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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e605-e620, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973742

ABSTRACT

From April 2018 to October 2019, we continued active surveillance for influenza viruses in Bangladeshi live poultry markets (LPMs) and in Tanguar Haor, a wetland region of Bangladesh where domestic ducks have frequent contact with migratory birds. The predominant virus subtypes circulating in the LPMs were low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 and clade 2.3.2.1a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses of the H5N1-R1 genotype, like those found in previous years. Viruses of the H5N1-R2 genotype, which were previously reported as co-circulating with H5N1-R1 genotype viruses in LPM, were not detected. In addition to H9N2 viruses, which were primarily found in chicken and quail, H2N2, H3N8 and H11N3 LPAI viruses were detected in LPMs, exclusively in ducks. Viruses in domestic ducks and/or wild birds in Tanguar Haor were more diverse, with H1N1, H4N6, H7N1, H7N3, H7N4, H7N6, H8N4, H10N3, H10N4 and H11N3 detected. Phylogenetic analyses of these LPAI viruses suggested that some were new to Bangladesh (H2N2, H7N6, H8N4, H10N3 and H10N4), likely introduced by migratory birds of the Central Asian flyway. Our results show a complex dynamic of viral evolution and diversity in Bangladesh based on factors such as host populations and geography. The LPM environment was characterised by maintenance of viruses with demonstrated zoonotic potential and H5N1 genotype turnover. The wetland environment was characterised by greater viral gene pool diversity but a lower overall influenza virus detection rate. The genetic similarity of H11N3 viruses in both environments demonstrates that LPM and wetlands are connected despite their having distinct influenza ecologies.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Chickens , Ducks , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Wetlands
2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834926

ABSTRACT

The H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been circulating in China for more than 20 years, attracting more and more attention due to the potential threat of them. At present, vaccination is a common prevention and control strategy in poultry farms, but as virus antigenicity evolves, the immune protection efficiency of vaccines has constantly been challenged. In this study, we downloaded the hemagglutinin (HA) protein sequences of the H9N2 subtype AIVs from 1994 to 2019 in China-with a total of 5138 sequences. The above sequences were analyzed in terms of time and space, and it was found that h9.4.2.5 was the most popular in various regions of China. Furthermore, the prevalence of H9N2 subtype AIVs in China around 2006 was different. The domestic epidemic branch was relatively diversified from 1994 to 2006. After 2006, the epidemic branch each year was h9.4.2.5. We compared the sequences around 2006 as a whole and screened out 15 different amino acid positions. Based on the HA protein of A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005 (GX55), the abovementioned amino acid mutations were completed. According to the 12-plasmid reverse genetic system, the rescue of the mutant virus was completed using A/PuertoRico/8/1934 (H1N1) (PR8) as the backbone. The cross hemagglutination inhibition test showed that these mutant sites could transform the parental strain from the old to the new antigenic region. Animal experiments indicated that the mutant virus provided significant protection against the virus from the new antigenic region. This study revealed the antigenic evolution of H9N2 subtype AIVs in China. At the same time, it provided an experimental basis for the development of new vaccines.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Phylogeny
3.
Virus Genes ; 58(3): 203-213, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766911

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) are two major respiratory infections in chickens. The coinfection of these viruses can cause significant financial losses and severe complications in the poultry industry across the world. To examine transcriptome profile changes during the early stages of infection, differential transcriptional profiles in tracheal tissue of three infected groups (i.e., IBV, AIV, and coinfected) were compared with the control group. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were challenged with Iranian variant-2-like IBV (IS/1494), UT-Barin isolates of H9N2 (A/chicken/Mashhad/UT-Barin/2017), and IBV-AIV coinfection; then, RNA was extracted from tracheal tissue. The Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technique was employed to investigate changes in the Transcriptome. Up- and downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the trachea transcriptome of all groups. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway and Gene Ontology databases were examined to identify possible relationships between DEGs. In the experimental groups, upregulated genes were higher compared to downregulated genes. A more severe immune response was observed in the coinfected group; further, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, Janus kinase/signal transducer, and activator of transcription, and apoptotic pathways were important upregulated genes in this group. The findings of this paper may give a better understanding of transcriptome changes in the trachea during the early stages of infection with these viruses.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Bronchitis/genetics , Bronchitis/veterinary , Chickens , Gene Expression Profiling , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/genetics , Iran , Poultry Diseases/genetics , RNA , Trachea , Transcriptome/genetics
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3405-3414, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532918

ABSTRACT

Since its first detection in 1998, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has been enzootic in Iran. To better understand the evolutionary history of H9N2 viruses in Iran, we sequenced 15 currently circulating H9N2 viruses from domestic poultry during 2017-2019 and performed phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian H9N2 viruses formed multiple well-supported monophyletic groups within the G1-lineage of H9N2 virus. Our analysis of viral population dynamics revealed an increase in genetic diversity until 2007, corresponding to the multiple introductions and diversification of H9N2 viruses into multiple genetic groups (named Iran 1-4 subgroups), followed by a sudden decrease after 2008. Only the Iran 4 subgroup has survived, expanded, and currently circulates in Iran. The H9N2 viruses possessed many molecular markers associated with mammalian adaption in all gene segments, except neuraminidase gene. Considering the presence of mammalian host-specific markers, the public health threat of H9N2 viruses continues. Molecular analysis showed that Iranian H9N2 strains have continued to evolve and recent strains have multiple amino acid changes and addition of potential N-glycosylation on the antigenic sites of haemagglutinin. Continued antigenic and molecular surveillance of H9N2 viruses in poultry and mammals would be required to monitor further increments in viral evolution and their potential threat to public health.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Chickens , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2742-2745, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453200

ABSTRACT

In February 2021, routine sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illness in Cambodia detected a human avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Investigations identified no recent H9N2 virus infections in 43 close contacts. One chicken sample from the infected child's house was positive for H9N2 virus and genetically similar to the human virus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Birds , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
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