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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 234-244, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612184

ABSTRACT

Global pandemics caused by influenza or coronaviruses cause severe disruptions to public health and lead to high morbidity and mortality. There remains a medical need for vaccines against these pathogens. CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a ß-herpesvirus that induces uniquely robust immune responses in which remarkably large populations of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells are maintained for a lifetime. Hence, CMV has been proposed and investigated as a novel vaccine vector for expressing antigenic peptides or proteins to elicit protective cellular immune responses against numerous pathogens. We generated two recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) vaccine vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (MCMVHA) or the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (MCMVS). A single injection of MCMVs expressing either viral protein induced potent neutralizing antibody responses, which strengthened over time. Importantly, MCMVHA-vaccinated mice were protected from illness following challenge with the influenza virus, and we excluded that this protection was due to the effects of memory T cells. Conclusively, we show here that MCMV vectors induce not only long-term cellular immunity but also humoral responses that provide long-term immune protection against clinically relevant respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Vero Cells
2.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 541-545, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575598

ABSTRACT

The spatial organization of chromatin is known to be highly dynamic in response to environmental stress. However, it remains unknown how chromatin dynamics contributes to or modulates the pathogenesis of immune and infectious diseases. Influenza virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, and transcription and replication of the virus genome occur in the nucleus. Since viral infection is generally associated with virus-driven hijack of the host cellular machineries, influenza virus may utilize and/or affect the nuclear system. In this review article, we focus on recent studies showing that the three-dimensional structure of chromatin changes with influenza virus infection, which affects the pathology of infection. Also, we discuss studies showing the roles of epigenetics in influenza virus infection. Understanding how this affects immune responses may lead to novel strategies to combat immune and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Chromatin/metabolism , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism , Histone Code/physiology , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication/physiology
3.
JCI Insight ; 6(22)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDInfluenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 are pandemic viruses causing millions of deaths, yet their clinical manifestations are distinctly different.METHODSWith the hypothesis that upper airway immune and epithelial cell responses are also distinct, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) on nasal wash cells freshly collected from adults with either acute COVID-19 or influenza or from healthy controls. We focused on major cell types and subtypes in a subset of donor samples.ResultsNasal wash cells were enriched for macrophages and neutrophils for both individuals with influenza and those with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls. Hillock-like epithelial cells, M2-like macrophages, and age-dependent B cells were enriched in COVID-19 samples. A global decrease in IFN-associated transcripts in neutrophils, macrophages, and epithelial cells was apparent in COVID-19 samples compared with influenza samples. The innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 appears to be maintained in macrophages, despite evidence for limited epithelial cell immune sensing. Cell-to-cell interaction analyses revealed a decrease in epithelial cell interactions in COVID-19 and highlighted differences in macrophage-macrophage interactions for COVID-19 and influenza.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that scRNA-Seq can define host and viral transcriptional activity at the site of infection and reveal distinct local epithelial and immune cell responses for COVID-19 and influenza that may contribute to their divergent disease courses.FundingMassachusetts Consortium on Pathogen Readiness, the Mathers Foundation, and the Department of Defense (W81XWH2110029) "COVID-19 Expansion for AIRe Program."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Macrophages , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Male , Nasal Lavage , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 433-439, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate absolute and relative risks for seasonal influenza outcomes in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). To contextualise recent findings on corresponding COVID-19 risks. METHODS: Using Swedish nationwide registers for this cohort study, we followed 116 989 patients with IJD and matched population comparators across four influenza seasons (2015-2019). We quantified absolute risks of hospitalisation and death due to influenza, and compared IJD to comparators via Cox regression. We identified 71 556 patients with IJD on active treatment with conventional synthetic DMARDs and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (tsDMARDs) at the start of each influenza season, estimated risks for the same outcomes and compared these risks across DMARDs via Cox regression. RESULTS: Per season, average risks for hospitalisation listing influenza were 0.25% in IJD and 0.1% in the general population, corresponding to a crude HR of 2.38 (95% CI 2.21 to 2.56) that decreased to 1.44 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.56) following adjustments for comorbidities. For death listing influenza, the corresponding numbers were 0.015% and 0.006% (HR=2.63, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.58, and HR=1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01). Absolute risks for influenza outcomes were half (hospitalisation) and one-tenth (death) of those for COVID-19, but relative estimates comparing IJD to the general population were similar. CONCLUSIONS: In absolute terms, COVID-19 in IJD outnumbers that of average seasonal influenza, but IJD entails a 50%-100% increase in risk for hospitalisation and death for both types of infections, which is largely dependent on associated comorbidities. Overall, bDMARDs/tsDMARDs do not seem to confer additional risk for hospitalisation or death related to seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22164, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514425

ABSTRACT

The influenza A non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is known for its ability to hinder the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN) during viral infection. Influenza viruses lacking NS1 (ΔNS1) are under clinical development as live attenuated human influenza virus vaccines and induce potent influenza virus-specific humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Attenuation of ΔNS1 influenza viruses is due to their high IFN inducing properties, that limit their replication in vivo. This study demonstrates that pre-treatment with a ΔNS1 virus results in an antiviral state which prevents subsequent replication of homologous and heterologous viruses, preventing disease from virus respiratory pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. Our studies suggest that ΔNS1 influenza viruses could be used for the prophylaxis of influenza, SARS-CoV-2 and other human respiratory viral infections, and that an influenza virus vaccine based on ΔNS1 live attenuated viruses would confer broad protection against influenza virus infection from the moment of administration, first by non-specific innate immune induction, followed by specific adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chickens , Gene Deletion , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 745, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza can circulate in parallel with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in winter. In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of co-infection and the burden it poses on healthcare system calls for timely influenza vaccination among pregnant women, who are the priority population recommended for vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of influenza vaccination and associated factors among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic, provide evidence to improve influenza vaccination among pregnant women, help reduce the risk of infection and alleviate the burden of healthcare system for co-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women in China. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, knowledge on influenza, attitude towards vaccination, and health beliefs were collected. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression analysis was used to evaluate the trends in the acceptance of influenza vaccine. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with vaccination acceptance. RESULTS: The total acceptance rate was 76.5% (95%CI: 74.8-78.1%) among 2568 pregnant women enrolled. Only 8.3% of the participants had a history of seasonal influenza vaccination. In the logistic regression model, factors associated with the acceptance of influenza vaccine were western region, history of influenza vaccination, high knowledge of influenza infection and vaccination, high level of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit, cues to action and low level of perceived barriers. Among 23.5% of the participants who had vaccine hesitancy, 48.0% of them were worried about side effect, 35.6% of them lacked confidence of vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted that tailored strategies and publicity for influenza vaccination in the context of COVID-19 pandemic are warranted to reduce pregnant women's concerns, improve their knowledge, expand vaccine uptake and alleviate pressure for healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Adult , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0053021, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486507

ABSTRACT

Elicitation of lung tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRMs) is a goal of T cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, such as influenza A virus (IAV). C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-dependent monocyte trafficking plays an essential role in the establishment of CD8 TRMs in lungs of IAV-infected mice. Here, we used a combination adjuvant-based subunit vaccine strategy that evokes multifaceted (TC1/TC17/TH1/TH17) IAV nucleoprotein-specific lung TRMs to determine whether CCR2 and monocyte infiltration are essential for vaccine-induced TRM development and protective immunity to IAV in lungs. Following intranasal vaccination, neutrophils, monocytes, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells internalized and processed vaccine antigen in lungs. We found that basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3)-dependent DCs were essential for eliciting T cell responses, but CCR2 deficiency enhanced the differentiation of CD127hi, KLRG-1lo, OX40+ve CD62L+ve, and mucosally imprinted CD69+ve CD103+ve effector and memory CD8 T cells in lungs and airways of vaccinated mice. Mechanistically, increased development of lung TRMs induced by CCR2 deficiency was linked to dampened expression of T-bet but not altered TCF-1 levels or T cell receptor signaling in CD8 T cells. T1/T17 functional programming, parenchymal localization of CD8/CD4 effector and memory T cells, recall T cell responses, and protective immunity to a lethal IAV infection were unaffected in CCR2-deficient mice. Taken together, we identified a negative regulatory role for CCR2 and monocyte trafficking in mucosal imprinting and differentiation of vaccine-induced TRMs. Mechanistic insights from this study may aid the development of T-cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, including IAV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). IMPORTANCE While antibody-based immunity to influenza A virus (IAV) is type and subtype specific, lung- and airway-resident memory T cells that recognize conserved epitopes in the internal viral proteins are known to provide heterosubtypic immunity. Hence, broadly protective IAV vaccines need to elicit robust T cell memory in the respiratory tract. We have developed a combination adjuvant-based IAV nucleoprotein vaccine that elicits strong CD4 and CD8 T cell memory in lungs and protects against H1N1 and H5N1 strains of IAV. In this study, we examined the mechanisms that control vaccine-induced protective memory T cells in the respiratory tract. We found that trafficking of monocytes into lungs might limit the development of antiviral lung-resident memory T cells following intranasal vaccination. These findings suggest that strategies that limit monocyte infiltration can potentiate vaccine-induced frontline T-cell immunity to respiratory viruses, such as IAV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, CCR2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Animals , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Receptors, CCR2/genetics
8.
Physiol Rep ; 9(20): e15075, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485552

ABSTRACT

Exercise has substantial health benefits, but the effects of exercise on immune status and susceptibility to respiratory infections are less clear. Furthermore, there is limited research examining the effects of prolonged exercise on local respiratory immunity and antiviral activity. To assess the upper respiratory tract in response to exercise, we collected nasal lavage fluid (NALF) from human subjects (1) at rest, (2) after 45 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and (3) after 180 min of moderate-intensity exercise. To assess immune responses of the lower respiratory tract, we utilized a murine model to examine the effect of exercise duration on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid immune cell content and lung gene expression. NALF cell counts did not change after 45 min of exercise, whereas 180 min significantly increased total cells and leukocytes in NALF. Importantly, fold change in NALF leukocytes correlated with the post-exercise fatigue rating in the 180-min exercise condition. The acellular portion of NALF contained strong antiviral activity against Influenza A in both resting and exercise paradigms. In mice undergoing moderate-intensity exercise, BAL total cells and neutrophils decreased in response to 45 or 90 min of exercise. In lung lobes, increased expression of heat shock proteins suggested that cellular stress occurred in response to exercise. However, a broad upregulation of inflammatory genes was not observed, even at 180 min of exercise. This work demonstrates that exercise duration differentially alters the cellularity of respiratory tract fluids, antiviral activity, and gene expression. These changes in local mucosal immunity may influence resistance to respiratory viruses, including influenza or possibly other pathogens in which nasal mucosa plays a protective role, such as rhinovirus or SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , Nasal Lavage Fluid/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Lavage/methods , Nasal Lavage Fluid/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427002

ABSTRACT

If viral strains are sufficiently similar in their immunodominant epitopes, then populations of cross-reactive T cells may be boosted by exposure to one strain and provide protection against infection by another at a later date. This type of pre-existing immunity may be important in the adaptive immune response to influenza and to coronaviruses. Patterns of recognition of epitopes by T cell clonotypes (a set of cells sharing the same T cell receptor) are represented as edges on a bipartite network. We describe different methods of constructing bipartite networks that exhibit cross-reactivity, and the dynamics of the T cell repertoire in conditions of homeostasis, infection and re-infection. Cross-reactivity may arise simply by chance, or because immunodominant epitopes of different strains are structurally similar. We introduce a circular space of epitopes, so that T cell cross-reactivity is a quantitative measure of the overlap between clonotypes that recognize similar (that is, close in epitope space) epitopes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Mice , Models, Theoretical , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559382, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389163

ABSTRACT

Eliciting durable and protective T cell-mediated immunity in the respiratory mucosa remains a significant challenge. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based cationic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) loaded with TLR agonists mimic biophysical properties of microbes and hence, simulate pathogen-pattern recognition receptor interactions to safely and effectively stimulate innate immune responses. We generated micro particle PLPs loaded with TLR4 (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant, GLA) or TLR9 (CpG) agonists, and formulated them with and without a mucosal delivery enhancing carbomer-based nanoemulsion adjuvant (ADJ). These adjuvants delivered intranasally to mice elicited high numbers of influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-specific CD8+ and CD4+ effector and tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in lungs and airways. PLPs delivering TLR4 versus TLR9 agonists drove phenotypically and functionally distinct populations of effector and memory T cells. While PLPs loaded with CpG or GLA provided immunity, combining the adjuvanticity of PLP-GLA and ADJ markedly enhanced the development of airway and lung TRMs and CD4 and CD8 T cell-dependent immunity to influenza virus. Further, balanced CD8 (Tc1/Tc17) and CD4 (Th1/Th17) recall responses were linked to effective influenza virus control. These studies provide mechanistic insights into vaccine-induced pulmonary T cell immunity and pave the way for the development of a universal influenza and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Dogs , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1324-1337, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343645

ABSTRACT

To identify key gene expression pathways altered with infection of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, we performed the largest comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis to date. We compared the novel pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, as well as influenza A strains H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to SARS-CoV at the level of the viral genome. RNAseq analyses demonstrate that human lung epithelial cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection are distinct. Extensive Gene Expression Omnibus literature screening and drug predictive analyses show that SARS-CoV-2 infection response pathways are closely related to those of SARS-CoV and respiratory syncytial virus infections. We validated SARS-CoV-2 infection response genes as disease-associated using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates in lung disease patient data. We also analysed COVID-19 patient peripheral blood samples, which identified signalling pathway concordance between the primary lung cell and blood cell infection responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/immunology , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308300

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in late 2019 and resulted in a devastating pandemic. Although the first approved vaccines were already administered by the end of 2020, worldwide vaccine availability is still limited. Moreover, immune escape variants of the virus are emerging against which the current vaccines may confer only limited protection. Further, existing antivirals and treatment options against COVID-19 show only limited efficacy. Influenza A virus (IAV) defective interfering particles (DIPs) were previously proposed not only for antiviral treatment of the influenza disease but also for pan-specific treatment of interferon (IFN)-sensitive respiratory virus infections. To investigate the applicability of IAV DIPs as an antiviral for the treatment of COVID-19, we conducted in vitro co-infection experiments with cell culture-derived DIPs and the IFN-sensitive SARS-CoV-2 in human lung cells. We show that treatment with IAV DIPs leads to complete abrogation of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Moreover, this inhibitory effect was dependent on janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. Further, our results suggest boosting of IFN-induced antiviral activity by IAV DIPs as a major contributor in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, we propose IAV DIPs as an effective antiviral agent for treatment of COVID-19, and potentially also for suppressing the replication of new variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Defective Viruses/immunology , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152091, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307004

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of coronavirus is key target for drug development and other pharmacological interventions. In current study, we performed an integrative approach to predict antigenic sites in SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain and found nine potential antigenic sites. The predicted antigenic sites were then assessed for possible molecular similarity with other known antigens in different organisms. Out of nine sites, seven sites showed molecular similarity with 54 antigenic determinants found in twelve pathogenic bacterial species (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Bacillus anthracis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Helicobacter Pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholera and Yersinia pestis), two malarial parasites (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi) and influenza virus A. Most of the bacterial antigens that displayed molecular similarity with antigenic sites in SARS-CoV-2 RBD (receptor binding domain) were toxins and virulent factors. Antigens from Mycobacterium that showed similarity were mainly involved in modulating host cell immune response and ensuring persistence and survival of pathogen in host cells. Presence of a large number of antigenic determinants, similar to those in highly pathogenic microorganisms, not merely accounts for complex etiology of the disease but also provides an explanation for observed pathophysiological complications, such as deregulated immune response, unleashed or dysregulated cytokine secretion (cytokine storm), multiple organ failure etc., that are more evident in aged and immune-compromised patients. Over-representation of antigenic determinants from Plasmodium and Mycobacterium in all antigenic sites suggests that anti-malarial and anti-TB drugs can prove to be clinical beneficial for COVID-19 treatment. Besides this, anti-leprosy, anti-lyme, anti-plague, anti-anthrax drugs/vaccine etc. are also expected to be beneficial in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, individuals previously immunized/vaccinated or had previous history of malaria, tuberculosis or other disease caused by fifteen microorganisms are expected to display a considerable degree of resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Out of the seven antigenic sites predicted in SARS-CoV-2, a part of two antigenic sites were also predicted as potent T-cell epitopes (KVGGNYNYL444-452 and SVLYNSASF366-374) against MHC class I and three (KRISNCVADYSVLYN356-370, DLCFTNVYADSFVI389-402, and YRVVVLSFELLHA508-520) against MHC class II. All epitopes possessed significantly lower predicted IC50 value which is a prerequisite for a preferred vaccine candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Bacteria/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza A virus/immunology , Plasmodium/immunology , Protein Domains
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 617, 2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid self-tests could improve access to influenza testing in community settings. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a mobile app-guided influenza rapid self-test for adults with influenza like illness (ILI), and identify optimal methods for conducting accuracy studies for home-based assays for influenza and other respiratory viruses. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited adults who self-reported ILI online. Participants downloaded a mobile app, which guided them through two low nasal swab self-samples. Participants tested the index swab using a lateral flow assay. Test accuracy results were compared to the reference swab tested in a research laboratory for influenza A/B using a molecular assay. RESULTS: Analysis included 739 participants, 80% were 25-64 years of age, 79% female, and 73% white. Influenza positivity was 5.9% based on the laboratory reference test. Of those who started their test, 92% reported a self-test result. The sensitivity and specificity of participants' interpretation of the test result compared to the laboratory reference standard were 14% (95%CI 5-28%) and 90% (95%CI 87-92%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A mobile app facilitated study procedures to determine the accuracy of a home based test for influenza, however, test sensitivity was low. Recruiting individuals outside clinical settings who self-report ILI symptoms may lead to lower rates of influenza and/or less severe disease. Earlier identification of study subjects within 48 h of symptom onset through inclusion criteria and rapid shipping of tests or pre-positioning tests is needed to allow self-testing earlier in the course of illness, when viral load is higher.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza B virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mobile Applications , Self-Testing , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Accuracy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282632

ABSTRACT

Traditional influenza vaccines generate strain-specific antibodies which cannot provide protection against divergent influenza virus strains. Further, due to frequent antigenic shifts and drift of influenza viruses, annual reformulation and revaccination are required in order to match circulating strains. Thus, the development of a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) is critical for long-term protection against all seasonal influenza virus strains, as well as to provide protection against a potential pandemic virus. One of the most important strategies in the development of UIVs is the selection of optimal targeting antigens to generate broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies or cross-reactive T cell responses against divergent influenza virus strains. However, each type of target antigen for UIVs has advantages and limitations for the generation of sufficient immune responses against divergent influenza viruses. Herein, we review current strategies and perspectives regarding the use of antigens, including hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix proteins, and internal proteins, for universal influenza vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Cross Protection/immunology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Models, Molecular , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273516

ABSTRACT

Despite seasonal influenza vaccines having been routinely used for many decades, influenza A virus continues to pose a global threat to humans, causing high morbidity and mortality each year. The effectiveness of the vaccine is largely dependent on how well matched the vaccine strains are with the circulating influenza virus strains. Furthermore, low vaccine efficacy in naïve populations such as young children, or in the elderly, who possess weakened immune systems, indicates that influenza vaccines need to be more personalized to provide broader community protection. Advances in both vaccine technologies and our understanding of influenza virus infection and immunity have led to the design of a variety of alternate vaccine strategies to extend population protection against influenza, some of which are now in use. In this review, we summarize the progress in the field of influenza vaccines, including the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies, and discuss future prospects. We also highlight some of the challenges to be faced in the ongoing effort to control influenza through vaccination.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Precision Medicine , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Clinical Decision-Making , Disease Management , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza Vaccines/classification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Precision Medicine/methods , Public Health Surveillance , Research , Vaccination
18.
J Immunol ; 206(11): 2509-2520, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239056

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza and the current COVID-19 pandemic represent looming global health challenges. Efficacious and safe vaccines remain the frontline tools for mitigating both influenza virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced diseases. This review will discuss the existing strategies for influenza vaccines and how these strategies have informed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. It will also discuss new vaccine platforms and potential challenges for both viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
19.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231504

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus, a highly mutable respiratory pathogen, causes significant disease nearly every year. Current vaccines are designed to protect against circulating influenza strains of a given season. However, mismatches between vaccine strains and circulating strains, as well as inferior vaccine effectiveness in immunodeficient populations, represent major obstacles. In an effort to expand the breadth of protection elicited by influenza vaccination, one of the major surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA), has been modified to develop immunogens that display conserved regions from multiple viruses or elicit a highly polyclonal antibody response to broaden protection. These approaches, which target either the head or the stalk domain of HA, or both domains, have shown promise in recent preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, the role of adjuvants in bolstering the robustness of the humoral response has been studied, and their effects on the vaccine-elicited antibody repertoire are currently being investigated. This review will discuss the progress made in the universal influenza vaccine field with respect to influenza A viruses from the perspectives of both antigen and adjuvant, with a focus on the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology
20.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0053021, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218208

ABSTRACT

Elicitation of lung tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells (TRMs) is a goal of T cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, such as influenza A virus (IAV). C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2)-dependent monocyte trafficking plays an essential role in the establishment of CD8 TRMs in lungs of IAV-infected mice. Here, we used a combination adjuvant-based subunit vaccine strategy that evokes multifaceted (TC1/TC17/TH1/TH17) IAV nucleoprotein-specific lung TRMs to determine whether CCR2 and monocyte infiltration are essential for vaccine-induced TRM development and protective immunity to IAV in lungs. Following intranasal vaccination, neutrophils, monocytes, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and monocyte-derived dendritic cells internalized and processed vaccine antigen in lungs. We found that basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3)-dependent DCs were essential for eliciting T cell responses, but CCR2 deficiency enhanced the differentiation of CD127hi, KLRG-1lo, OX40+ve CD62L+ve, and mucosally imprinted CD69+ve CD103+ve effector and memory CD8 T cells in lungs and airways of vaccinated mice. Mechanistically, increased development of lung TRMs induced by CCR2 deficiency was linked to dampened expression of T-bet but not altered TCF-1 levels or T cell receptor signaling in CD8 T cells. T1/T17 functional programming, parenchymal localization of CD8/CD4 effector and memory T cells, recall T cell responses, and protective immunity to a lethal IAV infection were unaffected in CCR2-deficient mice. Taken together, we identified a negative regulatory role for CCR2 and monocyte trafficking in mucosal imprinting and differentiation of vaccine-induced TRMs. Mechanistic insights from this study may aid the development of T-cell-based vaccines against respiratory viral pathogens, including IAV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). IMPORTANCE While antibody-based immunity to influenza A virus (IAV) is type and subtype specific, lung- and airway-resident memory T cells that recognize conserved epitopes in the internal viral proteins are known to provide heterosubtypic immunity. Hence, broadly protective IAV vaccines need to elicit robust T cell memory in the respiratory tract. We have developed a combination adjuvant-based IAV nucleoprotein vaccine that elicits strong CD4 and CD8 T cell memory in lungs and protects against H1N1 and H5N1 strains of IAV. In this study, we examined the mechanisms that control vaccine-induced protective memory T cells in the respiratory tract. We found that trafficking of monocytes into lungs might limit the development of antiviral lung-resident memory T cells following intranasal vaccination. These findings suggest that strategies that limit monocyte infiltration can potentiate vaccine-induced frontline T-cell immunity to respiratory viruses, such as IAV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunologic Memory , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Receptors, CCR2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Animals , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Receptors, CCR2/genetics
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