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Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 13(4): e00484, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766185


Immune-modulating medications for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have been associated with suboptimal vaccine responses. There are conflicting data with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We therefore assessed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity at 2 weeks after second mRNA vaccination in 29 patients with IBD compared with 12 normal healthy donors. We observed reduced humoral immunity in patients with IBD on infliximab. However, we observed no difference in humoral and cell-mediated immunity in patients with IBD on infliximab with a thiopurine or vedolizumab compared with normal healthy donors. This is the first study to demonstrate comparable cell-mediated immunity with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD treated with different immune-modulating medications.

COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chronic Disease , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/pharmacology , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(3): 711-726, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616202


The novel coronavirus pandemic has emerged as one of the significant medical-health challenges of the current century. The World Health Organization has named this new virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in November 2019 in Wuhan, China, physicians, researchers, and others have made it their top priority to find drugs and cures that can effectively treat patients and reduce mortality rates. The symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, dry cough, body aches, and anosmia. Various therapeutic compounds have been investigated and applied to mitigate the symptoms in COVID-19 patients and cure the disease. Degenerative virus analyses of the infection incidence and COVID-19 have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 penetrates the pulmonary alveoli's endothelial cells through Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the membrane, stimulates various signaling pathways and causes excessive secretion of cytokines. The continuous triggering of the innate and acquired immune system, as well as the overproduction of pro-inflammatory factors, cause a severe condition in the COVID-19 patients, which is called "cytokine storm". It can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critical patients. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases demand oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilator support. Various drugs, including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents (e.g., monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and interleukin antagonists) have been utilized in clinical trials. However, the studies and clinical trials have documented diverging findings, which seem to be due to the differences in these drugs' possible mechanisms of action. These drugs' mechanism of action generally includes suppressing or modulating the immune system, preventing the development of cytokine storm via various signaling pathways, and enhancing the blood vessels' diameter in the lungs. In this review article, multiple medications from different drug families are discussed, and their possible mechanisms of action are also described.

Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulating Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/immunology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/etiology , Dexamethasone/immunology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Famotidine/immunology , Famotidine/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/immunology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Infliximab/immunology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Melatonin/immunology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Purines/immunology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/immunology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
J Cell Biochem ; 123(2): 155-160, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473858


Drug repurposing is an attractive option for identifying new treatment strategies, in particular in extraordinary situations of urgent need such as the current coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Recently, the World Health Organization announced testing of three drugs as potential Covid-19 therapeutics that are known for their dampening effect on the immune system. Thus, the underlying concept of selecting these drugs is to temper the potentially life-threatening overshooting of the immune system reacting to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This viewpoint discusses the possibility that the impact of these and other drugs on autophagy contributes to their therapeutic effect by hampering the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle.

Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Artesunate/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artesunate/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Development , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Intracellular Membranes/drug effects , Intracellular Membranes/physiology , Intracellular Membranes/virology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Niclosamide/pharmacology , Niclosamide/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication