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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(12): 1403-1418, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892011

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Lymphopenia is common in severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19), yet the immune mechanisms are poorly understood. As inflammatory cytokines are increased in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we hypothesized a role in contributing to reduced T-cell numbers. Objectives: We sought to characterize the functional SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses in patients with severe versus recovered, mild COVID-19 to determine whether differences were detectable. Methods: Using flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequence analyses, we assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific responses in our cohort. Measurements and Main Results: In 148 patients with severe COVID-19, we found lymphopenia was associated with worse survival. CD4+ lymphopenia predominated, with lower CD4+/CD8+ ratios in severe COVID-19 compared with patients with mild disease (P < 0.0001). In severe disease, immunodominant CD4+ T-cell responses to Spike-1 (S1) produced increased in vitro TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) but demonstrated impaired S1-specific proliferation and increased susceptibility to activation-induced cell death after antigen exposure. CD4+TNF-α+ T-cell responses inversely correlated with absolute CD4+ counts from patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 76; R = -0.797; P < 0.0001). In vitro TNF-α blockade, including infliximab or anti-TNF receptor 1 antibodies, strikingly rescued S1-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation and abrogated S1-specific activation-induced cell death in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with severe COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Single-cell RNA sequencing demonstrated marked downregulation of type-1 cytokines and NFκB signaling in S1-stimulated CD4+ cells with infliximab treatment. We also evaluated BAL and lung explant CD4+ T cells recovered from patients with severe COVID-19 and observed that lung T cells produced higher TNF-α compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions: Together, our findings show CD4+ dysfunction in severe COVID-19 is TNF-α/TNF receptor 1-dependent through immune mechanisms that may contribute to lymphopenia. TNF-α blockade may be beneficial in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cytokines , Humans , Infliximab , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
2.
Clin Drug Investig ; 42(6): 477-489, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878006

ABSTRACT

Subcutaneous infliximab recently received approval for the treatment of various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in Europe, following pivotal clinical trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Subcutaneous infliximab demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with intravenous infliximab: the more stable exposure and increased systemic drug concentrations mean it has been cited as a biobetter. Alongside the pharmacokinetic advantages, potential benefits for efficacy, immunogenicity, and health-related quality-of-life outcomes have been suggested with subcutaneous infliximab. During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the benefits of subcutaneous over intravenous therapies became apparent: switching from intravenous to subcutaneous infliximab reduced the hospital visit-related healthcare resource burden and potential viral transmission. Clinical advantages observed in pivotal trials are also being seen in the real world. Accumulating experience from four European countries (the UK, Spain, France, and Germany) in patients with rheumatic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease supports clinical trial findings that subcutaneous infliximab is well tolerated, increases serum drug concentrations, and offers maintained or improved efficacy outcomes for patients switching from intravenous infliximab. Initial evidence is emerging with subcutaneous infliximab treatment after intravenous infliximab failure. High patient satisfaction and pharmacoeconomic benefits have also been reported with subcutaneous infliximab. Treatments aligned with patient preferences for the flexibility and convenience of at-home subcutaneous administration could boost adherence and treatment outcomes. Altogether, findings suggest that switching from intravenous to subcutaneous infliximab could be advantageous, and healthcare professionals should be prepared to discuss supporting data as part of shared decision making during patient consultations.


The tumor necrosis factor inhibitor infliximab is one treatment option that may be appropriate for patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Patients may prefer tumor necrosis factor inhibitors administered via the subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) route, with preferences influencing treatment satisfaction and outcomes. In 2019, CT-P13 SC became the first SC infliximab product to receive regulatory approval in Europe, based on pivotal clinical studies that compared SC infliximab to IV infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Subcutaneous infliximab is now approved in Europe for the treatment of adults with rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis. Patients began to switch from IV to SC infliximab outside clinical trials in March 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Switching from IV to SC infliximab allowed patients to self-administer treatment at home rather than attend hospital for infusions, reducing potential hospital-acquired infections and lessening the strain on healthcare systems during the pandemic. Clinical trial evidence and growing real-world experience demonstrate that SC infliximab offers clinical advantages in terms of an improved pharmacokinetic profile and potential efficacy, immunogenicity, and health-related quality-of-life benefits compared with IV infliximab. Patients have also reported increased satisfaction with SC infliximab after switching from IV infliximab. Together with the long-standing flexibility and convenience benefits of SC administration, the clinical advantages of SC infliximab make it a valid therapeutic option for rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This warrants discussion with appropriate patients as part of shared treatment decision making.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/chemically induced , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(6): e628, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the pervasive vaccination program against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), fully vaccinated people are still being infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, making an effective and safe therapeutic intervention a crucial need for the patients' survival. The purpose of the present study is to seek available evidence for the efficacy and safety of three promising medications artesunate, imatinib, and infliximab against COVID-19. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, medRxive, and Google Scholar up to January 2022. Furthermore, the clinical trial databases were screened to find more citations. The Cochrane Collaboration tool and Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.4.1. RESULTS: Five published studies were identified as eligible. Meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the infliximab and control groups in terms of mortality rate (risk ratio [RR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-1.07; p = 0.09). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups for the hospital discharge (RR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04-1.80; p = 0.03). No remarkable clinical benefit was observed in favor of using imatinib for COVID-19 patients. Artesunate showed significant improvement in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In the present, limited evidence exists for the efficacy and safety of artesunate, imatinib, and infliximab in patients with COVID-19. The findings of WHO's Solidarity international trial will provide further information regarding these therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Artesunate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 13(4): e00484, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766185

ABSTRACT

Immune-modulating medications for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have been associated with suboptimal vaccine responses. There are conflicting data with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We therefore assessed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity at 2 weeks after second mRNA vaccination in 29 patients with IBD compared with 12 normal healthy donors. We observed reduced humoral immunity in patients with IBD on infliximab. However, we observed no difference in humoral and cell-mediated immunity in patients with IBD on infliximab with a thiopurine or vedolizumab compared with normal healthy donors. This is the first study to demonstrate comparable cell-mediated immunity with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD treated with different immune-modulating medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chronic Disease , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/pharmacology , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1379, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747222

ABSTRACT

Anti tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs increase the risk of serious respiratory infection and impair protective immunity following pneumococcal and influenza vaccination. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune responses and breakthrough infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, who are treated either with the anti-TNF antibody, infliximab, or with vedolizumab targeting a gut-specific anti-integrin that does not impair systemic immunity. Geometric mean [SD] anti-S RBD antibody concentrations are lower and half-lives shorter in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following two doses of BNT162b2 (566.7 U/mL [6.2] vs 4555.3 U/mL [5.4], p <0.0001; 26.8 days [95% CI 26.2 - 27.5] vs 47.6 days [45.5 - 49.8], p <0.0001); similar results are also observed with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (184.7 U/mL [5.0] vs 784.0 U/mL [3.5], p <0.0001; 35.9 days [34.9 - 36.8] vs 58.0 days [55.0 - 61.3], p value < 0.0001). One fifth of patients fail to mount a T cell response in both treatment groups. Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections are more frequent (5.8% (201/3441) vs 3.9% (66/1682), p = 0.0039) in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, and the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection is predicted by peak anti-S RBD antibody concentration after two vaccine doses. Irrespective of the treatments, higher, more sustained antibody levels are observed in patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to vaccination. Our results thus suggest that adapted vaccination schedules may be required to induce immunity in at-risk, anti-TNF-treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
7.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(6): 814-818, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649662

ABSTRACT

Patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can develop clinical features resembling Kawasaki disease (KD). A full picture of MIS-C in East Asia which has higher incidence of KD than other regions remains unclear. We report on a 15-year-old Japanese boy with refractory MIS-C who was successfully treated with infliximab. A Japanese boy who was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) before a month developed MIS-C with fulfilling six principal symptoms of KD. Laboratory data showed extreme hyperferritinemia (11,404 ng/mL), besides lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. The patient was refractory to initial therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG; 2 g/kg), aspirin, and prednisolone. He was therefore administered a second IVIG (2 g/kg) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) on days 7 and 8 from the onset of fever, respectively, which resulted in an improvement of clinical symptoms. Only four Japanese cases with MIS-C were reported and all of them were responsive to IVIG. The hyperferritinemia in this case was distinctive from previously reported MIS-C cases in Japan and other cohorts and may be associated with refractoriness to IVIG therapy. Marked elevation of circulating ferritin levels is known to be induced by tumor necrosis factor-α, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both KD and MIS-C. Thus, for MIS-C patients with hyperferritinemia, early intervention with adjunctive infliximab may induce a more rapid resolution of inflammation and improve outcome. Because MIS-C may be heterogeneous with respect to immunopathology, genetic background, clinical phenotypes and response to therapies, optimized treatment strategies according to immunopathogenesis are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Hyperferritinemia , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Japan , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 465, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627057

ABSTRACT

We conducted retrospective cohort studies of patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) twice in 2009 and 2019, using a physician questionnaire. We compared the patients' clinical statuses between the years. Age and gender were comparable between the two surveys. Mean disease duration was longer in 2019 survey (8.3 years) than that in 2009 survey (4.8 years, P < 0.001). The mortality rate declined in 2019 survey compared with those in 2009 survey (from 9.2 to 1.6%, P < 0.001). Incidence of airway involvement decreased in 2019 survey compared with that in 2009 survey (from 49 to 37%, P = 0.012). In 2019 survey, we found more frequent use of biological agents and immunosuppressants in patients with airway involvement. When we focused on RP patients with airway involvement, physicians in 2019 chose methotrexate and calcineurin inhibitors preferentially, compared with azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. Of note is that increased use of infliximab was observed in RP patients with airway involvement, but not in those without. Reduction of airway involvement and mortality in patients with RP was observed in 2019 survey. The reduction may associate with the frequent use of biologics including infliximab in RP patients with airway involvement.


Subject(s)
Polychondritis, Relapsing/complications , Polychondritis, Relapsing/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Adult , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Polychondritis, Relapsing/epidemiology , Polychondritis, Relapsing/mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(3): 711-726, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616202

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic has emerged as one of the significant medical-health challenges of the current century. The World Health Organization has named this new virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in November 2019 in Wuhan, China, physicians, researchers, and others have made it their top priority to find drugs and cures that can effectively treat patients and reduce mortality rates. The symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, dry cough, body aches, and anosmia. Various therapeutic compounds have been investigated and applied to mitigate the symptoms in COVID-19 patients and cure the disease. Degenerative virus analyses of the infection incidence and COVID-19 have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 penetrates the pulmonary alveoli's endothelial cells through Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the membrane, stimulates various signaling pathways and causes excessive secretion of cytokines. The continuous triggering of the innate and acquired immune system, as well as the overproduction of pro-inflammatory factors, cause a severe condition in the COVID-19 patients, which is called "cytokine storm". It can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critical patients. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases demand oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilator support. Various drugs, including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents (e.g., monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and interleukin antagonists) have been utilized in clinical trials. However, the studies and clinical trials have documented diverging findings, which seem to be due to the differences in these drugs' possible mechanisms of action. These drugs' mechanism of action generally includes suppressing or modulating the immune system, preventing the development of cytokine storm via various signaling pathways, and enhancing the blood vessels' diameter in the lungs. In this review article, multiple medications from different drug families are discussed, and their possible mechanisms of action are also described.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulating Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/immunology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/etiology , Dexamethasone/immunology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Famotidine/immunology , Famotidine/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/immunology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Infliximab/immunology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Melatonin/immunology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Purines/immunology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/immunology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
10.
Adv Ther ; 39(6): 2342-2364, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607755

