuronal or brain regional damages associated with COVID-19, resulting in distinct neuropsychiatric disorders. In several major psychiatric disorders where neuroinflammation is present, patients with abnormal inflammatory markers may also experience less than favourable response or treatment resistance when standard treatment is used alone. Evidence regarding the benefits of co-administered anti-inflammatory agents such as COX-2 inhibitor is encouraging in selected patients though may not benefit others. Disease-modifying therapies are increasingly being applied to neuropsychiatric diseases characterised by abnormal or hyperreactive immune responses. Adjunct anti-inflammatory treatment may benefit selected patients and is definitely an important component of clinical management in the presence of neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Streptococcal Infections/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/etiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology
6.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 205-209, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270272

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-induced hyperinflammation is a major cause of death or end-organ dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. We review adjunct host-directed therapies (HDTs) for COVID-19 management. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as HDT for COVID-19 has been shown to be safe in phase 1 and 2 trials. Trials of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibodies show promising mortality benefit in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Repurposed drugs and monoclonal antibodies targeting specific cytokines acting on different aspects of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cascades are under evaluation. SUMMARY: A range of HDTs shows promise for reducing mortality and improving long term disability in patients with severe COVID-19, and require evaluation in randomized, controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903003

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a significant global health emergency with new variants in some cases evading current therapies and approved vaccines. COVID-19 presents with a broad spectrum of acute and long-term manifestations. Severe COVID-19 is characterized by dysregulated cytokine release profile, dysfunctional immune responses, and hypercoagulation with a high risk of progression to multi-organ failure and death. Unraveling the fundamental immunological processes underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is vital for the identification and design of more effective therapeutic interventions for individuals at the highest risk of severe outcomes. Caspases are expressed in both immune and non-immune cells and mediate inflammation and cell death, including apoptosis and pyroptosis. Here we review accumulating evidence defining the importance of the expression and activity of caspase family members following SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. Research suggests SARS-CoV-2 infection is linked to the function of multiple caspases, both mechanistically in vitro as well as in observational studies of individuals with severe COVID-19, which may further the impact on disease severity. We also highlight immunological mechanisms that occur in severe COVID-19 pathology upstream and downstream of activated caspase pathways, including innate recognition receptor signaling, inflammasomes, and other multiprotein complex assembly, inflammatory mediators IL-1ß and IL-18, and apoptotic and pyroptotic cell death. Finally, we illuminate discriminate and indiscriminate caspase inhibitors that have been identified for clinical use that could emerge as potential therapeutic interventions that may benefit clinical efforts to prevent or ameliorate severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Caspases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
8.
J Immunol ; 207(5): 1275-1287, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771322

ABSTRACT

The airway epithelial cells (AECs) lining the conducting passageways of the lung secrete a variety of immunomodulatory factors. Among these, PGE2 limits lung inflammation and promotes bronchodilation. By contrast, IL-6 drives intense airway inflammation, remodeling, and fibrosis. The signaling that differentiates the production of these opposing mediators is not understood. In this study, we find that the production of PGE2 and IL-6 following stimulation of human AECs by the damage-associated molecular pattern extracellular ATP shares a common requirement for Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. ATP-mediated synthesis of PGE2 required activation of metabotropic P2Y2 receptors and CRAC channel-mediated cytosolic phospholipase A2 signaling. By contrast, ATP-evoked synthesis of IL-6 occurred via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors and CRAC channel-mediated calcineurin/NFAT signaling. In contrast to ATP, which elicited the production of both PGE2 and IL-6, the uridine nucleotide, UTP, stimulated PGE2 but not IL-6 production. These results reveal that human AECs employ unique receptor-specific signaling mechanisms with CRAC channels as a signaling nexus to regulate release of opposing immunomodulatory mediators. Collectively, our results identify P2Y2 receptors, CRAC channels, and P2X receptors as potential intervention targets for airway diseases.


Subject(s)
Dinoprostone/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alarmins/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunomodulation , Interleukin-6/genetics , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Phospholipases A2/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P2X/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Signal Transduction , Uracil Nucleotides/metabolism
9.
Nat Immunol ; 23(4): 532-542, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764192

ABSTRACT

The use of lipid-formulated RNA vaccines for cancer or COVID-19 is associated with dose-limiting systemic inflammatory responses in humans that were not predicted from preclinical studies. Here, we show that the 'interleukin 1 (IL-1)-interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)' axis regulates vaccine-mediated systemic inflammation in a host-specific manner. In human immune cells, RNA vaccines induce production of IL-1 cytokines, predominantly IL-1ß, which is dependent on both the RNA and lipid formulation. IL-1 in turn triggers the induction of the broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6). Unlike humans, murine leukocytes respond to RNA vaccines by upregulating anti-inflammatory IL-1ra relative to IL-1 (predominantly IL-1α), protecting mice from cytokine-mediated toxicities at >1,000-fold higher vaccine doses. Thus, the IL-1 pathway plays a key role in triggering RNA vaccine-associated innate signaling, an effect that was unexpectedly amplified by certain lipids used in vaccine formulations incorporating N1-methyl-pseudouridine-modified RNA to reduce activation of Toll-like receptor signaling.


Subject(s)
Inflammation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-1 , Animals , COVID-19 , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/genetics , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-1/genetics , Interleukin-1/immunology , Lipids , Mice , RNA , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/metabolism
10.
Immunol Lett ; 243: 19-27, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734546

ABSTRACT

The interest in the process of aging, and specifically in how aging affects the working of our immune system, has recently enormously grown among both specialists (immunologists and gerontologists) and representatives of other disciplines of health sciences. An obvious reason for this interest is the current pandemics of COVID-19, known to affect the elderly more than younger people. In this paper current knowledge about mechanisms and complex facets of human immune system aging is presented, stemming from the knowledge about the working of various parts of the immune system, and leading to understanding of immunological mechanisms of chronic, inflammatory, aging-related diseases and of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunosenescence
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732070

ABSTRACT

Almost two years have passed since the outbreak reported for the first time in Wuhan of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 coronavirus, rapidly evolved into a pandemic. This infectious disease has stressed global health care systems. The mortality rate is higher, particularly in elderly population and in patients with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, chronic renal disease, and malignancy. Among them, subjects with diabetes have a high risk of developing severe form of COVID-19 and show increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Vitamin D (VD) is a modulator of immune-response. Data from literature showed that vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients increases COVID-19 severity, likely because of its negative impact on immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, the use of vitamin D might play a role in some aspects of the infection, particularly the inflammatory state and the immune system function of patients. Moreover, a piece of evidence highlighted a link among vitamin D deficiency, obesity and diabetes, all factors associated with COVID-19 severity. Given this background, we performed an overview of the systematic reviews to assess the association between vitamin D supplementation and inflammatory markers in patients with diabetes; furthermore, vitamin D's possible role in COVID-19 patients was assessed as well. Three databases, namely MEDLINE, PubMed Central and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, were reviewed to retrieve the pertinent data. The aim of this review is to provide insight into the recent advances about the molecular basis of the relationship between vitamin D, immune response, inflammation, diabetes and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Obesity/immunology , Vitamin D/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/drug effects , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/immunology
12.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725878

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Challenges arise concerning how to optimally support the immune system in the general population, especially under self-confinement. An optimal immune response depends on an adequate diet and nutrition in order to keep infection at bay. For example, sufficient protein intake is crucial for optimal antibody production. Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk. Frequently, poor nutrient status is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which in turn can impact the immune system. Dietary constituents with especially high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity include vitamin C, vitamin E, and phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. Several of these can interact with transcription factors such as NF-kB and Nrf-2, related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, respectively. Vitamin D in particular may perturb viral cellular infection via interacting with cell entry receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), ACE2. Dietary fiber, fermented by the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, has also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, we highlight the importance of an optimal status of relevant nutrients to effectively reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby strengthening the immune system during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Nutrients/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antioxidants , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nutritional Status/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 53-54, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719338

ABSTRACT

While all groups are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the elderly, underrepresented minorities, and those with underlying medical conditions are at the greatest risk. The high rate of consumption of diets high in saturated fats, sugars, and refined carbohydrates (collectively called Western diet, WD) worldwide, contribute to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and could place these populations at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 pathology and mortality. WD consumption activates the innate immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defense against viruses. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation caused by COVID-19 may have long-term consequences in those that recover, leading to chronic medical conditions such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease, likely through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that can be compounded by an unhealthy diet. Thus, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a top priority and individuals should be mindful of healthy eating habits to reduce susceptibility to and long-term complications from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Western/statistics & numerical data , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diet , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Nutritional Status , Obesity/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 813300, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690445

ABSTRACT

Background: The presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection varies from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19. Similarly, high variability in the presence, titre and duration of specific antibodies has been reported. While some host factors determining these differences, such as age and ethnicity have been identified, the underlying molecular mechanisms underpinning these differences remain poorly defined. Methods: We analysed serum and PBMC from 17 subjects with a previous PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 10 unexposed volunteers following the first wave of the pandemic, in the UK. Anti-NP IgG and neutralising antibodies were measured, as well as a panel of infection and inflammation related cytokines. The virus-specific T cell response was determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and flow cytometry after overnight incubation of PBMCs with pools of selected SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides. Results: Seven of 17 convalescent subjects had undetectable levels of anti-NP IgG, and a positive correlation was shown between anti-NP IgG levels and the titre of neutralising antibodies (IC50). In contrast, a discrepancy was noted between antibody levels and T cell IFN-γ production by ELISpot following stimulation with specific peptides. Among the analysed cytokines, ß-NGF and IL-1α levels were significantly different between anti-NP positive and negative subjects, and only ß-NGF significantly correlated with anti-NP positivity. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells of anti-NP negative subjects expressed lower amounts of the ß-NGF-specific receptor TrkA. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the ß-NGF/TrkA signalling pathway is associated with the production of anti-NP specific antibody in mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and the mechanistic regulation of this pathway in COVID-19 requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Nerve Growth Factor/immunology , Nucleoproteins/immunology , Receptor, trkA/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
15.
Sci Immunol ; 7(68): eabf2846, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685480

ABSTRACT

Macrophages regulate protective immune responses to infectious microbes, but aberrant macrophage activation frequently drives pathological inflammation. To identify regulators of vigorous macrophage activation, we analyzed RNA-seq data from synovial macrophages and identified SLAMF7 as a receptor associated with a superactivated macrophage state in rheumatoid arthritis. We implicated IFN-γ as a key regulator of SLAMF7 expression and engaging SLAMF7 drove a strong wave of inflammatory cytokine expression. Induction of TNF-α after SLAMF7 engagement amplified inflammation through an autocrine signaling loop. We observed SLAMF7-induced gene programs not only in macrophages from rheumatoid arthritis patients but also in gut macrophages from patients with active Crohn's disease and in lung macrophages from patients with severe COVID-19. This suggests a central role for SLAMF7 in macrophage superactivation with broad implications in human disease pathology.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/immunology , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , Acute Disease , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chronic Disease , Crohn Disease/genetics , Crohn Disease/immunology , Crohn Disease/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Macrophage Activation/genetics , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/genetics , Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Synovial Membrane/immunology , Synovial Membrane/metabolism , Synovial Membrane/pathology , Transcriptome/genetics
16.
Cells ; 11(4)2022 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686622

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogenic agent of Coronavirus-Induced Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a multi-organ syndrome which primarily targets the respiratory system. In this review, considering the large amount of data pointing out the role of the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) in the inflammatory response and in the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity, we describe some mechanisms that strongly suggest its involvement in the management of COVID-19's inflammatory framework. It regulates both the expression of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) and its stabilizing partner, the Broad neutral Amino acid Transporter 1 (B0AT1). It induces Indolamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO-1), the enzyme which, starting from Tryptophan (Trp), produces Kynurenine (Kyn, Beta-Anthraniloyl-L-Alanine). The accumulation of Kyn and the depletion of Trp arrest T cell growth and induce apoptosis, setting up an immune-tolerant condition, whereas AhR and interferon type I (IFN-I) build a mutual inhibitory loop that also involves NF-kB and limits the innate response. AhR/Kyn binding boosts the production of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus reinforcing the inflammatory state and counteracting the IDO-dependent immune tolerance in the later stage of COVID-19. Taken together, these data depict a framework where sufficient clues suggest the possible participation of AhR in the management of COVID-19 inflammation, thus indicating an additional therapeutic target for this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Kynurenine/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Tryptophan/metabolism
18.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(2): 137, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683990

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is triggered by various aetiological factors such as trauma, sepsis and respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus. Immune profiling of severe COVID-19 patients has identified a complex pattern of cytokines including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-5, which are significant mediators of viral-induced hyperinflammation. This strong response has prompted the development of therapies that block GM-CSF and other cytokines individually to limit inflammation related pathology. The common cytokine binding site of the human common beta (ßc) receptor signals for three inflammatory cytokines: GM-CSF, IL-5 and IL-3. In this study, ßc was targeted with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) CSL311 in engineered mice devoid of mouse ßc and ßIL-3 and expressing human ßc (hßcTg mice). Direct pulmonary administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused ARDS-like lung injury, and CSL311 markedly reduced lung inflammation and oedema, resulting in improved oxygen saturation levels in hßcTg mice. In a separate model, influenza (HKx31) lung infection caused viral pneumonia associated with a large influx of myeloid cells into the lungs of hßcTg mice. The therapeutic application of CSL311 potently decreased accumulation of monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils without altering lung viral loads. Furthermore, CSL311 treatment did not limit the viral-induced expansion of NK and NKT cells, or the tissue expression of type I/II/III interferons needed for efficient viral clearance. Simultaneously blocking GM-CSF, IL-5 and IL-3 signalling with CSL311 may represent an improved and clinically applicable strategy to reducing hyperinflammation in the ARDS setting.


Subject(s)
Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit/genetics , Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Cytokine Receptor Common beta Subunit/immunology , Cytokines , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Immunity/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Neutrophils/metabolism , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Receptors, Interleukin-3 , Receptors, Interleukin-5 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology
19.
Life Sci ; 294: 120392, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670857

ABSTRACT

The SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), is an emerging viral infection. SARS CoV-2 infects target cells by attaching to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE2). SARS CoV-2 could cause cardiac damage in patients with severe COVID-19, as ACE2 is expressed in cardiac cells, including cardiomyocytes, pericytes, and fibroblasts, and coronavirus could directly infect these cells. Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent comorbidity found in COVID-19 patients. Immune cells such as monocytes, macrophages, and T cells may produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis if their functions are uncontrolled. This causes a cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients, which has been associated with cardiac damage. Tregs are a subset of immune cells that regulate immune and inflammatory responses. Tregs suppress inflammation and improve cardiovascular function through a variety of mechanisms. This is an exciting research area to explore the cellular, molecular, and immunological mechanisms related to reducing risks of cardiovascular complications in severe COVID-19. This review evaluated whether Tregs can affect COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications, as well as the mechanisms through which Tregs act.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/physiology , Adoptive Transfer , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667199

ABSTRACT

The review aims to consolidate research findings on the molecular mechanisms and virulence and pathogenicity characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and their relevance to four typical stages in the development of acute viral infection. These four stages are invasion; primary blockade of antiviral innate immunity; engagement of the virus's protection mechanisms against the factors of adaptive immunity; and acute, long-term complications of COVID-19. The invasion stage entails the recognition of the spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 target cell receptors, namely, the main receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2), its coreceptors, and potential alternative receptors. The presence of a diverse repertoire of receptors allows SARS-CoV-2 to infect various types of cells, including those not expressing ACE2. During the second stage, the majority of the polyfunctional structural, non-structural, and extra proteins SARS-CoV-2 synthesizes in infected cells are involved in the primary blockage of antiviral innate immunity. A high degree of redundancy and systemic action characterizing these pathogenic factors allows SARS-CoV-2 to overcome antiviral mechanisms at the initial stages of invasion. The third stage includes passive and active protection of the virus from factors of adaptive immunity, overcoming of the barrier function at the focus of inflammation, and generalization of SARS-CoV-2 in the body. The fourth stage is associated with the deployment of variants of acute and long-term complications of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2's ability to induce autoimmune and autoinflammatory pathways of tissue invasion and development of both immunosuppressive and hyperergic mechanisms of systemic inflammation is critical at this stage of infection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/immunology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL