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2.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(10): 1703-1705, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740876

ABSTRACT

The recent emergency use authorization of a third COVID-19 vaccine means that most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will soon be eligible to be vaccinated. Gastroenterology clinicians should be prepared to address patients' concerns regarding safety and efficacy of vaccines. They should also strongly recommend that all their patients be vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they should be prepared to educate patients about logistics that will result in successful vaccination completion. All these measures will be crucial to ensure high uptake among their patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gastroenterologists , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Physician's Role , Preventive Health Services , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/methods
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 818023, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674343

ABSTRACT

Alu retrotransposons belong to the class of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Alu RNA is abundant in cells and its repetitive structure forms double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) that activate dsRNA sensors and trigger innate immune responses with significant pathological consequences. Mechanisms to prevent innate immune activation include deamination of adenosines to inosines in dsRNAs, referred to as A-to-I editing, degradation of Alu RNAs by endoribonucleases, and sequestration of Alu RNAs by RNA binding proteins. We have previously demonstrated that widespread loss of Alu RNA A-to-I editing is associated with diverse human diseases including viral (COVID-19, influenza) and autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis). Here we demonstrate loss of A-to-I editing in leukocytes is also associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. Our structure-function analysis demonstrates that ability to activate innate immune responses resides in the left arm of Alu RNA, requires a 5'-PPP, RIG-I is the major Alu dsRNA sensor, and A-to-I editing disrupts both structure and function. Further, edited Alu RNAs inhibit activity of unedited Alu RNAs. Altering Alu RNA nucleotide sequence increases biological activity. Two classes of Alu RNAs exist, one class stimulates both IRF and NF-kB transcriptional activity and a second class only stimulates IRF transcriptional activity. Thus, Alu RNAs play important roles in human disease but may also have therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements/genetics , Alu Elements/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/genetics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Adenosine , COVID-19 , Humans , Inosine , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(3): 462-469, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625333

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although an additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine dose for immunocompromised persons has been recommended in some countries, further data to guide vaccination strategies for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are urgently needed. We sought to identify factors affecting initial humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines among patients with IBD. METHODS: In this prospective cohort of SARS-CoV-2 immunized patients with IBD, we evaluated associations between participant age, sex, vaccine type, medication use, and the presence of a detectable antireceptor binding domain antibody and quantitative antibody level. RESULTS: In total, 1,909 participants were included (1,123, 692, and 94 received BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S, respectively) of whom 96% achieved a positive antibody response. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with lack of antibody response were older age (P = 0.043), BNT162b2 vs mRNA-1273 (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.9), and combination therapy with anti-TNF and 6MP, azathioprine, or methotrexate (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.3). The use of 5-aminosalicylate or sulfasalazine (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8) and ustekinumab (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.8) was associated with decreased odds of lacking antibody response. DISCUSSION: Most patients with IBD mount an initial response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; however, older patients and those treated with anti-TNF and immunomodulator have blunted responses and may benefit the most from an additional vaccine dose. Patients treated with other classes of immunosuppressive medications have more robust initial immune responses to vaccination. These data should inform key decisions about patient selection for additional coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine doses in patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
10.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 454-467, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), specifically those treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α biologics, are at high risk for vaccine-preventable infections. Their ability to mount adequate vaccine responses is unclear. The aim of the study was to assess serologic responses to messenger RNA-Coronavirus Disease 2019 vaccine, and safety profile, in patients with IBD stratified according to therapy, compared with healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Prospective, controlled, multicenter Israeli study. Subjects enrolled received 2 BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) doses. Anti-spike antibody levels and functional activity, anti-TNFα levels and adverse events (AEs) were detected longitudinally. RESULTS: Overall, 258 subjects: 185 IBD (67 treated with anti-TNFα, 118 non-anti-TNFα), and 73 HCs. After the first vaccine dose, all HCs were seropositive, whereas ∼7% of patients with IBD, regardless of treatment, remained seronegative. After the second dose, all subjects were seropositive, however anti-spike levels were significantly lower in anti-TNFα treated compared with non-anti-TNFα treated patients, and HCs (both P < .001). Neutralizing and inhibitory functions were both lower in anti-TNFα treated compared with non-anti-TNFα treated patients, and HCs (P < .03; P < .0001, respectively). Anti-TNFα drug levels and vaccine responses did not affect anti-spike levels. Infection rate (∼2%) and AEs were comparable in all groups. IBD activity was unaffected by BNT162b2. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study in patients with IBD stratified according to treatment, all patients mounted serologic response to 2 doses of BNT162b2; however, its magnitude was significantly lower in patients treated with anti-TNFα, regardless of administration timing and drug levels. Vaccine was safe. As vaccine serologic response longevity in this group may be limited, vaccine booster dose should be considered.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
Gastroenterology ; 162(1): 88-108.e9, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) have an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), primarily attributed to the use of immunosuppressive drugs such as glucocorticoids, which may attenuate the response to vaccines. This meta-analysis assessed the serologic response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IMIDs. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched on August 1, 2021, for observational studies. Data extracted included reference population, medications, vaccination, and proportion of patients achieving a serologic response. RESULTS: The analysis included 25 observational studies (5360 patients). Most of the studies used messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273), with a small number of studies including other types of vaccines (AZD1222, CoronaVac, BBV152, Ad26.COV2.S). Serologic response after 1 dose (6 studies) and 2 doses (17 studies) of mRNA vaccine were 73.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.7%-79.5%) and 83.4% (95% CI, 76.8%-88.4%), respectively. On meta-regression, anti-CD20 therapy was associated with lower response rates (P < .001) and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy also showed a trend toward lower response rates (P = .058). Patients with IMIDs were less likely to achieve a serologic response compared with controls after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine (6 studies; odds ratio, 0.086; 95% CI, 0.036-0.206; P < .001). There were not enough studies to assess response to the adenoviral or inactivated vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that patients with IMIDs have a reduced response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. These results suggest that IMID patients receiving mRNA vaccines should complete the vaccine series without delay and support the strategy of providing a third dose of the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Vaccination , /immunology , Humans
17.
Int Immunol ; 33(12): 787-790, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398105

ABSTRACT

Dysbiosis is alterations in the microbial composition compared with a healthy microbiota and often features a reduction in gut microbial diversity and a change in microbial taxa. Dysbiosis, especially in the gut, has also been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. A body of evidence has shown that intestinal polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies are important to regulate the gut microbiota as well as to exclude pathogenic bacteria or viral infection such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) at mucosal sites. Since the 1970s, trials for oral administration of therapeutic IgA or IgG have been performed mainly to treat infectious enteritis caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli or Clostridium difficile. However, few of them have been successfully developed for clinical application up to now. In addition to the protective function against intestinal pathogens, IgA is well known to modulate the gut commensal microbiota leading to symbiosis. Nevertheless, the development of therapeutic IgA drugs to treat dysbiosis is not progressing. In this review, the advantages of therapeutic IgA antibodies and the problems for their development will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Intestines/drug effects , Animals , Bacteria/immunology , Dysbiosis , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/microbiology , Intestines/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Species Specificity
18.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 78(2): 117-128, 2021 08 25.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377072

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastroenterology/standards , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Consensus , Gastroenterology/methods , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Vaccination/methods
19.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374308

ABSTRACT

Intercellular communication mediated by cytokines is critical to the development of immune responses, particularly in the context of infectious and inflammatory diseases. By releasing these small molecular weight peptides, the source cells can influence numerous intracellular processes in the target cells, including the secretion of other cytokines downstream. However, there are no readily available bioinformatic resources that can model cytokine-cytokine interactions. In this effort, we built a communication map between major tissues and blood cells that reveals how cytokine-mediated intercellular networks form during homeostatic conditions. We collated the most prevalent cytokines from the literature and assigned the proteins and their corresponding receptors to source tissue and blood cell types based on enriched consensus RNA-Seq data from the Human Protein Atlas database. To assign more confidence to the interactions, we integrated the literature information on cell-cytokine interactions from two systems of immunology databases, immuneXpresso and ImmunoGlobe. From the collated information, we defined two metanetworks: a cell-cell communication network connected by cytokines; and a cytokine-cytokine interaction network depicting the potential ways in which cytokines can affect the activity of each other. Using expression data from disease states, we then applied this resource to reveal perturbations in cytokine-mediated intercellular signalling in inflammatory and infectious diseases (ulcerative colitis and COVID-19, respectively). For ulcerative colitis, with CytokineLink, we demonstrated a significant rewiring of cytokine-mediated intercellular communication between non-inflamed and inflamed colonic tissues. For COVID-19, we were able to identify cell types and cytokine interactions following SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting important cytokine interactions that might contribute to severe illness in a subgroup of patients. Such findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, cytokine-targeted therapeutic strategies. CytokineLink is freely available for the scientific community through the NDEx platform and the project github repository.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Cell Communication , Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Signal Transduction
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