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted significant changes in patient care in rheumatology and gastroenterology, with clinical guidance issued to manage ongoing therapy while minimising the risk of nosocomial infection for patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Subcutaneous (SC) formulations of biologics enable patients to self-administer treatments at home; however, switching between agents may be undesirable. CT-P13 SC is the first SC formulation of infliximab that received regulatory approval and may be termed a biobetter as it offers significant clinical advantages over intravenous (IV) infliximab, including improved pharmacokinetics and a convenient mode of delivery. Potential benefits in terms of reduced immunogenicity have also been suggested. With a new SC formulation, infliximab provides an additional option for dual formulation, which enables patients to transition from IV to SC administration route without changing agent. Before COVID-19, clinical trials supported the efficacy and safety of switching from IV to SC infliximab for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and SC infliximab may have been selected on the basis of patient and HCP preferences for SC agents. During the pandemic, patients with rheumatic diseases and IBD have successfully switched from IV to SC infliximab, with some clinical benefits and high levels of patient satisfaction. As patients switched to SC therapeutics, the reduction in resource requirements for IV infusion services may have been particularly welcome given the pandemic, facilitating reorganisation and redeployment in overstretched healthcare systems, alongside pharmacoeconomic benefits and a reduction in exposure to nosocomial infection. Telemedicine and contactless healthcare have been pushed to the forefront during the pandemic, and a lasting shift towards remote patient management and community/home-based drug administration is anticipated. SC infliximab supports the implementation of this paradigm for future improvements of healthcare value delivered. The accumulation of real-world data during the pandemic supports the high level of confidence, with patients, physicians, and healthcare systems benefitting from its uptake.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(3): 255-266, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysregulated inflammation is associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19. We aimed to assess the efficacy of namilumab (a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor inhibitor) and infliximab (a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor) in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, to prioritise agents for phase 3 trials. METHODS: In this randomised, multicentre, multi-arm, multistage, parallel-group, open-label, adaptive, phase 2, proof-of-concept trial (CATALYST), we recruited patients (aged ≥16 years) admitted to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations of 40 mg/L or greater, at nine hospitals in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned with equal probability to usual care or usual care plus a single intravenous dose of namilumab (150 mg) or infliximab (5 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified by care location within the hospital (ward vs intensive care unit [ICU]). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was improvement in inflammation, measured by CRP concentration over time, analysed using Bayesian multilevel models. This trial is now complete and is registered with ISRCTN, 40580903. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021, we screened 299 patients and 146 were enrolled and randomly assigned to usual care (n=54), namilumab (n=57), or infliximab (n=35). For the primary outcome, 45 patients in the usual care group were compared with 52 in the namilumab group, and 29 in the usual care group were compared with 28 in the infliximab group. The probabilities that the interventions were superior to usual care alone in reducing CRP concentration over time were 97% for namilumab and 15% for infliximab; the point estimates for treatment-time interactions were -0·09 (95% CI -0·19 to 0·00) for namilumab and 0·06 (-0·05 to 0·17) for infliximab. 134 adverse events occurred in 30 (55%) of 55 patients in the namilumab group compared with 145 in 29 (54%) of 54 in the usual care group. 102 adverse events occurred in 20 (69%) of 29 patients in the infliximab group compared with 112 in 17 (50%) of 34 in the usual care group. Death occurred in six (11%) patients in the namilumab group compared with ten (19%) in the usual care group, and in four (14%) in the infliximab group compared with five (15%) in the usual care group. INTERPRETATION: Namilumab, but not infliximab, showed proof-of-concept evidence for reduction in inflammation-as measured by CRP concentration-in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Namilumab should be prioritised for further investigation in COVID-19. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
13.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with inflammatory autoimmune diseases treated with rituximab (RTX) have more severe forms of COVID-19 compared with patients treated with anticytokine therapies, such as Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) inhibitors. METHODS: We included all patients who were on either RTX or infliximab (IFX) in two Swiss cantons during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected self-reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19, PCR-confirmed diagnoses of COVID-19 and the evolution of COVID-19 infections. We computed the raw and propensity score-adjusted incidence of COVID-19 by treatment group. RESULTS: 190 patients were enrolled, of whom 121 (64%) were in the RTX group and 69 (36%) were in the IFX group. Twenty-one patients (11%) reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19 (RTX: 10, IFX: 11, p=0.14). Among patients with COVID-19 symptoms, four developed severe forms of the disease, with life-threatening pulmonary manifestations requiring intensive mechanical ventilation (RTX: 4 of 10, IFX: 0 of 11, Fisher's exact test p=0.04). The incidence rate of COVID-19 symptoms was 0.73 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.37) cases per 1000 patient-days on RTX vs 1.52 (95% CI 0.82 to 2.85) cases per 1000 patient-days on IFX (crude p=0.10, adjusted p=0.07). The incidence rate of severe COVID-19 was 0.28 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.7.2) cases per 1000 patient-days on RTX compared with null on IFX (95% CI 0.0 to 0.44) (p=0.13). A replication in an independent validation cohort confirmed these findings, with consistent results in the Swiss Clinical Quality Management registry. CONCLUSION: While the incidence of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 was overall similar in patients receiving RTX or IFX, the incidence of severe COVID-19 tended to be higher in the RTX group.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Humans , Incidence , Infliximab/adverse effects , Pandemics , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481024

ABSTRACT

Vaccines to prevent the impact of SARS-CoV-2 are now available, including for patients with autoimmune diseases. However, there is no information about how inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment could impact the cellular and humoral immune responses. This study evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses after vaccination with a two-dose schedule in a Crohn's disease patient treated with Infliximab (10 mg/kg); we included comparisons with a monozygotic twin. The results showed that the Crohn's disease's twin (twin 2) had no antibody detection and reduced activation of CD4+ T cell responses, unlike the twin without the autoimmune disease (twin 1). Twin 2 developed antigen-specific central memory CD8+ T-cells and IFNγ production after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination, similar to twin 1. These findings elucidated the role of T-cell immunity after COVID-19 immunization on IBD patients despite the lack of antibody production. Finally, our observation supports the consensus recommendation for IBD patients to receive COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , /immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Twins, Monozygotic
15.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(2): 155-160, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473858

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing is an attractive option for identifying new treatment strategies, in particular in extraordinary situations of urgent need such as the current coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Recently, the World Health Organization announced testing of three drugs as potential Covid-19 therapeutics that are known for their dampening effect on the immune system. Thus, the underlying concept of selecting these drugs is to temper the potentially life-threatening overshooting of the immune system reacting to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This viewpoint discusses the possibility that the impact of these and other drugs on autophagy contributes to their therapeutic effect by hampering the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artesunate/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Development , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Intracellular Membranes/drug effects , Intracellular Membranes/physiology , Intracellular Membranes/virology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Niclosamide/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication
16.
BioDrugs ; 35(6): 749-764, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biological drugs have improved the management of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) despite being associated with important safety issues such as immunogenicity, infections, and malignancies in real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a large Italian multi-database distributed network for use in the postmarketing surveillance of biological drugs, including biosimilars, in patients with IMID. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 13 Italian regional claims databases during 2010-2019. A tailor-made R-based tool developed for distributed analysis of claims data using a study-specific common data model was customized for this study. We measured the yearly prevalence of biological drug users and the frequency of switches between originator and biosimilars for infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab separately and stratified them by calendar year and region. We then calculated the cumulative number of users and person-years (PYs) of exposure to individual biological drugs approved for IMIDs. For a number of safety outcomes (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-COV-2] infection), we conducted a sample power calculation to estimate the PYs of exposure required to investigate their association with individual biological drugs approved for IMIDs, considering different strengths of association. RESULTS: From a total underlying population of almost 50 million inhabitants from 13 Italian regions, we identified 143,602 (0.3%) biological drug users, with a cumulative exposure of 507,745 PYs during the entire follow-up. The mean age ± standard deviation of biological drug users was 49.3 ± 16.3, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.2. The age-adjusted yearly prevalence of biological drug users increased threefold from 0.7 per 1000 in 2010 to 2.1 per 1000 in 2019. Overall, we identified 40,996 users of biosimilars of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors (i.e., etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab) in the years 2015-2019. Of these, 46% (N = 18,845) switched at any time between originator and biosimilars or vice versa. To investigate a moderate association (incidence rate ratio 2) between biological drugs approved for IMIDs and safety events of interest, such as optic neuritis (lowest background incidence rate 10.4/100,000 PYs) or severe infection (highest background incidence rate 4312/100,000 PYs), a total of 43,311 PYs and 104 PYs of exposure to individual biological drugs, respectively, would be required. As such, using this network, of 15 individual biological drugs approved for IMIDs, the association with those adverse events could be investigated for four (27%) and 14 (93%), respectively. CONCLUSION: The VALORE project multi-database network has access to data on more than 140,000 biological drug users (and > 0.5 million PYs) from 13 Italian regions during the years 2010-2019, which will be further expanded with the inclusion of data from other regions and more recent calendar years. Overall, the cumulated amount of person-time of exposure to biological drugs approved for IMIDs provides enough statistical power to investigate weak/moderate associations of almost all individual compounds and the most relevant safety outcomes. Moreover, this network may offer the opportunity to investigate the interchangeability of originator and biosimilars of several TNFα inhibitors in different therapeutic areas in real-world settings.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Infliximab/adverse effects , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457886

ABSTRACT

Although prednisolone, granulocyte/monocyte apheresis, calcineurin inhibitor and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy are generally used, no treatment strategy for inflammatory bowel disease complicated with pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) has been established yet. Herein, we present the case of a 29-year-old man with ulcerative colitis (UC) complicated with primary sclerosing cholangitis. When UC relapsed and PG developed, prednisolone and granulocyte/monocyte apheresis were used; however, their therapeutic effects were deemed insufficient. After 2 weeks, adalimumab (ADA) induced remission; however, his UC and PG relapsed 20 weeks later. As a result of switching to infliximab, since a loss of response to ADA was deemed to have occurred, remission was reintroduced and subsequently maintained for 40 weeks. We conclude that anti-TNF-α antibodies might be selected as the first choice when PG and UC are refractory to treatment, and a switch to anti-TNFs should be considered when the effect is still insufficient.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , Cholangitis, Sclerosing , Colitis, Ulcerative , Pyoderma Gangrenosum , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Adult , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/complications , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/drug therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Male , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/complications , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
19.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 84(3): 423-428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND-AIM: Intravenously administered biologicals are associated with a huge pressure to Infusion Units and increased cost. We aimed to assess the impact of switching infliximab to golimumab in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients in deep remission. Patients and method: In a prospective, single-centre pilot study UC patients on infliximab mono-therapy for = 2 years, whowere in deep remission, consented to switch to golimumab and were followed for 1 year with clinical assessment, serum and faecal biomarkers, work productivity, satisfaction with treatment and quality of life parameters. Endoscopic remission was assessed by colonoscopy at 1 year. Patients fulfilling the same inclusion criteria, who did not consent to switch to golimumab and continued to receive infliximab mono-therapy, for the same period, served as controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective, single-centre pilot study UC patients on infliximab mono-therapy for ≥ 2 years, who were in deep remission, consented to switch to golimumab and were followed for 1 year with clinical assessment, serum and faecal biomarkers, work productivity, satisfaction with treatment and quality of life parameters. Endoscopic remission was assessed by colonoscopy at 1 year. Patients fulfilling the same inclusion criteria, who did not consent to switch to golimumab and continued to receive infliximab mono-therapy, for the same period, served as controls. RESULTS: Between October 2015 and October 2017, 20 patients were recruited; however one patient stopped therapy because of pregnancy. All 19 patients who were switched to golimumab were still in clinical, biomarker and endoscopic remission at 1 year and maintained excellent quality of life without any complications. In the control group, 18 of 19 patients were also in deep remission, since only one patient had a flare which was managed with IFX dose intensification. During a median 3 years extension treatment with golimumab only 2 patients experienced a flare of colitis. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study indicates that switching from in-fliximab to golimumab in UC patients in deep remission does not compromise treatment effectiveness or the course of disease; golimumab offers a valid alternative to intravenous infliximab infusions during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colitis, Ulcerative , Adalimumab , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Humans , Infliximab , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(2): 118-119, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406901

ABSTRACT

A new subcutaneous formulation of the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 has recently been developed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), providing response rates similar to intravenous treatment. The use of this new formulation was requested, in an effort to limit patient attendance at intravenous infusion centers and to maintain biological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this observational, retrospective and descriptive study was to assess CT-P13 efficacy and safety after switching from intravenous to a subcutaneous formulation in patients with IBD receiving maintenance therapy. This article shows preliminary results after six months of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/therapeutic use , Drug Substitution/methods , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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