Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 55
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3480, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730307

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant diversion of human and material resources to COVID-19 diagnostics, to the extent that influenza viruses and co-infection in COVID-19 patients remains undocumented and pose serious public-health consequences. We optimized and validated a highly sensitive RT-PCR based multiplex-assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B viruses in a single-test. This study evaluated clinical specimens (n = 1411), 1019 saliva and 392 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), tested using two-assays: FDA-EUA approved SARS-CoV-2 assay that targets N and ORF1ab gene, and the PKamp-RT-PCR based assay that targets SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses A and B. Of the 1019 saliva samples, 17.0% (174/1019) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using either assay. The detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was higher with the multiplex assay compared to SARS-specific assay [91.9% (160/174) vs. 87.9% (153/174)], respectively. Of the 392 NPS samples, 10.4% (41/392) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using either assay. The detection rate for SARS-CoV-2 was higher with the multiplex assay compared to SARS-specific assay [97.5% (40/41) vs. 92.1% (39/41)], respectively. This study presents clinical validation of a multiplex-PCR assay for testing SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B viruses, using NPS and saliva samples, and demonstrates the feasibility of implementing the assay without disrupting the existing laboratory workflow.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0109021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673362

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced a new challenge in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory infections. Accurate diagnosis of respiratory infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is complicated by overlapping symptomology, and stepwise approaches to testing for each infection would lead to increased reagent usage and cost, as well as delays in clinical interventions. To avoid these issues, multiplex molecular assays have been developed to differentiate between respiratory viruses in a single test to meet clinical diagnostic needs. To evaluate the analytical performance of the FDA emergency use authorization (EUA)-approved Abbott Alinity m resp-4-plex assay (Alinity m) in testing for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), we compared its performance to those of both the EUA-approved Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B virus, and RSV assay (Xpert Xpress) and the EUA-approved Roche Cobas SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A/B virus assay (Cobas) in a single-center retrospective analysis. High concordance was observed among all three assays, with kappa statistics showing an almost perfect agreement (>0.90). The limit of detection (LOD) results for SARS-CoV-2 showed the Alinity m exhibiting the lowest LOD at 26 copies/mL, followed by the Cobas at 58 copies/mL and the Xpert Xpress at 83 copies/mL, with LOD results for the influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and RSV viral targets also showing equivalent or better performance on the Alinity m compared to the other two platforms. The Alinity m can be used as a high-volume testing platform for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, and RSV and exhibits analytical performance comparable to those of both the Xpert Xpress and Cobas assays. IMPORTANCE The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has introduced a new challenge in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory infections, especially considering the overlapping symptomology of many of these infections and differences in clinical interventions depending on the pathogen identified. To avoid these issues, multiplex molecular assays like the one described in this article need to be developed to differentiate between the most common respiratory pathogens in a single test and most effectively meet clinical diagnostic needs.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e328, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the simultaneous detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza virus (Flu), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is important in the rapid differential diagnosis in patients with respiratory symptoms. Three multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays have been recently developed commercially in Korea: PowerChek™ SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A&B Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek; KogeneBiotech); STANDARD™ M Flu/SARS-CoV-2 Real-time Detection Kit (STANDARD M; SD BioSensor); and Allplex™ SARS-CoV-2/FluA/FluB/RSV Assay (Allplex; Seegene). We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of these kits. METHODS: A limit of detection tests were performed and cross-reactivity analysis was executed using clinical respiratory samples. Ninety-seven SARS-CoV-2-positive, 201 SARS-CoV-2-negative, 71 influenza A-positive, 50 influenza B-positive, 78 RSV-positive, and 207 other respiratory virus-positive nasopharyngeal swabs were tested using the three assays. The AdvanSure™ respiratory viruses rRT-PCR assay (AdvanSure; LG Life Sciences) was used as a comparator assay for RSV. RESULTS: Except in influenza B, in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A, there were no significant differences in detecting specific genes of the viruses among the three assays. All three kits did not cross-react with common respiratory viruses. All three kits had greater than 92% positive percent agreement and negative percent agreement and ≥ 0.95 kappa value in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and flu A/B. Allplex detected RSV more sensitively than AdvanSure. CONCLUSION: The overall performance of three multiplex rRT-PCR assays for the concurrent detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and RSV was comparable. These kits will promote prompt differential diagnosis of COVID-19, influenza, and RSV infection in the COVID-19 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(23): 24931-24942, 2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573020

ABSTRACT

Since the Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (SARS-CoV-2 VOC) have been reported. The B.1.1.7 variant has been associated with increased mortality and transmission risk. Furthermore, cluster and possible co-infection cases could occur in the next influenza season or COVID-19 pandemic wave, warranting efficient diagnosis and treatment decision making. Here, we aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses using multiplex RT-PCR developed on the LabTurbo AIO 48 open system. We performed a multicenter study to evaluate the performance and analytical sensitivity of the LabTurbo AIO 48 system for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using 652 nasopharyngeal swab clinical samples from patients. The LabTurbo AIO 48 system demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.4 copies/per PCR for N2 of SARS-CoV-2; 24 copies/per PCR for M of influenza A and B; and 24 copies/per PCR for N of RSV. The assay presented consistent performance in the multicenter study. The multiplex RT-PCR applied on the LabTurbo AIO 48 open platform provided highly sensitive, robust, and accurate results and enabled high-throughput detection of B.1.1.7, influenza A/B, and RSV with short turnaround times. Therefore, this automated molecular diagnostic assay could enable streamlined testing if COVID-19 becomes a seasonal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Influenzavirus B/genetics , Influenzavirus B/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23223, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553757

ABSTRACT

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been widespread in poultry and wild birds throughout the world for many decades. LPAIV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause subclinical symptoms. However, the genetic reassortment of LPAIVs may generate novel viruses with increased virulence and cross-species transmission, posing potential risks to public health. To evaluate the epidemic potential and infection landscape of LPAIVs in Guangxi Province, China, we collected and analyzed throat and cloacal swab samples from chickens, ducks and geese from the live poultry markets on a regular basis from 2016 to 2019. Among the 7,567 samples, 974 (12.87%) were LPAIVs-positive, with 890 single and 84 mixed infections. Higher yearly isolation rates were observed in 2017 and 2018. Additionally, geese had the highest isolation rate, followed by ducks and chickens. Seasonally, spring had the highest isolation rate. Subtype H3, H4, H6 and H9 viruses were detected over prolonged periods, while H1 and H11 viruses were detected transiently. The predominant subtypes in chickens, ducks and geese were H9, H3, and H6, respectively. The 84 mixed infection samples contained 22 combinations. Most mixed infections involved two subtypes, with H3 + H4 as the most common combination. Our study provides important epidemiological data regarding the isolation rates, distributions of prevalent subtypes and mixed infections of LPAIVs. These results will improve our knowledge and ability to control epidemics, guide disease management strategies and provide early awareness of newly emerged AIV reassortants with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry/virology , Animals , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Influenza A virus/genetics
6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 127-131, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497592

ABSTRACT

This article aims to understand the changes in the detection rates of H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the live poultry markets (LPMs) in Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19. From 2019 to 2020, we monitored the LPM and collected specimens, using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology to detect the nucleic acid of type A AIV in the samples. The H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of influenza viruses were further classified for positive results. We analyzed 1,959 samples before and after the outbreak and found that the positive rates of avian influenza A virus (39.69%) and H9 subtype (30.66%) after the outbreak were significantly higher than before the outbreak (26.84% and 20.90%, respectively; P < 0.001). In various LPMs, the positive rate of H9 subtypes has increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Positive rates of the H9 subtype in duck, fecal, daub, and sewage samples, but not chicken samples, have increased to varying degrees. This study shows that additional measures are needed to strengthen the control of AIVs now that LPMs have reopened after the relaxing of COVID-19-related restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Feces/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/classification , Poultry , Sewage/virology
8.
Virol J ; 18(1): 202, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized children. METHODS: This study enrolled hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from September to December 2019 (before the COVID-19 epidemic) and those from September to December 2020 (during the COVID-19 epidemic). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and respiratory pathogens were detected using multiplex PCR. The absolute case number and detection rates of 11 pathogens were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5696 children with respiratory tract infection received multiplex PCR examination for respiratory pathogens: 2298 from September to December 2019 and 3398 from September to December 2020. At least one pathogen was detected in 1850 (80.5%) patients in 2019, and in 2380 (70.0%) patients in 2020; the detection rate in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019.The Influenza A (InfA) detection rate was 5.6% in 2019, but 0% in 2020. The detection rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human adenovirus, and Human rhinovirus also decreased from 20% (460), 8.9% (206), and 41.8% (961) in 2019 to 1.0% (37), 2.1% (77), and 25.6% (873) in 2020, respectively. In contrast, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased from 6.6% (153), 9.9% (229), and 0.5% (12) in 2019 to 25.6% (873), 15.5% (530), and 7.2% (247) in 2020, respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Successful containment of seasonal influenza as a result of COVID-19 control measures will ensure we are better equipped to deal with future outbreaks of both influenza and COVID-19.Caused by virus competition, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased in Shenzhen,that reminds us we need to take further monitoring and preventive measures in the next epidemic season.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5998-6007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432442

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Animals , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5798-5804, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432412

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnostics for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are paramount for reducing the spread of the current pandemic. During additional seasonal epidemics with influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the clinical signs and symptoms cannot be distinguished easily from SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, a new assay combining four targets in the form of the new Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV assay was evaluated. The assay was compared to the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2, Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV, Seegene Flu/RSV, influenza A/B r-gene® and RSV/hMPV r-gene®. A total of 295 nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were tested at four institutes throughout Europe including 72 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2, 65 for influenza A, 47 for influenza B, and 77 for RSV. The sensitivity of the new assay was above 95% for all targets, with the highest for SARS-CoV-2 (97.2%). The overall correlation of SARS-CoV-2 Ct values between Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay and Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV assay was high. The agreement between Ct values above 30 showed the multiplex giving higher Ct values for SARS-CoV-2 on average than the singleplex assay. In conclusion, the new assay is a rapid and reliable alternative with less hands-on time for the detection of not one, but four upper respiratory tract pathogens that may circulate at the same time.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 3085-3092, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391877

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus are common causes of respiratory infections. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on their prevalence. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemic changes of common respiratory viruses in the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University in Hangzhou, China, from October of 2017 to February of 2021. We collected statistics from 121,529 patients in the outpatient and inpatient departments of the hospital who had throat or nose swabs collected for testing for four virus antigens by the colloidal gold method. Of these, 13,200 (10.86%) were positive for influenza A virus, 8,402 (6.91%) were positive for influenza B virus, 6,056 (4.98%) were positive for adenovirus, and 4,739 (3.90%) were positive for respiratory syncytial virus. The positivity rates of the influenza A virus (0-14 years old, P = 0.376; over 14 years old, P = 0.197) and respiratory syncytial virus (0-14 years old, P = 0.763; over 14 years old, P = 0.465) did not differ significantly by gender. After January of 2020, influenza virus infection decreased significantly. The positivity rate of respiratory syncytial virus remained high, and its epidemic season was similar to before. Strict respiratory protection and regulation of crowd activities have a great impact on the epidemic characteristics of viruses. After major changes in the public health environment, virus epidemics and their mutations should be monitored closely, extensively, and continuously.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Sex Factors , Young Adult
12.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(5): 737-749, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387171

ABSTRACT

The influenza virus is a global threat to human health causing unpredictable yet recurring pandemics, the last four emerging over the course of a hundred years. As our knowledge of influenza virus evolution, distribution, and transmission has increased, paths to pandemic preparedness have become apparent. In the 1950s, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a global influenza surveillance network that is now composed of institutions in 122 member states. This and other surveillance networks monitor circulating influenza strains in humans and animal reservoirs and are primed to detect influenza strains with pandemic potential. Both the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the WHO have also developed pandemic risk assessment tools that evaluate specific aspects of emerging influenza strains to develop a systematic process of determining research and funding priorities according to the risk of emergence and potential impact. Here, we review the history of influenza pandemic preparedness and the current state of preparedness, and we propose additional measures for improvement. We also comment on the intersection between the influenza pandemic preparedness network and the current SARS-CoV-2 crisis. We must continually evaluate and revise our risk assessment and pandemic preparedness plans and incorporate new information gathered from research and global crises.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , World Health Organization
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8112783, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378089

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in regulating many biological processes, including immune response to influenza A virus (IAV). However, the association between lncRNA expression profiles and influenza infection susceptibility has not been well elucidated. Here, we analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs among IAV-infected adult rat (IAR), normal adult rat (AR), IAV-infected junior rat (IJR), and normal junior rat (JR) by RNA sequencing. Compared with differently expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) between AR and IAR, 24 specific DElncRNAs were found between IJR and JR. Then, based on the fold changes and P value, the top 5 DElncRNAs, including 3 upregulated and 2 downregulated lncRNAs, were chosen to establish a ceRNA network for further disclosing their regulatory mechanisms. To visualize the differentially expressed genes in the ceRNA network, GO and KEGG pathway analysis was performed to further explore their roles in influenza infection of junior rats. The results showed that the downregulated DElncRNA-target genes were mostly enriched in the IL-17 signaling pathway. It indicated that the downregulated lncRNAs conferred the susceptibility of junior rats to IAV via mediating the IL-17 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , MicroRNAs/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(8): 1743-1748, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323942

ABSTRACT

We evaluated a novel transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction (TRC) assay that can detect influenza A and B within 15 min using nasopharyngeal swab and gargle samples obtained from patients with influenza-like illness, between January and March 2018 and between January and March 2019. Based on the combined RT-PCR and sequencing results, in the nasal swabs, the sensitivity and specificity of TRC for detecting influenza were calculated as 1.000 and 1.000, respectively. In the gargle samples, the sensitivity and specificity of TRC were 0.946 and 1.000, respectively. The TRC assay showed comparable performance to RT-PCR in the detection of influenza viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Adult , Aged , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5998-6007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298504

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Animals , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
17.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 577-581, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271943

ABSTRACT

The H2 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses (avian IAVs) have been circulating in poultry, and they have the potential to infect humans. Therefore, establishing a method to quickly detect this subtype is pivotal. We developed a TaqMan minor groove binder real-time RT-PCR assay that involved probes and primers based on conserved sequences of the matrix and hemagglutinin genes. The detection limit of this assay was as low as one 50% egg infectious dose (EID50)/mL per reaction. This assay is specific, sensitive, and rapid for detecting avian IAV H2 subtypes.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12703, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275958

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections are a potentially fatal complication of influenza infection. We aimed to define the impact of secondary bacterial infections on the clinical course and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by comparison with influenza patients. COVID-19 (n = 642) and influenza (n = 742) patients, admitted to a large tertiary center in Israel and for whom blood or sputum culture had been taken were selected for this study. Bacterial culture results, clinical parameters, and death rates were compared. COVID-19 patients had higher rates of bacterial infections than influenza patients (12.6% vs. 8.7%). Notably, the time from admission to bacterial growth was longer in COVID-19 compared to influenza patients (4 (1-8) vs. 1 (1-3) days). Late infections (> 48 h after admission) with gram-positive bacteria were more common in COVID-19 patients (28% vs. 9.5%). Secondary infection was associated with a higher risk of death in both patient groups 2.7-fold (1.22-5.83) for COVID-19, and 3.09-fold (1.11-7.38) for Influenza). The association with death remained significant upon adjustment to age and clinical parameters in COVID-19 but not in influenza infection. Secondary bacterial infection is a notable complication associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 than influenza patients. Careful surveillance and prompt antibiotic treatment may benefit selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4392-4398, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263103

ABSTRACT

With the arrival of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil in February 2020, several preventive measures were taken by the population aiming to avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection including the use of masks, social distancing, and frequent hand washing then, these measures may have contributed to preventing infection also by other respiratory viruses. Our goal was to determine the frequencies of Influenza A and B viruses (FLUAV/FLUBV), human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), Enterovirus 68 (EV-68), and rhinovirus (RV) besides SARS-CoV-2 among hospitalized patients suspect of COVID-19 with cases of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) in the period of March to December 2020 and to detect possible coinfections among them. Nucleic acid detection was performed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in respiratory samples using naso-oropharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage. A total of 418 samples of the 987 analyzed (42.3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 16 (1.62%) samples were positive for FLUAV, no sample was positive for FLUBV or EV-68, 67 (6.78%) samples were positive for HAdV-C, 55 samples were positive for RV 1/2 (26.3%) and 37 for RV 2/2 (13.6%). Coinfections were also detected, including a triple coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, FLUAV, and HAdV-C. In the present work, a very low frequency of FLUV was reported among hospitalized patients with ARDS compared to the past years, probably due to preventive measures taken to avoid COVID-19 and the high influenza vaccination coverage in the region in which this study was performed.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Adenoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Common Cold/prevention & control , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Masks , Mastadenovirus/genetics , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
20.
Exp Mol Med ; 53(5): 737-749, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217696

ABSTRACT

The influenza virus is a global threat to human health causing unpredictable yet recurring pandemics, the last four emerging over the course of a hundred years. As our knowledge of influenza virus evolution, distribution, and transmission has increased, paths to pandemic preparedness have become apparent. In the 1950s, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a global influenza surveillance network that is now composed of institutions in 122 member states. This and other surveillance networks monitor circulating influenza strains in humans and animal reservoirs and are primed to detect influenza strains with pandemic potential. Both the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the WHO have also developed pandemic risk assessment tools that evaluate specific aspects of emerging influenza strains to develop a systematic process of determining research and funding priorities according to the risk of emergence and potential impact. Here, we review the history of influenza pandemic preparedness and the current state of preparedness, and we propose additional measures for improvement. We also comment on the intersection between the influenza pandemic preparedness network and the current SARS-CoV-2 crisis. We must continually evaluate and revise our risk assessment and pandemic preparedness plans and incorporate new information gathered from research and global crises.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , World Health Organization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL