Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 112
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27433, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt started in 2000 at 8 sentinel sites geographically distributed all over the country. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was added to the panel of viral testing by polymerase chain reaction for the first 2 patients with ILI seen at one of the sentinel sites. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus co-infection with mild symptoms detected through routine ILI surveillance in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: This report aims to describe how the case was identified and the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patient. METHODS: The case was identified by Central Public Health Laboratory staff, who contacted the ILI sentinel surveillance officer at the Ministry of Health. The case patient was contacted through a telephone call. Detailed information about the patient's clinical picture, course of disease, and outcome was obtained. The contacts of the patient were investigated for acute respiratory symptoms, disease confirmation, and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 510 specimens collected from patients with ILI symptoms from October 2019 to August 2020, 61 (12.0%) were COVID-19-positive and 29 (5.7%) tested positive for influenza, including 15 (51.7%) A(H1N1), 11 (38.0%) A(H3N2), and 3 (10.3%) influenza B specimens. A 21-year-old woman was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus coinfection. She had a high fever of 40.2 °C and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved within 2 days with symptomatic treatment. All five of her family contacts had mild respiratory symptoms 2-3 days after exposure to the confirmed case, and their symptoms resolved without treatment or investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the possible occurrence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza A(H1N1) coinfection in younger and healthy people, who may resolve the infection rapidly. We emphasize the usefulness of the surveillance system for detection of viral causative agents of ILI and recommend broadening of the testing panel, especially if it can guide case management.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Sentinel Surveillance , /epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2396-2405, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217389

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 triggers a dysregulated innate immune system activation. As the mevalonate pathway (MVP) prevents the activation of inflammasomes and cytokine release and regulates endosomal transport, compromised signaling could be associated with the pathobiology of COVID-19. Prior transcriptomic studies of host cells in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection have not reported to date the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the MVP. In this study, we accessed public data sets to report in silico investigations into gene expression. In addition, we proposed candidate genes that are thought to have a direct association with the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and which may be dependent on signals derived from the MVP. Our results revealed dysregulation of genes involved in the MVP. These results were not found when investigating the gene expression data from host cells infected with H3N2 influenza virus, H1N1 influenza virus, or respiratory syncytial virus. Our manually curated gene set showed significant gene expression variability in A549 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, as per Blanco-Melo et al. data set (GSE147507). In light of the present findings, SARS-CoV-2 could hijack the MVP, leading to hyperinflammatory responses. Prompt reconstitution of this pathway with available agents should be considered in future studies.


Subject(s)
/metabolism , Mevalonic Acid/metabolism , /metabolism , A549 Cells , Autophagy , /immunology , Computer Simulation , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , SAM Domain and HD Domain-Containing Protein 1/genetics , SAM Domain and HD Domain-Containing Protein 1/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome , Virus Replication
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201089

ABSTRACT

Face masks are considered an effective intervention in controlling the spread of airborne viruses, as evidenced by the 2009's H1N1 swine flu and 2003's severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks. However, research aiming to examine public willingness to wear (WTW) face masks in Pakistan are scarce. The current research aims to overcome this research void and contributes by expanding the theoretical mechanism of theory of planned behavior (TPB) to include three novel dimensions (risk perceptions of the pandemic, perceived benefits of face masks, and unavailability of face masks) to comprehensively analyze the factors that motivate people to, or inhibit people from, wearing face masks. The study is based on an inclusive questionnaire survey of a sample of 738 respondents in the provincial capitals of Pakistan, namely, Lahore, Peshawar, Karachi, Gilgit, and Quetta. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to analyze the proposed hypotheses. The results show that attitude, social norms, risk perceptions of the pandemic, and perceived benefits of face masks are the major influencing factors that positively affect public WTW face masks, whereas the cost of face masks and unavailability of face masks tend to have opposite effects. The results emphasize the need to enhance risk perceptions by publicizing the deadly effects of COVID-19 on the environment and society, ensure the availability of face masks at an affordable price, and make integrated and coherent efforts to highlight the benefits that face masks offer.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Humans , Masks , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Swine
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8692, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199310

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite, namely TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 inhibited six major clades of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and oseltamivir-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Gold/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , /metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Food Additives/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Particle Size , Protein Binding/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 656350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191682

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV-2 virus differs from the pandemic Influenza A virus H1N1 subtype (H1N1pmd09) how it induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected patients. This study aims to evaluate the involvement of SNPs and tissue expression of IL-17A and the neutrophils recruitment in post-mortem lung samples from patients who died of severe forms of COVID-19 comparing to those who died by H1N1pdm09. Twenty lung samples from patients SARS-CoV-2 infected (COVID-19 group) and 10 lung samples from adults who died from a severe respiratory H1N1pdm09 infection (H1N1 group) were tested. The tissue expression of IL-8/IL-17A was identified by immunohistochemistry, and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain slides were used for neutrophil scoring. DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks, and genotyping was done in real time-PCR for two IL17A target polymorphisms. Tissue expression increasing of IL-8/IL-17A and a higher number of neutrophils were identified in samples from the H1N1 group compared to the COVID-19 group. The distribution of genotype frequencies in the IL17A gene was not statistically significant between groups. However, the G allele (GG and GA) of rs3819025 was correlated with higher tissue expression of IL-17A in the COVID-19 group. SARS-CoV-2 virus evokes an exacerbated response of the host's immune system but differs from that observed in the H1N1pdm09 infection since the IL-8/IL-17A tissue expression, and lung neutrophilic recruitment may be decreased. In SNP rs3819025 (G/A), the G allele may be considered a risk allele in the patients who died for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-8 , Lung/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/immunology , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , /immunology
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 480, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182874

ABSTRACT

The relationship between gut microbes and COVID-19 or H1N1 infections is not fully understood. Here, we compared the gut mycobiota of 67 COVID-19 patients, 35 H1N1-infected patients and 48 healthy controls (HCs) using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 3-ITS4 sequencing and analysed their associations with clinical features and the bacterial microbiota. Compared to HCs, the fungal burden was higher. Fungal mycobiota dysbiosis in both COVID-19 and H1N1-infected patients was mainly characterized by the depletion of fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, but several fungi, including Candida glabrata, were enriched in H1N1-infected patients. The gut mycobiota profiles in COVID-19 patients with mild and severe symptoms were similar. Hospitalization had no apparent additional effects. In COVID-19 patients, Mucoromycota was positively correlated with Fusicatenibacter, Aspergillus niger was positively correlated with diarrhoea, and Penicillium citrinum was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). In H1N1-infected patients, Aspergillus penicilloides was positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae members, Aspergillus was positively correlated with CRP, and Mucoromycota was negatively correlated with procalcitonin. Therefore, gut mycobiota dysbiosis occurs in both COVID-19 patients and H1N1-infected patients and does not improve until the patients are discharged and no longer require medical attention.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Female , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 727-732, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169498

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with droplets and contact as the main means of transmission. Since the first case appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the outbreak has gradually spread nationwide. Up to now, according to official data released by the Chinese health commission, the number of newly diagnosed patients has been declining, and the epidemic is gradually being controlled. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection, some patients developed severe and die from multiple organ complications. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans remains unclear. Immune function is a strong defense against invasive pathogens and there is currently no specific antiviral drug against the virus. This article reviews the immunological changes of coronaviruses like SARS, MERS and other viral pneumonia similar to SARS-CoV-2. Combined with the published literature, the potential pathogenesis of COVID-19 is inferred, and the treatment recommendations for giving high-doses intravenous immunoglobulin and low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulant therapy to severe type patients are proposed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/immunology , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16084-16096, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164786

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 exemplifies, respiratory diseases transmitted through aerosols or droplets are global threats to public health, and respiratory protection measures are essential first lines of infection prevention and control. However, common face masks are single use and can cause cross-infection due to the accumulated infectious pathogens. We developed salt-based formulations to coat membrane fibers to fabricate antimicrobial filters. Here, we report a mechanistic study on salt-induced pathogen inactivation. The salt recrystallization following aerosol exposure was characterized over time on sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and potassium chloride (KCl) powders and coatings, which revealed that NaCl and KCl start to recrystallize within 5 min and K2SO4 within 15 min. The inactivation kinetics observed for the H1N1 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae matched the salt recrystallization well, which was identified as the main destabilizing mechanism. Additionally, the salt-coated filters were prepared with different methods (with and without a vacuum process), which led to salt coatings with different morphologies for diverse applications. Finally, the salt-coated filters caused a loss of pathogen viability independent of transmission mode (aerosols or droplets), against both DI water and artificial saliva suspensions. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of the salt-recrystallization-based technology to develop highly versatile antimicrobial filters.


Subject(s)
Filtration/instrumentation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Masks , Potassium Chloride/chemistry , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Sulfates/chemistry , Aerosols , Air Filters , Crystallization , Kinetics , Membranes, Artificial , Polypropylenes , Powders , Respiratory Protective Devices , Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction
9.
Am J Nurs ; 121(4): 69-70, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147997

ABSTRACT

Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives highlights articles selected to fit today's topics and times. This month's article is by public health expert Dorothy Deming, whose many roles over her long career included director of the Visiting Nurse Association in Holyoke, Massachusetts; editor of Public Health Nursing; and author of the Penny Marsh: Public Health Nurse series for young adult readers. In her October 1957 AJN article, Deming recalls her experiences as a nursing student in New York City during the 1918 influenza pandemic. She and a classmate managed a 32-bed women's influenza unit through 12-hour night shifts, a "baptism of fire for a young nurse," she writes. Deming describes shifts that sound eerily familiar given today's COVID-19 pandemic: overcrowded units, staff shortages, patients whose condition could change "in split seconds," and the emotional impact of working under these conditions. For more on COVID-19 in this issue, see "Standardizing the Accommodations Process for Health Care Workers During COVID-19."-Betsy Todd, MPH, RN.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza, Human/history , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , New York City , Workload
10.
Ter Arkh ; 93(1): 114-124, 2021 Jan 10.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134693

ABSTRACT

Routinely the influenza virus significantly contributes to the formation of the annual incidence of acute respiratory infections, with a peak in winter season. The high level of mutagenic potential of influenza viruses is a standard factor determining the complexity of the rational choice of pharmacotherapy. The upcoming epidemiological season 20202021 brings additional challenges for health care practitioners mediated by the widespread prevalence in the human population of a new infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus affecting the respiratory system among many organs and systems. An adequate choice of pharmacotherapy tools should be based on high efficiency and safety of drugs, with a possible reduction in such negative factors as polypharmacy. This review includes comparative pharmacological characteristics of drugs with activity against RNA viruses, along with parameters of their clinical efficacy.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 633297, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133913

