Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471000

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that mainly affects the lungs. COVID-19 symptoms include the presence of fevers, dry coughs, fatigue, sore throat, headaches, diarrhea, and a loss of taste or smell. However, it is understood that SARS-CoV-2 is neurotoxic and neuro-invasive and could enter the central nervous system (CNS) via the hematogenous route or via the peripheral nerve route and causes encephalitis, encephalopathy, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in COVID-19 patients. This review discusses the possibility of SARS-CoV-2-mediated Multiple Sclerosis (MS) development in the future, comparable to the surge in Parkinson's disease cases following the Spanish Flu in 1918. Moreover, the SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a cytokine storm. This review highlights the impact of these modulated cytokines on glial cell interactions within the CNS and their role in potentially prompting MS development as a secondary disease by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic and could interfere with various functions of neurons leading to MS development. The influence of neuroinflammation, microglia phagocytotic capabilities, as well as hypoxia-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, are mechanisms that may ultimately trigger MS development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. METHODS: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. RESULTS: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/history
5.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 489, 2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 1918 an unknown infectious agent spread around the world infecting over one-third of the general population and killing almost 50 million people. Many countries were at war, the First World War. Since Spain was a neutral country and Spanish press could report about the infection without censorship, this condition is commonly remembered as "Spanish influenza". This review examines several aspects during the 1918 influenza pandemic to bring out evidences which might be useful to imagine the possible magnitude of the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In the first part of this review we will examine the origin of the SARS-Coronavirus-2 and 1918 Spanish Influenza Virus and the role played by host and environment in its diffusion. We will also include in our analysis an evaluation of different approaches utilized to restrain the spread of pandemic and to treat infected patients. In the second part, we will try to imagine the magnitude of the present COVID-19 pandemic and the possible measures able to restrain in the present environment its spread. RESULTS: Several factors characterize the outcome in a viral pandemic infection. They include the complete knowledge of the virus, the complete knowledge of the host and of the environment where the host lives and the pandemic develops. CONCLUSION: By comparing the situation seen in 1918 with the current one, we are now in a more favourable position. The experience of the past teaches us that their success is linked to a rapid, constant and lasting application. Then, rather than coercion, awareness of the need to observe such prevention measures works better.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Spain/epidemiology
6.
Nurs Forum ; 56(2): 350-357, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977513

ABSTRACT

Just as people living in the early 1900s experienced the horrors of World War I followed by the Spanish influenza epidemic, those of us surviving the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will have our lives forever changed. Both pandemics defied the capabilities of prevailing healthcare and public health. Since there was no known cure in either pandemic, much depended on nurses to fight the battle against the viruses. History has shown pandemics are occurring more frequently and are unpredictable in timing and severity. Therefore, we need to place focus on the valuable lessons from the century's two pandemics to prepare for future global disease outbreaks. Lessons that will benefit nursing are the importance of continual preparation and planning, care coordination across communities and healthcare systems, and ensuring nurses have the necessary resources and training to perform their roles in an effective and safe manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Correlation of Data , History of Nursing , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Nurses/psychology , Nurses/supply & distribution , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
7.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 12(5): 683-687, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917501

ABSTRACT

The 1918 Influenza pandemic had long-term impacts on the cohort exposed in utero which experienced earlier adult mortality, and more diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and depression after age 50. It is possible that the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will also have long-term impacts on the cohort that was in utero during the pandemic, from exposure to maternal infection and/or the stress of the pandemic environment. We discuss how COVID-19 disease during pregnancy may affect fetal and postnatal development with adverse impacts on health and aging. Severe maternal infections are associated with an exaggerated inflammatory response, thromboembolic events, and placental vascular malperfusion. We also discuss how in utero exposure to the stress of the pandemic, without maternal infection, may impact health and aging. Several recently initiated birth cohort studies are tracking neonatal health following in utero severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exposure. We suggest these cohort studies develop plans for longer-term observations of physical, behavioral, and cognitive functions that are markers for accelerated aging, as well as methods to disentangle the effects of maternal infection from stresses of the pandemic environment. In utero exposure to COVID-19 disease could cause developmental difficulties and accelerated aging in the century ahead. This brief review summarizes elements of the developmental origins of health, disease, and ageing and discusses how the COVID-19 pandemic might exacerbate such effects. We conclude with a call for research on the long-term consequences of in utero exposure to maternal infection with COVID-19 and stresses of the pandemic environment.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child Development/physiology , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/history , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/history , Influenza, Human/virology , Middle Aged , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 211-216, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6596

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, emerged in Wuhan, China in the end of 2019, has claimed more than 2600 lives as of 24 February 2020 and posed a huge threat to global public health. The Chinese government has implemented control measures including setting up special hospitals and travel restriction to mitigate the spread. We propose conceptual models for the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan with the consideration of individual behavioural reaction and governmental actions, e.g., holiday extension, travel restriction, hospitalisation and quarantine. We employe the estimates of these two key components from the 1918 influenza pandemic in London, United Kingdom, incorporated zoonotic introductions and the emigration, and then compute future trends and the reporting ratio. The model is concise in structure, and it successfully captures the course of the COVID-19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Models, Biological , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Government , Government Regulation , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence , United Kingdom/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL