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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(10): e1010734, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154305

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS2) affected the geriatric population. Among research models, Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) are one of the most representative to study SARS2 pathogenesis and host responses. However, animal studies that recapitulate the effects of SARS2 in the human geriatric population are lacking. To address this gap, we inoculated 14 months old GSH with a prototypic ancestral strain of SARS2 and studied the effects on virus pathogenesis, virus shedding, and respiratory and gastrointestinal microbiome changes. SARS2 infection led to high vRNA loads in the nasal turbinates (NT), lungs, and trachea as well as higher pulmonary lesions scores later in infection. Dysbiosis throughout SARS2 disease progression was observed in the pulmonary microbial dynamics with the enrichment of opportunistic pathogens (Haemophilus, Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Campylobacter, and Johnsonella) and microbes associated with inflammation (Prevotella). Changes in the gut microbial community also reflected an increase in multiple genera previously associated with intestinal inflammation and disease (Helicobacter, Mucispirillum, Streptococcus, unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae, and Spirochaetaceae). Influenza A virus (FLUAV) pre-exposure resulted in slightly more pronounced pathology in the NT and lungs early on (3 dpc), and more notable changes in lungs compared to the gut microbiome dynamics. Similarities among aged GSH and the microbiome in critically ill COVID-19 patients, particularly in the lower respiratory tract, suggest that GSHs are a representative model to investigate microbial changes during SARS2 infection. The relationship between the residential microbiome and other confounding factors, such as SARS2 infection, in a widely used animal model, contributes to a better understanding of the complexities associated with the host responses during viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Aged , Infant , SARS-CoV-2 , Mesocricetus , Dysbiosis/pathology , Lung/pathology , Inflammation/pathology
2.
Iran J Immunol ; 19(3): 330-336, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111332

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with the general population. Possible pathways are: I) in patients with COVID-19, cytokine storm defined as the excess release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been associated with morbidities and an even higher rate of mortality. II) Labor, despite being a term/preterm, has an inflammatory nature, although, inflammation is more prominent in preterm delivery. During labor, different pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α are involved which as mentioned, all are crucial role players in the cytokine storm. III) Tissue injury, and during labor, (especially cesarean section) is shown to cause inflammation via pro-inflammatory cytokines release including those involved in the cytokine storm through the activation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). IV) post-partum hemorrhage with a notable amount of blood loss which can cause significant hypoxemia. In this condition, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α which has a cross-talk with NFκB, leads to the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α as both angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factors. Considering all the mentioned issues and pathways, we suggest that clinicians be careful about the escalation of the inflammatory status in their pregnant COVID-19 patients during/following labor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cesarean Section , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pregnancy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 59: 102154, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105536

ABSTRACT

A male in his 90 s consulted a doctor because he experienced several days of general fatigue and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with heart failure, and diuretic medications taken for 3 days relieved his symptoms. However, he was found dead on the morning of the fourth day after consultation. He had received a third dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine approximately 2 weeks before death. An autopsy revealed dissection of the ascending aorta and pericardial hemotamponade. The heart showed a white villous surface, and the pericardium was fibrously thick. Microscopic examination revealed pericarditis with predominantly macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. These histological findings were compatible with those of post-vaccination myocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, histopathologically proven pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination has not been reported. In the present case, extended inflammation of the aortic adventitia was a possible cause of aortic wall fragility followed by dissection.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Male , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Autopsy , RNA, Messenger , Pericarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/etiology , Aorta/pathology , Myocarditis/complications , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Vaccination , Diuretics
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032991

ABSTRACT

Inflammation plays a critical role in the response to and survival from injuries and/or infections. It occurs in two phases: initiation and resolution; however, when these events do not resolve and persist over time, the inflammatory response becomes chronic, prompting diseases that affect several systems and organs, such as the vasculature and the skin. Here, we reviewed inflammation that occurs in selected infectious and sterile pathologies. Thus, the immune processes induced by bacterial sepsis as well as T. cruzi and SARS-CoV-2 infections are shown. In addition, vaccine adjuvants as well as atherosclerosis are revised as examples of sterile-mediated inflammation. An example of the consequences of a lack of inflammation resolution is given through the revision of wound healing and chronic wounds. Then, we revised the resolution of the latter through advanced therapies represented by cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches, showing how they contribute to control chronic inflammation and therefore wound healing. Finally, new pharmacological insights into the management of chronic inflammation addressing the resolution of inflammation based on pro-resolving mediators, such as lipoxin, maresin, and resolvins, examining their biosynthesis, biological properties, and pharmacokinetic and pharmaceuticals limitations, are given. We conclude that resolution pharmacology and advanced therapies are promising tools to restore the inflammation homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoxins , COVID-19/drug therapy , Docosahexaenoic Acids/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/therapeutic use , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 298: 115661, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015648

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJDC) is a pure form of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that contains eight medicinal plants. Known for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects, it is mostly used to treat upper respiratory tract infections and other infectious diseases, such as colds, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and tonsillitis. Both acute lung injury (ALI) and COVID-19 are closely related to lung damage, primarily manifesting as lung inflammation and epithelial cell damage. However, whether SFJDC can improve ALI and by what mechanism remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore whether SFJDC could be used as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 by improving acute lung injury. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to determine whether SFJDC could protect against ALI caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and we wanted to determine how SFJDC reduces inflammation and apoptosis pharmacologically and molecularly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preadministering SFJDC at 0.1 g/kg, 0.3 g/kg, or 0.5 g/kg for one week was followed by 5 mg/kg LPS to induce ALI in mice. Observations included the study of lung histomorphology, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion, as well as the ratio of lung wet/dry weights. In addition, RAW264.7 cells were treated for 24 h with 1 µg/mL LPS after being pretreated for 1 h with 0.5 mg/mL SFJDC. In the samples, we detected TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. Cell apoptosis was detected by stimulating A549 cells for 24 h with RAW264.7 supernatant. Both in vitro and in vivo, the levels of A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), PKA, IκB, p-IκB, NF-κB P65 (P65), p-NF-κB P65 (p-P65), cleaved caspases-3 (Cc3), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) proteins were determined using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lung tissue morphology was improved as SFJDC decreased cytokine secretion, the ratio of lung wet/dry weights, and lung tissue secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The expression of A2AAR was increased by SFJDC, and the phosphorylation of NF-κB was inhibited. TUNEL staining and flow cytometry showed that SFJDC inhibited apoptosis by reducing the expression of Cc3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this study, SFJDC can reduce inflammation and inhibit apoptosis. A2AAR activation and regulation of NF-κB expression are thought to make SFJDC anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic. A wide range of active ingredients may result in an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect with SFJDC.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Apoptosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P1/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic P1/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 323(5): L525-L535, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009235

ABSTRACT

E-cigarette vaping is a major aspect of nicotine consumption, especially for children and young adults. Although it is branded as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking, murine and rat models of subacute and chronic e-cigarette vaping exposure have shown many proinflammatory changes in the respiratory tract. An acute vaping exposure paradigm has not been demonstrated in the golden Syrian hamster, and the hamster is a readily available small animal model that has the unique benefit of becoming infected with and transmitting respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, without genetic alteration of the animal or virus. Using a 2-day, whole body vaping exposure protocol in male golden Syrian hamsters, we evaluated serum cotinine, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, lung, and nasal histopathology, and gene expression in the nasopharynx and lung through reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Depending on the presence of nonnormality or outliers, statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests. For tests that were statistically significant (P < 0.05), post hoc Tukey-Kramer and Dunn's tests, respectively, were performed to make pairwise comparisons between groups. In nasal tissue, RT-qPCR analysis revealed nicotine-dependent increases in gene expression associated with type 1 inflammation (CCL-5 and CXCL-10), fibrosis [transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)], nicotine-independent increase oxidative stress response (SOD-2), and a nicotine-independent decrease in vasculogenesis/angiogenesis (VEGF-A). In the lung, nicotine-dependent increases in the expression of genes involved in the renin-angiotensin pathway [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2], coagulation (tissue factor, Serpine-1), extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP-2, MMP-9), type 1 inflammation (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and CXCL-10), fibrosis (TGF-ß and Serpine-1), oxidative stress response (SOD-2), neutrophil extracellular traps release (ELANE), and vasculogenesis and angiogenesis (VEGF-A) were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the Syrian hamster is a viable model of e-cigarette vaping. In addition, this is the first report that e-cigarette vaping with nicotine can increase tissue factor gene expression in the lung. Our results show that even an acute exposure to e-cigarette vaping causes significant upregulation of mRNAs in the respiratory tract from pathways involving the renin-angiotensin system, coagulation, extracellular matrix remodeling, type 1 inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress response, neutrophil extracellular trap release (NETosis), vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Transcriptome , Vaping , Animals , Cricetinae , Male , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensins , Cotinine , Fibrosis , Inflammation/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Mesocricetus , Nicotine/pharmacology , Renin , Superoxide Dismutase , Thromboplastin , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaping/adverse effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984990

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 255, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960331

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the culprit pathogen of COVID-19, elicits prominent immune responses and cytokine storms. Intracellular Cl- is a crucial regulator of host defense, whereas the role of Cl- signaling pathway in modulating pulmonary inflammation associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. By using human respiratory epithelial cell lines, primary cultured human airway epithelial cells, and murine models of viral structural protein stimulation and SARS-CoV-2 direct challenge, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein could interact with Smad3, which downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression via microRNA-145. The intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) was raised, resulting in phosphorylation of serum glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) and robust inflammatory responses. Inhibition or knockout of SGK1 abrogated the N protein-elicited airway inflammation. Moreover, N protein promoted a sustained elevation of [Cl-]i by depleting intracellular cAMP via upregulation of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). Rolipram, a selective PDE4 inhibitor, countered airway inflammation by reducing [Cl-]i. Our findings suggested that Cl- acted as the crucial pathological second messenger mediating the inflammatory responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Targeting the Cl- signaling pathway might be a novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlorine/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Mice , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 22(6): 747-762, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956518

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extracellular vesicles (EV) released constitutively or following external stimuli from structural and immune cells are now recognized as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. They are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia and sepsis, leading causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) where mortality rates remain up to 40%. Multiple investigators have demonstrated that one of the underlying mechanisms of the effects of EVs is through the transfer of EV content to host cells, resulting in apoptosis, inflammation, and permeability in target organs. AREAS COVERED: The current review focuses on preclinical research examining the role of EVs released into the plasma and injured alveolus during pneumonia and sepsis. EXPERT OPINION: Inflammation is associated with elevated levels of circulating EVs that are released by activated structural and immune cells and can have significant proinflammatory, procoagulant, and pro-permeability effects in critically ill patients with pneumonia and/or sepsis. However, clinical translation of the use of EVs as biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets may be limited by current methodologies used to identify and quantify EVs accurately (whether from host cells or infecting organisms) and lack of understanding of the role of EVs in the reparative phase during recovery from pneumonia and/or sepsis.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953474

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), a disease that has affected more than 500 million people worldwide since the end of 2019. Due to its high complications and death rates, there is still a need to find the best therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The dysregulation of the inflammatory response in COVID-19 plays a very important role in disease progression. It has been observed that abnormal activity of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is directly associated with, inter alia, increased synthesis of proinflammatory factors. Therefore, this review paper focuses on the functions of NF-κB in the development of SARS-CoV-2 infection and potential application of NF-κB inhibitors in COVID-19 immunotherapy. A comprehensive literature search was performed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. In the current review, it is highlighted that NF-κB plays important functions in the modulation of an adaptive inflammatory response, including inducing the expression of proinflammatory genes. Increased activation of NF-κB in SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed. The association between NF-κB activation and the expression of SARS-CoV-2 structural and non-structural proteins were also reported. It was observed that modulation of NF-κB using, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine or glucocorticosteroids resulted in decreased synthesis of proinflammatory factors caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review summarizes the role of NF-κB in COVID-19 and describes its potential immunotherapeutic target in treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, indisputably more studies involving patients with a severe course of COVID-19 are sorely needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(652): eabj4310, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949948

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory processes induced by brain injury are important for recovery; however, when uncontrolled, inflammation can be deleterious, likely explaining why most anti-inflammatory treatments have failed to improve neurological outcomes after brain injury in clinical trials. In the thalamus, chronic activation of glial cells, a proxy of inflammation, has been suggested as an indicator of increased seizure risk and cognitive deficits that develop after cortical injury. Furthermore, lesions in the thalamus, more than other brain regions, have been reported in patients with viral infections associated with neurological deficits, such as SARS-CoV-2. However, the extent to which thalamic inflammation is a driver or by-product of neurological deficits remains unknown. Here, we found that thalamic inflammation in mice was sufficient to phenocopy the cellular and circuit hyperexcitability, enhanced seizure risk, and disruptions in cortical rhythms that develop after cortical injury. In our model, down-regulation of the GABA transporter GAT-3 in thalamic astrocytes mediated this neurological dysfunction. In addition, GAT-3 was decreased in regions of thalamic reactive astrocytes in mouse models of cortical injury. Enhancing GAT-3 in thalamic astrocytes prevented seizure risk, restored cortical states, and was protective against severe chemoconvulsant-induced seizures and mortality in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, emphasizing the potential of therapeutically targeting this pathway. Together, our results identified a potential therapeutic target for reducing negative outcomes after brain injury.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Mice , Polymers , Rodentia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures , Thalamus/metabolism , Thalamus/pathology
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 893792, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933681

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the clinical manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A hallmark of COVID-19 is a lung inflammation characterized by an abundant leukocyte infiltrate, elevated levels of cytokines/chemokines, lipid mediators of inflammation (LMI) and microthrombotic events. Animal models are useful for understanding the pathophysiological events leading to COVID-19. One such animal model is the K18-ACE2 transgenic mice. Despite their importance in inflammation, the study of LMI in lung of SARS-CoV-2 infected K18-ACE2 mice has yet to be studied to our knowledge. Using tandem mass spectrometry, the lung lipidome at different time points of infection was analyzed. Significantly increased LMI included N-oleoyl-serine, N-linoleoyl-glycine, N-oleoyl-alanine, 1/2-linoleoyl-glycerol, 1/2-docosahexaenoyl-glycerol and 12-hydroxy-eicosapenatenoic acid. The levels of prostaglandin (PG) E1, PGF2α, stearoyl-ethanolamide and linoleoyl-ethanolamide were found to be significantly reduced relative to mock-infected mice. Other LMI were present at similar levels (or undetected) in both uninfected and infected mouse lungs. In parallel to LMI measures, transcriptomic and cytokine/chemokine profiling were performed. Viral replication was robust with maximal lung viral loads detected on days 2-3 post-infection. Lung histology revealed leukocyte infiltration starting on day 3 post-infection, which correlated with the presence of high concentrations of several chemokines/cytokines. At early times post-infection, the plasma of infected mice contained highly elevated concentration of D-dimers suggestive of blood clot formation/dissolution. In support, the presence of blood clots in the lung vasculature was observed during infection. RNA-Seq analysis of lung tissues indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection results in the progressive modulation of several hundred genes, including several inflammatory mediators and genes related to the interferons. Analysis of the lung lipidome indicated modest, yet significant modulation of a minority of lipids. In summary, our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and mice share common features, such as elevated levels of chemokines in lungs, leukocyte infiltration and increased levels of circulating D-dimers. However, the K18-ACE2 mouse model highlight major differences in terms of LMI being produced in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential reasons and impact of these differences on the pathology and therapeutic strategies to be employed to treat severe COVID-19 are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Chemokines , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Lipids , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic
13.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 25(2): 370-372, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890150

ABSTRACT

According to current studies, COVID-19 might have an impact on semen quality. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 may affect other traits of male reproductive system, including the prostate. Thus, we recruited patients who experienced COVID-19 infection in-between prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy and compared prostate samples inflammation, measured with IRANI score, to those who did not. Indeed, we recruited 20 patients, aged 69 (62-73) years, finding no difference between the 10 patients with COVID-19 infection and the others in IRANI score and all its sub-scores. Hence, according to our exploratory and limited results, COVID-19 infection might have no gross effect on prostate inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatitis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Prostate/pathology , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatitis/complications , Prostatitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen Analysis
14.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884017

ABSTRACT

Obesity is characterized by an increase in body weight associated with an exaggerated enlargement of the adipose tissue. Obesity has serious negative effects because it is associated with multiple pathological complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and COVID-19. Nowadays, 39% of the world population is obese or overweight, making obesity the 21st century epidemic. Obesity is also characterized by a mild, chronic, systemic inflammation. Accumulation of fat in adipose tissue causes stress and malfunction of adipocytes, which then initiate inflammation. Next, adipose tissue is infiltrated by cells of the innate immune system. Recently, it has become evident that neutrophils, the most abundant leukocytes in blood, are the first immune cells infiltrating the adipose tissue. Neutrophils then get activated and release inflammatory factors that recruit macrophages and other immune cells. These immune cells, in turn, perpetuate the inflammation state by producing cytokines and chemokines that can reach other parts of the body, creating a systemic inflammatory condition. In this review, we described the recent findings on the role of neutrophils during obesity and the initiation of inflammation. In addition, we discuss the involvement of neutrophils in the generation of obesity-related complications using diabetes as a prime example.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Obesity/pathology
15.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(9): 2832-2841, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Among post-COVID-19 symptoms, fatigue is reported as one of the most common, even after mild acute infection, and as the cause of fatigue, myopathy diagnosed by electromyography has been proposed in previous reports. This study aimed to explore the histopathological changes in patients with post-COVID-19 fatigue. METHODS: Sixteen patients (mean age = 46 years) with post-COVID-19 complaints of fatigue, myalgia, or weakness persisting for up to 14 months were included. In all patients, quantitative electromyography and muscle biopsies analyzed with light and electron microscopy were taken. RESULTS: Muscle weakness was present in 50% and myopathic electromyography in 75%, and in all patients there were histological changes. Muscle fiber atrophy was found in 38%, and 56% showed indications of fiber regeneration. Mitochondrial changes, comprising loss of cytochrome c oxidase activity, subsarcollemmal accumulation, and/or abnormal cristae, were present in 62%. Inflammation was found in 62%, seen as T lymphocytes and/or muscle fiber human leukocyte antigen ABC expression. In 75%, capillaries were affected, involving basal lamina and cells. In two patients, uncommon amounts of basal lamina were found, not only surrounding muscle fibers but also around nerves and capillaries. CONCLUSIONS: The wide variety of histological changes in this study suggests that skeletal muscles may be a major target of SARS-CoV-2, causing muscular post-COVID-19 symptoms. The mitochondrial changes, inflammation, and capillary injury in muscle biopsies can cause fatigue in part due to reduced energy supply. Because most patients had mild-moderate acute affection, the new variants that might cause less severe acute disease could still have the ability to cause long-term myopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/complications , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Perinatol ; 39(15): 1643-1653, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873578

ABSTRACT

We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of the literature concerning histopathologic findings in the placentas of women with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection during pregnancy. Searches for articles in English included PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists (up to April 2021). Studies presenting data on placental histopathology according to the Amsterdam Consensus Group criteria in SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative pregnancies were identified. Lesions were categorized into: maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion (MVM and FVM, respectively), acute placental inflammation with maternal and fetal inflammatory response (MIR and FIR, respectively), chronic inflammatory lesions (CILs), and increased perivillous fibrin deposition (PVFD). A total of 15 studies reporting on 19,025 placentas, n = 699 of which were derived from women who were identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 18,326 as SARS-CoV-2-negative controls, were eligible for analysis. No significant difference in incidence of MVM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-1.90), FVM (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.63-2.42), MIR (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.29-1.52) or FIR (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.44-1.63), and CILs (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.55-1.72) was found between placentae from gravida identified as being SARS-CoV-2 infected. However, placenta from gravida identified as being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were associated with significantly increased occurrence of PVFD (OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.06-7.27). After subgroup analyses based on clinical severity of COVID-19 infection, no significant difference was observed in terms of reported placental pathology between symptomatic or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 gravidae placenta. Current evidence based on the available literature suggests that the only pathologic finding in the placentae of women who are pregnant identified as having been infected with SARS-CoV-2 was an increased prevalence of PVFD. KEY POINTS: · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal placental malperfusion.. · No association between SARS-CoV-2 and maternal or fetal inflammatory response.. · SARS-CoV-2 is associated with increased perivillous fibrin deposition in placenta..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fibrin , Inflammation/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Biol Chem ; 298(3): 101695, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851422

