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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 382, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major concern and a new threat to immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at increased risk of infections, in particular when they have active disease and are on immunosuppressive treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and radiological features of three patients with COVID-19 associated with chronic IBD as well as their management and outcomes. The study was conducted at the Hassan II University Teaching Hospital in Fes, Morocco over a 3-month period. We assessed all patients with disease onset. All patients had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic. No changes or delays in treatment regimens occurred and none of patients developed severe COVID-19. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results were positive in all patients. Radiological examinations were conducted. Chest scanner showed ground-glass opacities in one case. Treatment was based on hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Outcome was good in all cases. This preliminary report suggests that patients with chronic IBD aren't at higher risk of developing COVID-19 compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco
5.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(11): 1189-1196, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506904

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The influence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been well characterized and it is unclear whether this requires an adaptation of the immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: A national register was established for the retrospective documentation of clinical parameters and changes in immunosuppressive therapy in SARS-CoV-2 infected IBD patients. RESULTS: In total, only 3 of 185 IBD patients (1.6 %) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection because of abdominal symptoms. In the course of COVID-19 disease, 43.5 % developed diarrhea, abdominal pain or hematochezia (risk of hospitalization with vs. without abdominal symptoms: 20.0 % vs. 10.6 %, p < 0.01). With active IBD at the time of SARS-CoV-2 detection, there was an increased risk of hospitalization (remission 11.2 %, active IBD 23.3 % p < 0.05). IBD-specific therapy remained unchanged in 115 patients (71.4 %); the most common change was an interruption of systemic therapy (16.2 %). DISCUSSION: New abdominal symptoms often appeared in SARS-CoV-2 infected IBD patients. However, these only rarely led to SARS-CoV-2 testing. A high IBD activity at the time of SARS-CoV-2 detection was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495447

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 pandemic, the safety of medical therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in relation to COVID-19 has emerged as an area of concern. This study aimed to evaluate the association between IBD therapies and severe COVID-19 outcomes. METHOD: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies from December 2019 to August 2021 to identify studies that reported severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients on current IBD therapies including 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), immunomodulators, corticosteroids, biologics, combination therapy, or tofacitinib. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were identified. Corticosteroids (risk ratio (RR) 1.91 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.91, p=0.003)) and 5-ASA (RR 1.50 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.93, p=0.001)) were associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with IBD patients. However, possible confounders for 5-ASA use were not controlled for. Sub-analysis showed that corticosteroids increased the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission but not mortality. Immunomodulators alone (RR 1.18 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.59, p=0.28)) or in combination with anti-TNFs ((RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.15, p=0.63)), tofacitinib (RR 0.81 (95% CI 0.49 to 1.33, p=0.40)) and vedolizumab ((RR 1.02 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.31, p=0.89)) were not associated with severe disease. Anti-TNFs (RR 0.47 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.54, p<0.00001)) and ustekinumab (RR 0.55 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.72, p<0.00001)) were associated with decreased risk of severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In patients with IBD, the risk of severe COVID-19 is higher among patients receiving corticosteroids. Corticosteroid use was associated with ICU admission but not mortality. The risk is also higher among patients receiving 5-ASAs. However, patient-level data were lacking and insufficient data existed for meta-regression analyses to adjust for confounding. Vedolizumab, tofacitinib, and immunomodulators alone or in combination with anti-TNF were not associated with severe disease. Anti-TNFs, and ustekinumab were associated with favourable outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(8): 2355-2359, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older age has been reported as a risk factor for severe SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). The impact of immunosuppressants (IMS) on COVID-19 is still under debate. AIM: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 in elderly patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in relation to the use of IMS. METHODS: IBD patients over 65 years of age were selected and grouped in terms of IMS use. Confirmed COVID-19, adherence to IST, comorbidities and concomitant non-IBD-related treatments between 1st of March 2020 to 1st of March 2021 were recorded. RESULTS: Out of 418 patients included, 89 (21.3%) were on IMS. Thirty-two patients (7.7%) had COVID-19, 7 of whom were on IMS (7.6% not on IMS vs. 7.9% on IMS; P = 0.933) and 7 (22%) patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of COVID-19 among elderly IBD patients was similar to that reported in the background population, regardless of the use of IMS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(11-12): 1432-1441, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older age and comorbidities are the main risk factors for adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The impact of IBD medications is still under investigation. AIMS: To assess risk factors for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 in IBD patients and use the identified risk factors to build risk indices. METHODS: Observational cohort study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with pneumonia, hospitalisation, need for ventilatory support, and death. RESULTS: Of the 937 patients (446 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) evaluated, 128 (13.7%) had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 664 (70.8%) had a favourable course, and 135 (15.5%) had moderate or severe COVID-19. In UC patients, obesity, active disease and comorbidities were significantly associated with adverse outcomes. In patients with Crohn's disease (CD), age, obesity, comorbidities and an additional immune-mediated inflammatory disease were identified as risk factors. These risk factors were incorporated into two indices to identify patients with UC or CD with a higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. In multivariable analyses, no single IBD medication was associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes, but anti-TNF agents were associated with a lower risk of pneumonia in UC, and lower risks of hospitalisation and severe COVID-19 in CD. CONCLUSION: The course of COVID-19 in patients with IBD is similar to that in the general population. IBD patients with active disease and comorbidities are at greater risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. IBD medications do not pose additional risks. The risk indices may help to identify patients who should be prioritised for COVID-19 re-vaccination or for therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Aged , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2129639, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473778

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are widely prescribed globally because of their ability to ameliorate shared immune pathways across immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs), the impact of COVID-19 among individuals with IMIDs who are receiving TNF inhibitors remains insufficiently understood. Objective: To examine the association between the receipt of TNF inhibitor monotherapy and the risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization or death compared with other commonly prescribed immunomodulatory treatment regimens among adult patients with IMIDs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was a pooled analysis of data from 3 international COVID-19 registries comprising individuals with rheumatic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis from March 12, 2020, to February 1, 2021. Clinicians directly reported COVID-19 outcomes as well as demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with IMIDs and confirmed or suspected COVID-19 using online data entry portals. Adults (age ≥18 years) with a diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or psoriasis were included. Exposures: Treatment exposure categories included TNF inhibitor monotherapy (reference treatment), TNF inhibitors in combination with methotrexate therapy, TNF inhibitors in combination with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapy, methotrexate monotherapy, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine monotherapy, and Janus kinase (Jak) inhibitor monotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19-associated hospitalization or death. Registry-level analyses and a pooled analysis of data across the 3 registries were conducted using multilevel multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics and accounting for country, calendar month, and registry-level correlations. Results: A total of 6077 patients from 74 countries were included in the analyses; of those, 3215 individuals (52.9%) were from Europe, 3563 individuals (58.6%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 48.8 (16.5) years. The most common IMID diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (2146 patients [35.3%]) and Crohn disease (1537 patients [25.3%]). A total of 1297 patients (21.3%) were hospitalized, and 189 patients (3.1%) died. In the pooled analysis, compared with patients who received TNF inhibitor monotherapy, higher odds of hospitalization or death were observed among those who received a TNF inhibitor in combination with azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine therapy (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% CI, 1.17-2.58; P = .006), azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine monotherapy (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.30-2.61; P = .001), methotrexate monotherapy (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.57-2.56; P < .001), and Jak inhibitor monotherapy (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.21-2.73; P = .004) but not among those who received a TNF inhibitor in combination with methotrexate therapy (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.85-1.63; P = .33). Similar findings were obtained in analyses that accounted for potential reporting bias and sensitivity analyses that excluded patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis based on symptoms alone. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, TNF inhibitor monotherapy was associated with a lower risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes compared with other commonly prescribed immunomodulatory treatment regimens among individuals with IMIDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5542-5546, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The role of nurses has great educational-scientific potential in COVID-19 vaccination. The aim of this work is to clarify whether the educational role of IBD nurses in vaccination is perceived by IBD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, through a questionnaire, to evaluate how many IBD patients received health education about vaccinations from the dedicated nurses (IBD nurses). RESULTS: There were four hundred questionnaires, 310 patients (77.5%) answered all questions. The nurse does not appear to help educate patients on influenza vaccination (66.1%) or pneumococcal vaccination (81.6%). Disclosed patients have many doubts about the new COVID-19 vaccination (74.4%) and many seek information (74.8%) and think that the nurse can provide the necessary information (70%). CONCLUSIONS: IBD nurses do not seem very active in the vaccination education role, and they do not meet patients' expectations, which are conversely very high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nurse's Role , Patient Education as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Fear , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses , Trust , Young Adult
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(33): 5520-5535, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403895

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); since its first description in December 2019, it has rapidly spread to a global pandemic. Specific concerns have been raised concerning patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorders of the gut that frequently require immunosuppressive and biological therapies to control their activity. Accumulating evidence has so far demonstrated that patients with IBD are not at increased risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. As for the general population, the identified risk factors for severe COVID-19 course among IBD patients have been established to be advanced age and the presence of comorbidities. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids has also been associated with an increased risk of death in IBD patients with COVID-19. Information on COVID-19 is constantly evolving, with data growing at a rapid pace. This will guarantee better knowledge and stronger evidence to help physicians in the choice of the best therapeutic approach for each patient, concurrently controlling for the risk of IBD disease under treatment and the risk of COVID-19 adverse outcomes and balancing the two. Moreover, the impact of the enormous number of severe respiratory patients on healthcare systems and facilities has led to an unprecedented redeployment of healthcare resources, significantly impacting the care of patients with chronic diseases. In this newly changed environment, the primary aim is to avoid harm whilst still providing adequate management. Telemedicine has been applied and is strongly encouraged for patients without the necessity of infusion therapy and whose conditions are stable. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has already revolutionized the management of patients with chronic immune-mediated diseases such as IBD. Direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic will be present for some time. This is the reason why continuous research, rapid solutions and constantly updated guidelines are of utmost importance. The aim of the present review is, therefore, to point out what has been learned so far as well as to pinpoint the unanswered questions and perspectives for the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Telemedicine , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Gut ; 70(5): 865-875, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections. DESIGN: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020. RESULTS: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Serologic Tests , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 78(2): 105-116, 2021 08 25.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377073

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reduced the ability to prevent or control chronic disease due to the concerns about safety in accessing health care. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition requiring long- term sustained treatment, which is difficult in the current panedemic situation. The Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) has developed an expert consensus statement on the clinical practice management of adult inflammatory bowel disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. This expert consensus statement is based on guidelines and clinical reports from several countries around the world. It provides recommendations to deal with the risk of COVID-19 and medication use in IBD patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and emphasizes the importance of right treatment approach to avoid worsening of the disease condition in IBD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Practice Management/standards , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Disease Management , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
18.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 78(2): 117-128, 2021 08 25.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377072

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastroenterology/standards , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Consensus , Gastroenterology/methods , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Vaccination/methods
20.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(6): 488-492, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362707

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has resulted in high mortality and morbidity worldwide and is still a growing problem. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease for which a substantial number of patients are treated with immunosuppressive medications, either occasionally or long-term. Despite the accumulating evidence, there is still a lack of knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on IBD patients, especially those who are under immunosuppressive treatment. Moreover, following the emergence of several COVID vaccines, there are concerns regarding vaccine effectiveness and possible side effects in such patients. In this context, we tried to briefly summarize the accumulating evidence and recommendations for the management of IBD in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Withholding Treatment
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