ABSTRACT

The C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 17 (CXCL17) is chemotactic for myeloid cells, exhibits bactericidal activity, and exerts anti-viral functions. This chemokine is constitutively expressed in the respiratory tract, suggesting a role in lung defenses. However, little is known about the participation of CXCL17 against relevant respiratory pathogens in humans. Here, we evaluated the serum levels and lung tissue expression pattern of CXCL17 in a cohort of patients with severe pandemic influenza A(H1N1) from Mexico City. Peripheral blood samples obtained on admission and seven days after hospitalization were processed for determinations of serum CXCL17 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of CXCL17 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) in lung autopsy specimens from patients that succumbed to the disease. Serum CXCL17 levels were also analyzed in two additional comparative cohorts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Additionally, the expression of CXCL17 was tested in lung autopsy specimens from COVID-19 patients. A total of 122 patients were enrolled in the study, from which 68 had pandemic influenza A(H1N1), 24 had COVID-19, and 30 with PTB. CXCL17 was detected in post-mortem lung specimens from patients that died of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and COVID-19. Interestingly, serum levels of CXCL17 were increased only in patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1), but not COVID-19 and PTB. CXCL17 not only differentiated pandemic influenza A(H1N1) from other respiratory infections but showed prognostic value for influenza-associated mortality and renal failure in machine-learning algorithms and regression analyses. Using cell culture assays, we also identified that human alveolar A549 cells and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages increase their CXCL17 production capacity after influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Our results for the first time demonstrate an induction of CXCL17 specifically during pandemic influenza A(H1N1), but not COVID-19 and PTB in humans. These findings could be of great utility to differentiate influenza and COVID-19 and to predict poor prognosis specially at settings of high incidence of pandemic A(H1N1). Future studies on the role of CXCL17 not only in severe pandemic influenza, but also in seasonal influenza, COVID-19, and PTB are required to validate our results.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/metabolism , Chemokines, CXC/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Lung/metabolism , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/physiology , /physiology , Adult , Aged , /mortality , Chemokines, CXC/genetics , Chemokines, CXC/immunology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Lung/pathology , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Young Adult
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1653, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132073

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and caused a pandemic, whereas the closely related SARS-CoV was contained rapidly in 2003. Here, an experimental set-up is used to study transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 through the air between ferrets over more than a meter distance. Both viruses cause a robust productive respiratory tract infection resulting in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to two of four indirect recipient ferrets and SARS-CoV to all four. A control pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus also transmits efficiently. Serological assays confirm all virus transmission events. Although the experiments do not discriminate between transmission via small aerosols, large droplets and fomites, these results demonstrate that SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 can remain infectious while traveling through the air. Efficient virus transmission between ferrets is in agreement with frequent SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms. Although the evidence for virus transmission via the air between humans under natural conditions is absent or weak for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, ferrets may represent a sensitive model to study interventions aimed at preventing virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Ferrets/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Aerosols , Amino Acid Substitution , Animal Fur/virology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Fomites/virology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Models, Biological , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Time Factors , Viral Load , /virology , Virus Shedding
13.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127535

ABSTRACT

While it is now widely accepted that host inflammatory responses contribute to lung injury, the pathways that drive severity and distinguish coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from other viral lung diseases remain poorly characterized. We analyzed plasma samples from 471 hospitalized patients recruited through the prospective multicenter ISARIC4C study and 39 outpatients with mild disease, enabling extensive characterization of responses across a full spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Progressive elevation of levels of numerous inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (including IL-6, CXCL10, and GM-CSF) were associated with severity and accompanied by elevated markers of endothelial injury and thrombosis. Principal component and network analyses demonstrated central roles for IL-6 and GM-CSF in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Comparing these profiles to archived samples from patients with fatal influenza, IL-6 was equally elevated in both conditions whereas GM-CSF was prominent only in COVID-19. These findings further identify the key inflammatory, thrombotic, and vascular factors that characterize and distinguish severe and fatal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/blood , Cytokines/blood , Adult , Aged , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122038

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of respiratory viruses of zoonotic origin (RVsZO) such as influenza and coronaviruses in humans is crucial, because their spread and pandemic threat are the highest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an analytical technique with promising impact for the point-of-care diagnosis of viruses. It has been applied to a variety of influenza A virus subtypes, such as the H1N1 and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this work, a review of the strategies used for the detection of RVsZO by SERS is presented. In addition, relevant information about the SERS technique, anthropozoonosis, and RVsZO is provided for a better understanding of the theme. The direct identification is based on trapping the viruses within the interstices of plasmonic nanoparticles and recording the SERS signal from gene fragments or membrane proteins. Quantitative mono- and multiplexed assays have been achieved following an indirect format through a SERS-based sandwich immunoassay. Based on this review, the development of multiplex assays that incorporate the detection of RVsZO together with their specific biomarkers and/or secondary disease biomarkers resulting from the infection progress would be desirable. These configurations could be used as a double confirmation or to evaluate the health condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , /instrumentation , Equipment Design , Humans , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/instrumentation
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121320

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a novel respiratory disease induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It remains poorly understood how the host immune system responds to the infection during disease progression. We applied microarray analysis of the whole genome transcriptome to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) taken from severe and mild COVID-19 patients as well as healthy controls. Functional enrichment analysis of genes associated with COVID-19 severity indicated that disease progression is featured by overactivation of myeloid cells and deficient T cell function. The upregulation of TLR6 and MMP9, which promote the neutrophils-mediated inflammatory response, and the downregulation of SKAP1 and LAG3, which regulate T cells function, were associated with disease severity. Importantly, the regulation of these four genes was absent in patients with influenza A (H1N1). And compared with stimulation with hemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 virus, the regulation pattern of these genes was unique in PBMCs response to Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. Our data also suggested that severe SARS-CoV-2 infection largely silenced the response of type I interferons (IFNs) and altered the proportion of immune cells, providing a potential mechanism for the hypercytokinemia. This study indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs inflammatory and immune signatures in patients, especially those at severe stage. The potential mechanisms underpinning severe COVID-19 progression include overactive myeloid cells, impaired function of T cells, and inadequate induction of type I IFNs signaling.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/immunology , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 6/immunology
16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(8): 527-529, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119575

ABSTRACT

Series of the studies and consensus on the basic research on seasonal and animal influenza virus, clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by influenza A (H1N1) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), disease burden of influenza, and promotion of influenza vaccination for the elderly were published in this special issue, aiming to describe the feature of influenza virological and clinical characteristics, health and economic burden, and vaccination. These researches emphasized the importance of the integration between basic medicine, clinical medicine, public health and preventive medicine in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Based on the concept of population medicine, promoting the integration of multidisciplinary and strengthening prevention, control and pandemic preparedness on influenza, corona virus disease 2019 and other infectious diseases, could consolidate the foundation of surveillance and early warning, prevention and control, diagnosis and treatment of emerging infectious diseases, as well as improve the ability of emergency preparedness for public health events.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Aged , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
Trials ; 22(1): 188, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the registration quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical trials for COVID-19, H1N1, and SARS. METHOD: We searched for clinical trial registrations of TCM in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) on April 30, 2020. The registration quality assessment is based on the WHO Trial Registration Data Set (Version 1.3.1) and extra items for TCM information, including TCM background, theoretical origin, specific diagnosis criteria, description of intervention, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 136 records were examined, including 129 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) and 7 H1N1 influenza (H1N1) patients. The deficiencies in the registration of TCM clinical trials (CTs) mainly focus on a low percentage reporting detailed information about interventions (46.6%), primary outcome(s) (37.7%), and key secondary outcome(s) (18.4%) and a lack of summary result (0%). For the TCM items, none of the clinical trial registrations reported the TCM background and rationale; only 6.6% provided the TCM diagnosis criteria or a description of the TCM intervention; and 27.9% provided TCM outcome(s). CONCLUSION: Overall, although the number of registrations of TCM CTs increased, the registration quality was low. The registration quality of TCM CTs should be improved by more detailed reporting of interventions and outcomes, TCM-specific information, and sharing of the result data.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Influenza, Human/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Registries/standards , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Public Health
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247605, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105820

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils participate in the early phase of the innate response to uncomplicated influenza A virus (IAV) infection but also are a major component in later stages of severe IAV or COVID 19 infection where neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and associated cell free histones are highly pro-inflammatory. It is likely that IAV interacts with histones during infection. We show that histone H4 binds to IAV and aggregates viral particles. In addition, histone H4 markedly potentiates IAV induced neutrophil respiratory burst responses. Prior studies have shown reactive oxidants to be detrimental during severe IAV infection. C reactive protein (CRP) and surfactant protein D (SP-D) rise during IAV infection. We now show that both of these innate immune proteins bind to histone H4 and significantly down regulate respiratory burst and other responses to histone H4. Isolated constructs composed only of the neck and carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D also bind to histone H4 and partially limit neutrophil responses to it. These studies indicate that complexes formed of histones and IAV are a potent neutrophil activating stimulus. This finding could account for excess inflammation during IAV or other severe viral infections. The ability of CRP and SP-D to bind to histone H4 may be part of a protective response against excessive inflammation in vivo.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Histones/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications
19.
Front Public Health ; 8: 616140, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082600

ABSTRACT

Objective: Mass vaccination planning is occurring at all levels of government in advance of regulatory approval and manufacture of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for distribution sometime in 2021. We outline a methodology in which both health insurance provider network data and publicly available data sources can be used to identify and plan for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinator capacity at the county level. Methods: Sendero Health Plans, Inc. provider network data, Texas State Board of Pharmacy data, US Census Bureau data, and H1N1 monovalent vaccine data were utilized to identify providers with demonstrated capacity to vaccinate the population in Travis County, Texas to achieve an estimated SARS-CoV-2 herd immunity target of 67%. Results: Within the Sendero network, 2,356 non-pharmacy providers were identified with 788 (33.4%) practicing in primary care and 1,569 (66.6%) practicing as specialists. Of the total, 686 (29.1%) provided at least one immunization between January 1, 2019 and September 30, 2020. There are 300 pharmacies with active licenses in Travis County with 161 (53.7%) classified as community pharmacies. We estimate that 1,707,098 doses of a 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine series will need to be administered within Travis County, Texas to achieve the estimated 67% herd immunity threshold to disrupt person-to-person transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus based on 2020 census data. Conclusion: A community-based health insurance plan can use data from its provider network and public data sources to support the CDC call to action to identify SARS-CoV-2 vaccinators in the community, including physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and pharmacies in order to provide macro level estimates of SARS-CoV-2 administration and throughput.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Datasets as Topic , Insurance Carriers , Insurance, Health , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , /immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Insurance Carriers/statistics & numerical data , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Texas , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1135-1145, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the different clinical and CT features distinguishing COVID-19 from H1N1 influenza pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared two independent cohorts of COVID-19 pneumonia (n=405) and H1N1 influenza pneumonia (n=78), retrospectively. All patients were confirmed by RT-PCR. Four hundred and five cases of COVID-19 pneumonia were confirmed in nine hospitals of Zhejiang province, China from January 21 to February 20, 2020. Seventy-eight cases of H1N1 influenza pneumonia were confirmed in our hospital from January 1, 2017 to February 29, 2020. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, and CT imaging characteristics were compared. RESULTS: COVID-19 pneumonia patients showed less proportions of underlying diseases, fever and respiratory symptoms than those of H1N1 pneumonia patients (p<0.01). White blood cell count, neutrophilic granulocyte percentage, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-Dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase in H1N1 pneumonia patients were higher than those of COVID-19 pneumonia patients (p<0.05). H1N1 pneumonia was often symmetrically located in the dorsal part of inferior lung lobes, while COVID-19 pneumonia was unusually showed as a peripheral but non-specific lobe distribution. Ground glass opacity was more common in COVID-19 pneumonia and consolidation lesions were more common in H1N1 pneumonia (p<0.01). COVID-19 pneumonia lesions showed a relatively clear margin compared with H1N1 pneumonia. Crazy-paving pattern, thickening vessels, reversed halo sign and early fibrotic lesions were more common in COVID-19 pneumonia than H1N1 pneumonia (p<0.05). Pleural effusion in COVID-19 pneumonia was significantly less common than H1N1 pneumonia (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with H1N1 pneumonia in Zhejiang, China, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia were more concealed with less underlying diseases and slighter respiratory symptoms. The more common CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia included ground-glass opacity with a relatively clear margin, crazy-paving pattern, thickening vessels, reversed halo sign, and early fibrotic lesions, while the less common CT manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia included consolidation and pleural effusion.


Subject(s)
/diagnostic imaging , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL