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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4417-4424, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958806

ABSTRACT

Influenza B viruses circulate in two lineages (B/Victoria and B/Yamagata). Although classically affecting children, recently it has shown a high rate of infection and increased hospitalization in the elderly. To describe and analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe hospitalized laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus (SHLCI-B) cases in Catalonia associated with mismatch from Influenza B virus strain included in the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). SHLCI-B was registered by the influenza sentinel surveillance system of Catalonia (PIDIRAC) during ten surveillance seasons from 2010 to 2020. Variables age, comorbidities, and vaccination status were recorded. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-OR) for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. A total of 1159 SHLCI-B were registered, of these 68.2% (791) corresponded to the 2017-2018 season; 21.8% (253) were admitted to ICU and 13.8% (160) were exitus; 62.5% (725) cases occurred in those aged >64 years; most frequent risk factor was cardiovascular disease (35.1%, 407) followed by chronic pulmonary obstructive disease-COPD (24.6%, 285) and diabetes (24.1%, 279). In four seasons, the predominant circulating lineage was B/Victoria, in two seasons the B/Yamagata lineage and four seasons had no IBV activity. Four seasons presented discordance with the strain included within the TIV. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) to prevent ICU admission was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4%-51%; p = 0.03); being 29% (95% CI: -3% to 51%) in discordant and 43% (95% CI:-43% to 77%) in concordant seasons. Significant differences were observed in the number of affected aged > 64 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.9-3.4; p < 0.001) and in patients with heart disease (OR = 2.40 95% CI: 1.7-3.4; p < 0.001), COPD (OR = 1.6 95% CI: 1.1-2.3; p = 0.01), and diabetes (OR = 1.5 95% CI: 1.1-2.1; p = 0.04) between discordant and concordant seasons. The increase in hospitalization rate in people> 64 years of age and those presenting comorbidities in seasons with circulating influenza B virus belonging to a lineage discordant with the strain included in the TIV and the decrease of VE to prevent ICU admissions evidence the vital need to administer the quadrivalent influenza vaccine regardless of the findings of predominant circulation in the previous season.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza B virus/genetics , Middle Aged , Seasons , Spain/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(29): 913-919, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955141

ABSTRACT

Before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, influenza activity in the United States typically began to increase in the fall and peaked in February. During the 2021-22 season, influenza activity began to increase in November and remained elevated until mid-June, featuring two distinct waves, with A(H3N2) viruses predominating for the entire season. This report summarizes influenza activity during October 3, 2021-June 11, 2022, in the United States and describes the composition of the Northern Hemisphere 2022-23 influenza vaccine. Although influenza activity is decreasing and circulation during summer is typically low, remaining vigilant for influenza infections, performing testing for seasonal influenza viruses, and monitoring for novel influenza A virus infections are important. An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is ongoing; health care providers and persons with exposure to sick or infected birds should remain vigilant for onset of symptoms consistent with influenza. Receiving a seasonal influenza vaccine each year remains the best way to protect against seasonal influenza and its potentially severe consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
4.
Theranostics ; 12(12): 5317-5329, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954702

ABSTRACT

Human pluripotent stem cell derived brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity for various applications as in vitro model. Currently, human brain organoids as models have been used to understand virus-induced neurotoxicity. Methods: The brain organoids were separately challenged by multiple viruses including influenza viruses (H1N1-WSN and H3N2-HKT68), Enteroviruses (EV68 and EV71) and Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus (SFTSV) to investigate the impaired effect of these viruses on human brain development. Results: The brain organoids challenged by influenza viruses had decreased overall organoid size, while enteroviruses infected brain organoids displayed the opposite result. Then, we found WSN preferentially infected MAP2+ neurons compared to SOX2+ neural stem cells (NSCs) and GFAP+ astrocytes in brain organoids, and induced apoptosis of NSCs and neurons, and released inflammatory factors (TNF-α, INF-γ, and IL-6), facilitating brain damage. Furthermore, transcriptional profiling revealed several co-upregulated genes (CSAG3 and OAS2) and co-downregulated genes (CDC20B, KCNJ13, OTX2-AS1) after WSN infection for 24 hpi and 96 hpi, implicating target for antiviral drugs development. Finally, we explored compound PYC-12 could significantly suppress virus infection, apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Conclusions: Collectively, we established a tractable experimental model to investigate the impact and mechanism of virus infection on human brain development.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brain , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Organoids
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Influenza A virus infection is a contagious acute respiratory infection which mostly evolves in an epidemic form, less frequently as pandemic outbreaks. It can take a severe clinical form that needs to be managed in intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of influenza A, then to determine independent predictive factors of ICU mortality in Abderrahmen Mami hospital, Ariana, Tunisia. METHODS: It was a single-center study, including all hospitalized patients in intensive care, between November 1st, 2009 and October 31st, 2019, with influenza A virus infection. We recorded demographic, clinical and biological data, evolving features; then multivariate analysis of the predictive factors of ICU mortality was realized. RESULTS: During the study period (10 consecutive seasons), 120 patients having severe Influenza A were admitted (Proportion = 2.5%) from all hospitalized patients, with a median age of 48 years and a gender-ratio of 1.14. Among women, 14 were pregnant. Only 7 patients (5.8%) have had seasonal flu vaccine during the year before ICU admission. The median values of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment were respectively 26, 10 and 3. Virus strains identified with polymerase chain reaction were H1N1 pdm09 (84.2%) and H3N2 (15.8%). Antiviral therapy was prescribed in 88 (73.3%) patients. A co-infection was recorded in 19 cases: bacterial (n = 17) and aspergillaire (n = 2). An acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed in 82 patients. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was conducted for 72 (60%) patients with success in 34 cases. Endotracheal intubation was performed in 59 patients with median duration of invasive mechanical ventilation 8 [3.25-13] days. The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (n = 50, 41.7%), shock (n = 48, 40%), hospital-acquired infections (n = 46, 38.8%) and thromboembolic events (n = 19, 15.8%). The overall ICU mortality rate was of 31.7% (deceased n = 38). Independent predictive factors of ICU mortality identified were: age above 56 years (OR = 7.417; IC95% [1.474-37.317]; p = 0.015), PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 95 mmHg (OR = 9.078; IC95% [1.636-50.363]; p = 0.012) and lymphocytes count ≤ 1.325 109/L (OR = 10.199; IC95% [1.550-67.101]; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Influenza A in ICU is not uncommon, even in A(H1N1) dominant seasons; its management is highly demanding. It is responsible for considerable morbi-mortality especially in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/therapy , Influenza, Human/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Tunisia/epidemiology
6.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911660

ABSTRACT

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including cytoplasmic DNA and double-strand (ds)RNA trigger the induction of interferon (IFN) and antiviral states protecting cells and organisms from pathogens. Here we discovered that the transfection of human airway cell lines or non-transformed fibroblasts with 24mer dsRNA mimicking the cellular micro-RNA (miR)29b-1* gives strong anti-viral effects against human adenovirus type 5 (AdV-C5), influenza A virus X31 (H3N2), and SARS-CoV-2. These anti-viral effects required blunt-end complementary RNA strands and were not elicited by corresponding single-strand RNAs. dsRNA miR-29b-1* but not randomized miR-29b-1* mimics induced IFN-stimulated gene expression, and downregulated cell adhesion and cell cycle genes, as indicated by transcriptomics and IFN-I responsive Mx1-promoter activity assays. The inhibition of AdV-C5 infection with miR-29b-1* mimic depended on the IFN-alpha receptor 2 (IFNAR2) and the RNA-helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) but not cytoplasmic RNA sensors MDA5 and ZNFX1 or MyD88/TRIF adaptors. The antiviral effects of miR29b-1* were independent of a central AUAU-motif inducing dsRNA bending, as mimics with disrupted AUAU-motif were anti-viral in normal but not RIG-I knock-out (KO) or IFNAR2-KO cells. The screening of a library of scrambled short dsRNA sequences identified also anti-viral mimics functioning independently of RIG-I and IFNAR2, thus exemplifying the diverse anti-viral mechanisms of short blunt-end dsRNAs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , MicroRNAs , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911622

ABSTRACT

Targeted virome enrichment and sequencing (VirCapSeq-VERT) utilizes a pool of oligos (baits) to enrich all known-up to 2015-vertebrate-infecting viruses, increasing their detection sensitivity. The hybridisation of the baits to the target sequences can be partial, thus enabling the detection and genomic reconstruction of novel pathogens with <40% genetic diversity compared to the strains used for the baits' design. In this study, we deploy this method in multiplexed mixes of viral extracts, and we assess its performance in the unbiased detection of DNA and RNA viruses after cDNA synthesis. We further assess its efficiency in depleting various background genomic material. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, we explore the potential usage of the method for the characterization of unknown, emerging human viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, which may not be included in the baits' panel. We mixed positive samples of equimolar DNA/RNA viral extracts from SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus OC43, cytomegalovirus, influenza A virus H3N2, parvovirus B19, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus C and coxsackievirus A16. Targeted virome enrichment was performed on a dsDNA mix, followed by sequencing on the NextSeq500 (Illumina) and the portable MinION sequencer, to evaluate its usability as a point-of-care (PoC) application. Genome mapping assembly was performed using viral reference sequences. The untargeted libraries contained less than 1% of total reads mapped on most viral genomes, while RNA viruses remained undetected. In the targeted libraries, the percentage of viral-mapped reads were substantially increased, allowing full genome assembly in most cases. Targeted virome sequencing can enrich a broad range of viruses, potentially enabling the discovery of emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virome/genetics
8.
Euro Surveill ; 27(15)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869326

ABSTRACT

In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions continued slowing influenza circulation in the 2021/22 season, with reduced characterisation data. A(H3) predominated and, in some countries, co-circulated with A(H1)pdm09 and B/Victoria viruses. No B/Yamagata virus detections were confirmed. Substantial proportions of characterised circulating virus subtypes or lineages differed antigenically from their respective northern hemisphere vaccine components. Appropriate levels of influenza virus characterisations should be maintained until the season end and in future seasons, when surveillance is adapted to integrate SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , World Health Organization
9.
Cell Rep ; 39(9): 110897, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866954

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses circulated at very low levels during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, and population immunity against these viruses is low. An H3N2 strain (3C.2a1b.2a2) with a hemagglutinin (HA) that has several substitutions relative to the 2021-22 H3N2 vaccine strain is dominating the 2021-22 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. Here, we show that one of these substitutions eliminates a key glycosylation site on HA and alters sialic acid binding. Using glycan array profiling, we show that the 3C.2a1b.2a2 H3 maintains binding to an extended biantennary sialoside and replicates to high titers in human airway cells. We find that antibodies elicited by the 2021-22 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine poorly neutralize the 3C.2a1b.2a2 H3N2 strain. Together, these data indicate that 3C.2a1b.2a2 H3N2 viruses efficiently replicate in human cells and escape vaccine-elicited antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Pandemics , Seasons
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 463, 2022 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) are public health burdens globally. The percentage of non-SARS CoV-2 respiratory viruses among patients having ARI and SARI who visit Car Nicobar's hospital settings is undocumented. Changes in the epidemiology of other respiratory viruses during COVID19 pandemic is being reported worldwide. METHODS: Inpatient and outpatient settings at BJR hospital, Car Nicobar Island, India, were used to conduct prospective monitoring for ARI and SARI among Nicobarese tribal members. The patients with ARI and SARI were enlisted in BJR hospital from June 2019 to May 2021. At the ICMR-NIV in Pune, duplex RT-PCR assays were used to test the presence of respiratory viruses. The prevalence of non- SARS CoV-2 respiratory viruses was measured by comparing here between pandemic and pre-pandemic periods. RESULTS: During the COVID19 pandemic, Influenza A (H3N2) and rhinovirus were predominantly reported non-SARS CoV-2 respiratory viruses while Human metapneumovirusand influenza A (H1N1)pdm09were most commonly reported in the prepandemic period. This result indicates the altered circulation of non-SARS CoV-2 during pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of respiratory infection was correlated with respiratory viruses. Prevalence of non-SARS CoV-2 respiratory viruses was high at the time of infection when compared with pre-pandemic period, at Car Nicobar Island. This study enlightened the change in circulation of other respiratory viruses among the indigenous Nicobarese tribes. Clinicians and allied medical staff should be more prudent of these respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834917

ABSTRACT

In recent years, advances in diagnostics and deep sequencing technologies have led to the identification and characterization of novel viruses in cats as protoparviruses and chaphamaparvoviruses, unveiling the diversity of the feline virome in the respiratory tract. Observational, epidemiological and experimental data are necessary to demonstrate firmly if some viruses are able to cause disease, as this information may be confounded by virus- or host-related factors. Also, in recent years, researchers were able to monitor multiple examples of transmission to felids of viruses with high pathogenic potential, such as the influenza virus strains H5N1, H1N1, H7N2, H5N6 and H3N2, and in the late 2019, the human hypervirulent coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. These findings suggest that the study of viral infections always requires a multi-disciplinary approach inspired by the One Health vision. By reviewing the literature, we provide herewith an update on the emerging viruses identified in cats and their potential association with respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Acta Biochim Pol ; 69(2): 459-464, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818860

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to prove the level of antibodies against haemagglutinin in the sera of people from seven age groups in the epidemic season 2020/2021 in Poland to determine the differentiation of the antibody level and the protection rate depending on age. The level of anti-haemagglutinin antibodies was established by haemagglutinin inhibition test (HAI). A total of 700 randomly selected sera from people belonging to 7 different age groups were tested. The results confirmed the presence of antibodies against the following influenza antigens: A/Guangdong-Maonan/SWL1536/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, A/Hong Kong/2671/2019 (H3N2)-like virus, B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus and B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus. The level of haemagglutinin antibodies varied between the studied age groups, with the highest values in the 5-9 age group and the lowest in the 0-4 age group. It was also proven that the protection rate was the highest for the A/Hong Kong/2671/2019(H3N2)-like virus antigen, which exceeded the protection level in the 5 age groups. Considering the very low percentage of people vaccinated in the epidemic season 2020/2021 in Poland, which amounted to only 6.1%, the results should be interpreted as the immune system's response to an infection with influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
13.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0179121, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799229

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seasonal influenza viruses are cocirculating in the human population. However, only a few cases of viral coinfection with these two viruses have been documented in humans with some people having severe disease and others mild disease. To examine this phenomenon, ferrets were coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and human seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs; H1N1 or H3N2) and were compared to animals that received each virus alone. Ferrets were either immunologically naive to both viruses or vaccinated with the 2019 to 2020 split-inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Coinfected naive ferrets lost significantly more body weight than ferrets infected with each virus alone and had more severe inflammation in both the nose and lungs compared to that of ferrets that were single infected with each virus. Coinfected, naive animals had predominantly higher IAV titers than SARS-CoV-2 titers, and IAVs were efficiently transmitted by direct contact to the cohoused ferrets. Comparatively, SARS-CoV-2 failed to transmit to the ferrets that cohoused with coinfected ferrets by direct contact. Moreover, vaccination significantly reduced IAV titers and shortened the viral shedding but did not completely block direct contact transmission of the influenza virus. Notably, vaccination significantly ameliorated influenza-associated disease by protecting vaccinated animals from severe morbidity after IAV single infection or IAV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection, suggesting that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is pivotal to prevent severe disease induced by IAV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection during the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses cause severe morbidity and mortality during each influenza virus season. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human population offers the opportunity to potential coinfections of both viruses. The development of useful animal models to assess the pathogenesis, transmission, and viral evolution of these viruses as they coinfect a host is of critical importance for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The ability to prevent the most severe effects of viral coinfections can be studied using effect coinfection ferret models described in this report.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Ferrets/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccination , Virus Shedding
14.
Euro Surveill ; 27(15)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793105

ABSTRACT

We estimated interim influenza A vaccine effectiveness (VE) following a late sharp rise in cases during an influenza A(H3N2)-dominated 2021/22 season, after lifting COVID-19 restrictions. In children aged 2-6 years offered a live attenuated influenza vaccine, adjusted VE was 62.7% (95% CI: 10.9-84.4) in hospitalised and 64.2% (95% CI: 50.5-74.1) in non-hospitalised children. In non-hospitalised patients aged 7-44 years, VE was 24.8% (95% CI: 12.8-35.2); VE was non-significant in remaining age groups and hospital/non-hospital settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Case-Control Studies , Child , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1293-1307, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788441

ABSTRACT

N-chlorotaurine (NCT) a long-lived oxidant generated by leukocytes, can be synthesized chemically and applied topically as an anti-infective to different body sites, including the lung via inhalation. Here, we demonstrate the activity of NCT against viruses causing acute respiratory tract infections, namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza viruses, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Virucidal activity of NCT was tested in plaque assays, confirmed by RT-qPCR assays. Attack on virus proteins was investigated by mass spectrometry. NCT revealed broad virucidal activity against all viruses tested at 37°C and pH 7. A significant reduction in infectious particles of SARS-CoV-2 isolates from early 2020 by 1 log10 was detected after 15 min of incubation in 1% NCT. Proteinaceous material simulating body fluids enhanced this activity by transchlorination mechanisms (1 -2 log10 reduction within 1-10 min). Tested SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha) und B.1.351 (Beta) showed a similar susceptibility. Influenza virus infectious particles were reduced by 3 log10 (H3N2) to 5 log10 (H1N1pdm), RSV by 4 log10 within a few min. Mass spectrometry of NCT-treated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and 3C-like protease, influenza virus haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, and RSV fusion glycoprotein disclosed multiple sites of chlorination and oxidation as the molecular mechanism of action. Application of 1.0% NCT as a prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against acute viral respiratory tract infections deserves comprehensive clinical investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Taurine/analogs & derivatives
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5914, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784027

ABSTRACT

Secondary plant metabolites remain one of the key sources of therapeutic agents despite the development of new approaches for the discovery of medicinal drugs. In the current study, chemical analysis, and biological activities of Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) methanolic extract were evaluated. Chemical analysis was performed using HPLC and GC-MS. Antiviral and anticancer effect were assessed using the crystal violet technique and activity against human liver cells (HepG2), respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested with the disc diffusion method. The obtained results showed that chlorogenic acid (2107.96 ± 0.07 µg/g), catechin (168 ± 0.58 µg/g), and gallic acid (15.66 ± 0.02 µg/g) were the main bioactive compounds identified by HPLC techniques. While, compounds containing furan moieties, as well as levoglucosenone, isochiapin B, dotriacontane, 7-nonynoic acid and tert-hexadecanethiol, with different biological activities were identified by GC-MS. Additionally, inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) scavenging was 79.25% at 2000 µg/mL, indicating its antioxidant activity with IC50 of 728.20 ± 1.04 µg/mL. The tested extract exhibited potential anticancer activity (58.90% toxicity) against HepG2 cells at 1000 µg/mL. Potential bacterial inhibition was observed mainly against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of growth inhibition ranging from 13 to 24 mm. While weak activities were recorded for fungi Candida albicans (10 mm). The extract showed mild antiviral activity against human coronavirus 229E with a selective index (SI) of 10.4, but not against human H3N2 (SI of 0.67). The molecular docking study's energy ratings were in good promise with the experiment documents of antibacterial and antiviral activities. The findings suggest that D. caffra juice extract is a potential candidate for further experiments to assess its use as potential alternative therapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Salicaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry
17.
Vaccine ; 40(22): 3018-3026, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have reported the vaccine effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 6 months to 15 years between the 2013/14 and 2018/19 seasons. Younger (6-11 months) and older (6-15 years old) children tended to have lower vaccine effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the recent vaccine can be recommended to all age groups. METHODS: The overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness was assessed from the 2013/14 until the 2020/21 season using a test-negative case-control design based on rapid influenza diagnostic test results. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated by influenza type and by age group (6-11 months, 1-2, 3-5, 6-12, and 13-15 years old) with adjustments including influenza seasons. RESULTS: A total of 29,400 children (9347, 4435, and 15,618 for influenza A and B, and test-negatives, respectively) were enrolled. The overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A, A(H1N1)pdm09, and B was significant (44% [95% confidence interval (CI), 41-47], 63% [95 %CI, 51-72], and 37% [95 %CI, 32-42], respectively). The vaccine was significantly effective against influenza A and B, except among children 6 to 11 months against influenza B. The age group with the highest vaccine effectiveness was 1 to 2 years old with both influenza A and B (60% [95 %CI, 55-65] and 52% [95 %CI, 41-61], respectively). Analysis for the 2020/21 season was not performed because no cases were reported. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report showing influenza vaccine effectiveness by age group in children for several seasons, including immediately before the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) era. The fact that significant vaccine effectiveness was observed in nearly every age group and every season shows that the recent vaccine can still be recommended to children for the upcoming influenza seasons, during and after the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1721, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773976

ABSTRACT

Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza cause hundreds of thousands of deaths, high levels of morbidity, and substantial economic loss. Yet, global influenza circulation has been heavily suppressed by public health measures and travel restrictions since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Notably, the influenza B/Yamagata lineage has not been conclusively detected since April 2020, and A(H3N2), A(H1N1), and B/Victoria viruses have since circulated with considerably less genetic diversity. Travel restrictions have largely confined regional outbreaks of A(H3N2) to South and Southeast Asia, B/Victoria to China, and A(H1N1) to West Africa. Seasonal influenza transmission lineages continue to perish globally, except in these select hotspots, which will likely seed future epidemics. Waning population immunity and sporadic case detection will further challenge influenza vaccine strain selection and epidemic control. We offer a perspective on the potential short- and long-term evolutionary dynamics of seasonal influenza and discuss potential consequences and mitigation strategies as global travel gradually returns to pre-pandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons
19.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 11(4): 413-425, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766934

ABSTRACT

The expansion and standardization of clinical trials, as well as the use of sensitive and specific molecular diagnostics methods, provide new information on the age-specific roles of influenza and other respiratory viruses in development of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI). Here, we present the results of the multicenter hospital-based study aimed to detect age-specific impact of influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV). The 2018-2019 influenza season in Russia was characterized by co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) virus subtypes which were detected among hospitalized patients with SARI in 19.3% and 16.4%, respectively. RSV dominated among ORV (15.1% of total cases and 26.8% in infants aged ≤ 2 years). The most significant SARI agents in intensive care units were RSV and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, (37.3% and 25.4%, respectively, of PCR-positive cases). Hyperthermia was the most frequently registered symptom for influenza cases. In contrast, hypoxia, decreased blood O2 concentration, and dyspnea were registered more often in RSV, rhinovirus, and metapneumovirus infection in young children. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against hospitalization of patients with PCR-confirmed influenza was evaluated using test-negative case-control design. IVE for children and adults was estimated to be 57.0% and 62.0%, respectively. Subtype specific IVE was higher against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, compared to influenza A(H3N2) (60.3% and 45.8%, respectively). This correlates with delayed antigenic drift of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and genetic heterogeneity of the influenza A(H3N2) population. These studies demonstrate the need to improve seasonal influenza prevention and control in all countries as states by the WHO Global Influenza Strategy for 2019-2030 initiative.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Seasons
20.
Microb Biotechnol ; 15(5): 1301-1317, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752469

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic goes into its third year and the world population is longing for an end to the pandemic. Computer simulations of the future development of the pandemic have wide error margins and predictions on the evolution of new viral variants of SARS-CoV-2 are uncertain. It is thus tempting to look into the development of historical viral respiratory pandemics for insight into the dynamic of pandemics. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 caused by the influenza virus H1N1 can here serve as a potential model case. Epidemiological observations on the shift of influenza mortality from very young and old subjects to high mortality in young adults delimitate the pandemic phase of the Spanish flu from 1918 to 1920. The identification and sequencing of the Spanish flu agent allowed following the H1N1 influenza virus after the acute pandemic phase. During the 1920s H1N1 influenza virus epidemics with substantial mortality were still observed. As late as 1951, H1N1 strains of high virulence evolved but remained geographically limited. Until 1957, the H1N1 virus evolved by accumulation of mutations ('antigenic drift') and some intratypic reassortment. H1N1 viruses were then replaced by the pandemic H2N2 influenza virus from 1957, which was in 1968 replaced by the pandemic H3N2 influenza virus; both viruses were descendants from the Spanish flu agent but showed the exchange of entire gene segments ('antigenic shift'). In 1977, H1N1 reappeared from an unknown source but caused only mild disease. However, H1N1 achieved again circulation in the human population and is now together with the H3N2 influenza virus an agent of seasonal influenza winter epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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