ABSTRACT

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) form a critical interface between blood and tissues that maintains whole-body homeostasis. In COVID-19, disruption of the EC barrier results in edema, vascular inflammation, and coagulation, hallmarks of this severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which ECs are dysregulated in COVID-19 are unclear. Here, we show that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 alone activates the EC inflammatory phenotype in a manner dependent on integrin ⍺5ß1 signaling. Incubation of human umbilical vein ECs with whole spike protein, its receptor-binding domain, or the integrin-binding tripeptide RGD induced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and subsequent expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules (VCAM1 and ICAM1), coagulation factors (TF and FVIII), proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1ß, and IL-6), and ACE2, as well as the adhesion of peripheral blood leukocytes and hyperpermeability of the EC monolayer. In addition, inhibitors of integrin ⍺5ß1 activation prevented these effects. Furthermore, these vascular effects occur in vivo, as revealed by the intravenous administration of spike, which increased expression of ICAM1, VCAM1, CD45, TNFα, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the lung, liver, kidney, and eye, and the intravitreal injection of spike, which disrupted the barrier function of retinal capillaries. We suggest that the spike protein, through its RGD motif in the receptor-binding domain, binds to integrin ⍺5ß1 in ECs to activate the NF-κB target gene expression programs responsible for vascular leakage and leukocyte adhesion. These findings uncover a new direct action of SARS-CoV-2 on EC dysfunction and introduce integrin ⍺5ß1 as a promising target for treating vascular inflammation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Integrin alpha5beta1 , NF-kappa B , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Integrin alpha5beta1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oligopeptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847342

ABSTRACT

Elucidating transcriptome in the peripheral edge of the lesional (PE) skin could provide a better understanding of the molecules or signalings that intensify inflammation in the PE skin. Full-thickness biopsies of PE skin and uninvolved (UN) skin were obtained from psoriasis patients for RNA-seq. Several potential differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the PE skin compared to those in the UN skin were identified. These DEGs enhanced functions such as angiogenesis, growth of epithelial tissue, chemotaxis and homing of cells, growth of connective tissues, and degranulation of myeloid cells beneath the PE skin. Moreover, the canonical pathways of IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-22 signaling were enriched by the DEGs. Finally, we proposed that inflammation in the PE skin might be driven by the IL-36/TLR9 axis or IL-6/Th17 axis and potentiated by IL-36α, IL-36γ, IL-17C, IL-8, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A15, SERPINB4, and hBD-2. Along with IL-36α, IL-17C, and IκBζ, ROCK2 could be an equally important factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, which may involve self-sustaining circuits between innate and adaptive immune responses via regulation of IL-36α and IL-36γ expression. Our finding provides new insight into signaling pathways in PE skin, which could lead to the discovery of new psoriasis targets.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Psoriasis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Keratinocytes/metabolism , Psoriasis/genetics , Psoriasis/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Transcriptome
19.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 20(5): 270-284, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839553

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a devastating pandemic. Although most people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a mild to moderate disease with virus replication restricted mainly to the upper airways, some progress to having a life-threatening pneumonia. In this Review, we explore recent clinical and experimental advances regarding SARS-CoV-2 pathophysiology and discuss potential mechanisms behind SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), specifically focusing on new insights obtained using novel technologies such as single-cell omics, organoid infection models and CRISPR screens. We describe how SARS-CoV-2 may infect the lower respiratory tract and cause alveolar damage as a result of dysfunctional immune responses. We discuss how this may lead to the induction of a 'leaky state' of both the epithelium and the endothelium, promoting inflammation and coagulation, while an influx of immune cells leads to overexuberant inflammatory responses and immunopathology. Finally, we highlight how these findings may aid the development of new therapeutic interventions against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Pandemics , Virus Replication
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