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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 263, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612211

ABSTRACT

Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) and Plasma Activated Media (PAM) are effective against bacteria, fungi, cancer cells, and viruses because they can deliver Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) on a living tissue with negligible damage on health cells. The antiviral activity of CAP against SARS-CoV-2 is being investigated, however, the same but of PAM has not been explored despite its potential. In the present study, the capability of Plasma Activated Media (PAM) to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and PR8 H1N1 influenza virus with negligible damage on healthy cells is demonstrated. PAM acted by both virus detaching and diminished replication. Furthermore, the treatment of A549 lung cells at different times with buffered PAM did not induce interleukin 8 expression, showing that PAM did not induce inflammation. These results open a new research field by using PAM to the development novel treatments for COVID-19, influenza, and other respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Plasma Gases/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Reactive Nitrogen Species/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology
2.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 287: 114965, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587284

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Coronavirus and influenza virus infection seriously threaten human health. Cangma Huadu Granules (CMHD) is an in-hospital preparation composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), which has been clinically used against COVID-19 in China and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of influenza. However, the role of its treatment urgently needs to be studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of CMHD on pneumonia induced by coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and influenza A virus (H1N1/FM1) in mice and explore its mechanism of anti-infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were infected with HCoV-229E or H1N1/FM1 virus through the nasal cavity. CMHD (12.1, 6.05 and 3.03 g/kg/d) or the positive control drugs were administered intragastrically. The lung index and histopathological changes were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CMHD. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-4 in Serum and the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were detected to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and immune regulation effects of CMHD, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of p-NF-κBp65/ NF-κB p65, which was the key targets of the NF-κB pathway was analyzed. RESULTS: In HCoV-229E-induced pneumonia, the lung index was markedly reduced, and lung pathology was improved in mice that treated with CMHD (12.1, 6.05 g/kg/d). Meanwhile, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 were obviously inhibited, but the expression of IL-4 was significantly increased in CMHD groups. Compared with the model group, CMHD could also markedly upregulate the level of CD4+ and CD8+. Furthermore, CMHD has a markedly effect on inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 in the lung. In H1N1-induced pneumonia, the lung index of mice in the CMHD (12.1 g/kg/d) treatment group was lower than that in the model group, and less inflammatory infiltration could be seen in the lung pathological. Moreover, CMHD could also obviously decrease the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, but significantly increase the expression of IL-4. Except for that, CMHD could also markedly downregulate the level of CD4+ and upregulate the level of CD8+ compared with the model group. In addition, CMHD has a markedly effect on inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 in the lung. CONCLUSION: CMHD can significantly combats viral infections caused by HCoV-229E and H1N1, and the mechanism may be related to its multiple functions of anti-inflammatory, immunity regulating and inhibiting NF-κB signal transduction pathway.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity/drug effects , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332900

ABSTRACT

A novel series of N-substituted cis- and trans-3-aryl-4-(diethoxyphosphoryl)azetidin-2-ones were synthesized by the Kinugasa reaction of N-methyl- or N-benzyl-(diethyoxyphosphoryl)nitrone and selected aryl alkynes. Stereochemistry of diastereoisomeric adducts was established based on vicinal H3-H4 coupling constants in azetidin-2-one ring. All the obtained azetidin-2-ones were evaluated for the antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Azetidin-2-one trans-11f showed moderate inhibitory activity against human coronavirus (229E) with EC50 = 45 µM. The other isomer cis-11f was active against influenza A virus H1N1 subtype (EC50 = 12 µM by visual CPE score; EC50 = 8.3 µM by TMS score; MCC > 100 µM, CC50 = 39.9 µM). Several azetidin-2-ones 10 and 11 were tested for their cytostatic activity toward nine cancerous cell lines and several of them appeared slightly active for Capan-1, Hap1 and HCT-116 cells values of IC50 in the range 14.5-97.9 µM. Compound trans-11f was identified as adjuvant of oxacillin with significant ability to enhance the efficacy of this antibiotic toward the highly resistant S. aureus strain HEMSA 5. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that enantiomer (3R,4S)-11f can be responsible for the promising activity due to the potency in displacing oxacillin at ß-lactamase, thus protecting the antibiotic from undesirable biotransformation.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytostatic Agents/chemistry , Cytostatic Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oxacillin/chemistry , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Stereoisomerism , beta-Lactamases/chemistry
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105139, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292618

ABSTRACT

A series of scaffolds namely aurones, 3-indolinones, 4-quinolones and cinnamic acid-piperazine hybrids, was designed, synthesized and investigated in vitro against influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus. Designed molecules adopted different binding mode i.e., in 430-cavity of neuraminidase, unlike sialic acid and oseltamivir in molecular docking studies. All molecules reduced the viral titer and exhibited non-cytotoxicity along with cryo-protective property towards MDCK cells. Molecules (Z)-2-(3'-Chloro-benzylidene)-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-one (2f), (Z)-2-(4'-Chloro-benzylidene)-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-one (2g) and 2-(2'-Methoxy-phenyl)-1H-quinolin-4-one (3a) were the most interesting molecules identified in this research, endowed with robust potencies showing low-nanomolar EC50 values of 4.0 nM, 6.7 nM and 4.9 nM, respectively, compared to reference competitive and non-competitive inhibitors: oseltamivir (EC50 = 12.7 nM) and quercetin (EC50 = 0.56 µM), respectively. Besides, 2f, 2g and 3a exhibited good neuraminidase inhibitory activity in sub-micromolar range (IC50 = 0.52 µM, 3.5 µM, 1.3 µM respectively). Moreover, these molecules were determined as non-competitive inhibitors similar to reference non-competitive inhibitor quercetin unlike reference competitive inhibitor oseltamivir in kinetics studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Small Molecule Libraries/chemical synthesis , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
6.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(4): e00798, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269136

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic regimens for the COVID-19 pandemics remain unmet. In this line, repurposing of existing drugs against known or predicted SARS-CoV-2 protein actions have been advanced, while natural products have also been tested. Here, we propose that p-cymene, a natural monoterpene, can act as a potential novel agent for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19 and other RNA-virus-induced diseases (influenza, rabies, Ebola). We show by extensive molecular simulations that SARS-CoV-2 C-terminal structured domain contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS), like SARS-CoV, on which p-cymene binds with low micromolar affinity, impairing nuclear translocation of this protein and inhibiting viral replication, as verified by preliminary in vitro experiments. A similar mechanism may occur in other RNA-viruses (influenza, rabies and Ebola), also verified in vitro for influenza, by interaction of p-cymene with viral nucleoproteins, and structural modification of their NLS site, weakening its interaction with importin A. This common mechanism of action renders therefore p-cymene as a possible antiviral, alone, or in combination with other agents, in a broad spectrum of RNA viruses, from SARS-CoV-2 to influenza A infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cymenes/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cymenes/chemistry , Dogs , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Models, Molecular , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nuclear Localization Signals , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Protein Transport , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217814

ABSTRACT

Two thousand nineteen novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen of COVID-19, has caused a catastrophic pandemic, which has a profound and widespread impact on human lives and social economy globally. However, the molecular perturbations induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unknown. In this paper, from the perspective of omnigenic, we analyze the properties of the neighborhood perturbed by SARS-CoV-2 in the human interactome and disclose the peripheral and core regions of virus-host network (VHN). We find that the virus-host proteins (VHPs) form a significantly connected VHN, among which highly perturbed proteins aggregate into an observable core region. The non-core region of VHN forms a large scale but relatively low perturbed periphery. We further validate that the periphery is non-negligible and conducive to identifying comorbidities and detecting drug repurposing candidates for COVID-19. We particularly put forward a flower model for COVID-19, SARS and H1N1 based on their peripheral regions, and the flower model shows more correlations between COVID-19 and other two similar diseases in common functional pathways and candidate drugs. Overall, our periphery-core pattern can not only offer insights into interconnectivity of SARS-CoV-2 VHPs but also facilitate the research on therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8692, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199310

ABSTRACT

A metal nanoparticle composite, namely TPNT1, which contains Au-NP (1 ppm), Ag-NP (5 ppm), ZnO-NP (60 ppm) and ClO2 (42.5 ppm) in aqueous solution was prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis and potentiometric titration. Based on the in vitro cell-based assay, TPNT1 inhibited six major clades of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with effective concentration within the range to be used as food additives. TPNT1 was shown to block viral entry by inhibiting the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to interfere with the syncytium formation. In addition, TPNT1 also effectively reduced the cytopathic effects induced by human (H1N1) and avian (H5N1) influenza viruses, including the wild-type and oseltamivir-resistant virus isolates. Together with previously demonstrated efficacy as antimicrobials, TPNT1 can block viral entry and inhibit or prevent viral infection to provide prophylactic effects against both SARS-CoV-2 and opportunistic infections.


Subject(s)
Gold/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Silver/pharmacology , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Food Additives/pharmacology , Gold/chemistry , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Particle Size , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
9.
Clin Neuropharmacol ; 44(3): 106-107, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169731

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Oseltamivir is an antiviral drug often preferred in treating viral infections. Its use has increased owing to annual influenza outbreaks and the COVID-19 pandemic. Although its adverse effects are often seen in the gastrointestinal system, it has other adverse effects that can prevent its use, for example, neuropsychiatric events. In this case report, we present a manic episode case caused by the use of oseltamivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Mania/chemically induced , Mania/diagnosis , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/psychology , Male , Mania/psychology
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 16084-16096, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164786

ABSTRACT

As COVID-19 exemplifies, respiratory diseases transmitted through aerosols or droplets are global threats to public health, and respiratory protection measures are essential first lines of infection prevention and control. However, common face masks are single use and can cause cross-infection due to the accumulated infectious pathogens. We developed salt-based formulations to coat membrane fibers to fabricate antimicrobial filters. Here, we report a mechanistic study on salt-induced pathogen inactivation. The salt recrystallization following aerosol exposure was characterized over time on sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and potassium chloride (KCl) powders and coatings, which revealed that NaCl and KCl start to recrystallize within 5 min and K2SO4 within 15 min. The inactivation kinetics observed for the H1N1 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae matched the salt recrystallization well, which was identified as the main destabilizing mechanism. Additionally, the salt-coated filters were prepared with different methods (with and without a vacuum process), which led to salt coatings with different morphologies for diverse applications. Finally, the salt-coated filters caused a loss of pathogen viability independent of transmission mode (aerosols or droplets), against both DI water and artificial saliva suspensions. Overall, these findings increase our understanding of the salt-recrystallization-based technology to develop highly versatile antimicrobial filters.


Subject(s)
Filtration/instrumentation , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Masks , Potassium Chloride/chemistry , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Sulfates/chemistry , Aerosols , Air Filters , Crystallization , Kinetics , Membranes, Artificial , Polypropylenes , Powders , Respiratory Protective Devices , Temperature , X-Ray Diffraction
11.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100470, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101336

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health. Vaccines are ideal solutions to prevent infection, but treatments are also needed for those who have contracted the virus to limit negative outcomes, when vaccines are not applicable. Viruses must cross host cell membranes during their life cycle, creating a dependency on processes involving membrane dynamics. Thus, in this study, we examined whether the synthetic machinery for glycosphingolipids, biologically active components of cell membranes, can serve as a therapeutic target to combat SARS-CoV-2. We examined the antiviral effect of two specific inhibitors of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS): (i) Genz-123346, an analogue of the United States Food and Drug Administration-approved drug Cerdelga and (ii) GENZ-667161, an analogue of venglustat, which is currently under phase III clinical trials. We found that both GCS inhibitors inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, these inhibitors also disrupt replication of influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). Our data imply that synthesis of glycosphingolipids is necessary to support viral life cycles and suggest that GCS inhibitors should be further explored as antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Dioxanes/pharmacology , Glucosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glycosphingolipids/antagonists & inhibitors , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Quinuclidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Carbamates/chemical synthesis , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/enzymology , Cell Membrane/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Dioxanes/chemical synthesis , Dogs , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Glycosphingolipids/biosynthesis , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/enzymology , Influenza, Human/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Quinuclidines/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
FASEB J ; 35(2): e21358, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062891

ABSTRACT

Treatment of respiratory viral infections remains a global health concern, mainly due to the inefficacy of available drugs. Therefore, the discovery of novel antiviral compounds is needed; in this context, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) like temporins hold great promise. Here, we discovered that the harmless temporin G (TG) significantly inhibited the early life-cycle phases of influenza virus. The in vitro hemagglutinating test revealed the existence of TG interaction with the viral hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Furthermore, the hemolysis inhibition assay and the molecular docking studies confirmed a TG/HA complex formation at the level of the conserved hydrophobic stem groove of HA. Remarkably, these findings highlight the ability of TG to block the conformational rearrangements of HA2 subunit, which are essential for the viral envelope fusion with intracellular endocytic vesicles, thereby neutralizing the virus entry into the host cell. In comparison, in the case of parainfluenza virus, which penetrates host cells upon a membrane-fusion process, addition of TG to infected cells provoked ~1.2 log reduction of viral titer released in the supernatant. Nevertheless, at the same condition, an immunofluorescent assay showed that the expression of viral hemagglutinin/neuraminidase protein was not significantly reduced. This suggested a peptide-mediated block of some late steps of viral replication and therefore the impairment of the extracellular release of viral particles. Overall, our results are the first demonstration of the ability of an AMP to interfere with the replication of respiratory viruses with a different mechanism of cell entry and will open a new avenue for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against a large variety of respiratory viruses, including the recent SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Dogs , HN Protein/chemistry , HN Protein/metabolism , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human/physiology , Protein Binding , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
13.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060766

ABSTRACT

The long-term control strategy of SARS-CoV-2 and other major respiratory viruses needs to include antivirals to treat acute infections, in addition to the judicious use of effective vaccines. Whilst COVID-19 vaccines are being rolled out for mass vaccination, the modest number of antivirals in use or development for any disease bears testament to the challenges of antiviral development. We recently showed that non-cytotoxic levels of thapsigargin (TG), an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ ATPase pump, induces a potent host innate immune antiviral response that blocks influenza A virus replication. Here we show that TG is also highly effective in blocking the replication of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), common cold coronavirus OC43, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus in immortalized or primary human cells. TG's antiviral performance was significantly better than remdesivir and ribavirin in their respective inhibition of OC43 and RSV. Notably, TG was just as inhibitory to coronaviruses (OC43 and SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses (USSR H1N1 and pdm 2009 H1N1) in separate infections as in co-infections. Post-infection oral gavage of acid-stable TG protected mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge. Together with its ability to inhibit the different viruses before or during active infection, and with an antiviral duration of at least 48 h post-TG exposure, we propose that TG (or its derivatives) is a promising broad-spectrum inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2, OC43, RSV and influenza virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thapsigargin/therapeutic use , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9467-9473, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037522

ABSTRACT

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality because of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Here we describe an amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile. It is water-soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration through binding to albumin, affording localized innate immune activation and reduction in systemic inflammation. The adjuvanticity of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL was validated in a licensed vaccine setting (quadrivalent influenza vaccine) and an experimental trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine, showing robust IgG2a and IgG1 antibody titers in mice that could neutralize viral infection in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cholesterol/analogs & derivatives , Cholesterol/immunology , Cholesterol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Membrane Glycoproteins/agonists , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Quinolines/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 598444, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013338

ABSTRACT

Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from mild febrile illness and cough up to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, and death. Data from patients with severe clinical manifestations compared to patients with mild symptoms indicate that highly dysregulated exuberant inflammatory responses correlate with severity of disease and lethality. Epithelial-immune cell interactions and elevated cytokine and chemokine levels, i.e. cytokine storm, seem to play a central role in severity and lethality in COVID-19. The present perspective places a central cellular pro-inflammatory signal pathway, NF-κB, in the context of recently published data for COVID-19 and provides a hypothesis for a therapeutic approach aiming at the simultaneous inhibition of whole cascades of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The simultaneous inhibition of multiple cytokines/chemokines is expected to have much higher therapeutic potential as compared to single target approaches to prevent cascade (i.e. redundant, triggering, amplifying, and synergistic) effects of multiple induced cytokines and chemokines in critical stage COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Proteasome Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
16.
Bioorg Chem ; 107: 104619, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009321

ABSTRACT

Severe emerging and re-emerging viral infections such as Lassa fever, Avian influenza (AI), and COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 urgently call for new strategies for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals targeting conserved components in the virus life cycle. Viral lipids are essential components, and viral-cell membrane fusion is the required entry step for most unrelated enveloped viruses. In this paper, we identified a porphyrin derivative of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) that showed broad antiviral activities in vitro against a panel of enveloped pathogenic viruses including Lassa virus (LASV), Machupo virus (MACV), and SARS-CoV-2 as well as various subtypes of influenza A viral strains with IC50 values ranging from 0.91 ± 0.25 µM to 1.88 ± 0.34 µM. A mechanistic study using influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a testing strain showed that PPIX inhibits the infection in the early stage of virus entry through biophysically interacting with the hydrophobic lipids of enveloped virions, thereby inhibiting the entry of enveloped viruses into host cells. In addition, the preliminary antiviral activities of PPIX were further assessed by testing mice infected with the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus. The results showed that compared with the control group without drug treatment, the survival rate and mean survival time of the mice treated with PPIX were apparently prolonged. These data encourage us to conduct further investigations using PPIX as a lead compound for the rational design of lipid-targeting antivirals for the treatment of infection with enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Protoporphyrins/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arenaviruses, New World/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Lassa virus/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Male , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Protoporphyrins/chemical synthesis , Protoporphyrins/metabolism , Protoporphyrins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope/drug effects
17.
Cell ; 181(4): 865-876.e12, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684968

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has highlighted the need for antiviral approaches that can target emerging viruses with no effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals. Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells. We designed and screened CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved viral regions and identified functional crRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2. This approach effectively reduced H1N1 IAV load in respiratory epithelial cells. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that a group of only six crRNAs can target more than 90% of all coronaviruses. With the development of a safe and effective system for respiratory tract delivery, PAC-MAN has the potential to become an important pan-coronavirus inhibition strategy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , A549 Cells , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/growth & development , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
18.
Cell Rep ; 32(6): 108016, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670926

ABSTRACT

The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and coronavirus spike (S) protein mediate virus entry. HA and S proteins are heavily glycosylated, making them potential targets for carbohydrate binding agents such as lectins. Here, we show that the lectin FRIL, isolated from hyacinth beans (Lablab purpureus), has anti-influenza and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. FRIL can neutralize 11 representative human and avian influenza strains at low nanomolar concentrations, and intranasal administration of FRIL is protective against lethal H1N1 infection in mice. FRIL binds preferentially to complex-type N-glycans and neutralizes viruses that possess complex-type N-glycans on their envelopes. As a homotetramer, FRIL is capable of aggregating influenza particles through multivalent binding and trapping influenza virions in cytoplasmic late endosomes, preventing their nuclear entry. Remarkably, FRIL also effectively neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, preventing viral protein production and cytopathic effect in host cells. These findings suggest a potential application of FRIL for the prevention and/or treatment of influenza and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fabaceae/chemistry , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , A549 Cells , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Chick Embryo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Plant Lectins/administration & dosage , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(9): 1178-1196, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549299

ABSTRACT

ß-Sitosterol (24-ethyl-5-cholestene-3-ol) is a common phytosterol Chinese medical plants that has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study we investigated the effects of ß-sitosterol on influenza virus-induced inflammation and acute lung injury and the molecular mechanisms. We demonstrate that ß-sitosterol (150-450 µg/mL) dose-dependently suppresses inflammatory response through NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells, which was accompanied by decreased induction of interferons (IFNs) (including Type I and III IFN). Furthermore, we revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of ß-sitosterol resulted from its inhibitory effect on retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling, led to decreased STAT1 signaling, thus affecting the transcriptional activity of ISGF3 (interferon-stimulated gene factor 3) complexes and resulting in abrogation of the IAV-induced proinflammatory amplification effect in IFN-sensitized cells. Moreover, ß-sitosterol treatment attenuated RIG-I-mediated apoptotic injury of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) via downregulation of pro-apoptotic factors. In a mouse model of influenza, pre-administration of ß-sitosterol (50, 200 mg·kg-1·d-1, i.g., for 2 days) dose-dependently ameliorated IAV-mediated recruitment of pathogenic cytotoxic T cells and immune dysregulation. In addition, pre-administration of ß-sitosterol protected mice from lethal IAV infection. Our data suggest that ß-sitosterol blocks the immune response mediated by RIG-I signaling and deleterious IFN production, providing a potential benefit for the treatment of influenza.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sitosterols/therapeutic use , A549 Cells , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Apoptosis/drug effects , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plants/chemistry , STAT1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Sitosterols/analysis
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1102, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-477856

ABSTRACT

With the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 patient worldwide and associated mortality, it is critical to come up with an effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2. Studies suggest that mortality due to COVID 19 is mainly attributed to the hyper inflammatory response leading to cytokine storm and ARDS in infected patients. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) analogs, AAL-R and RP-002, have earlier provided in-vivo protection from the pathophysiological response during H1N1 influenza infection and improved mortality. Recently, it was shown that the treatment with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 analog, CYM5442, resulted in the significant dampening of the immune response upon H1N1 challenge in mice and improved survival of H1N1 infected mice in combination with an antiviral drug, oseltamivir. Hence, here we suggest to investigate the possible utility of using S1P analogs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Indans/therapeutic use , Lysophospholipids/agonists , Oxadiazoles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/metabolism , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sphingosine/agonists
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