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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(13): e2025607119, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758459

ABSTRACT

SignificanceAlthough the need for a universal influenza vaccine has long been recognized, only a handful of candidates have been identified so far, with even fewer advancing in the clinical pipeline. The 24-amino acid ectodomain of M2 protein (M2e) has been developed over the past two decades. However, M2e-based vaccine candidates have shortcomings, including the need for several administrations and the lack of sustained antibody titers over time. We report here a vaccine targeting strategy that has the potential to confer sustained and strong protection upon a single shot of a small amount of M2e antigen. The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of developing versatile, powerful platforms for the rapid deployment of vaccines against any incoming threat.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Viral Matrix Proteins , Viroporin Proteins , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Viroporin Proteins/immunology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674673

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic caused a massive health and societal crisis, although the fast development of effective vaccines reduced some of the impact. To prepare for future respiratory virus pandemics, a pan-viral prophylaxis could be used to control the initial virus outbreak in the period prior to vaccine approval. The liposomal vaccine adjuvant CAF®09b contains the TLR3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, which induces a type I interferon (IFN-I) response and an antiviral state in the affected tissues. When testing CAF09b liposomes as a potential pan-viral prophylaxis, we observed that intranasal administration of CAF09b liposomes to mice resulted in an influx of innate immune cells into the nose and lungs and upregulation of IFN-I-related gene expression. When CAF09b liposomes were administered prior to challenge with mouse-adapted influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 virus, it protected from severe disease, although the virus was still detectable in the lungs. However, when CAF09b liposomes were administered after influenza challenge, the mice had a similar disease course to controls. In conclusion, CAF09b may be a suitable candidate as a pan-viral prophylactic treatment for epidemic viruses, but must be administered prior to virus exposure to be effective.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , /methods , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , /chemistry , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cells, Cultured , Chick Embryo , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Interferon Type I/genetics , Liposomes/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Primary Prevention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671752

ABSTRACT

Encouraging vaccination is a pressing policy problem. To assess whether text-based reminders can encourage pharmacy vaccination and what kinds of messages work best, we conducted a megastudy. We randomly assigned 689,693 Walmart pharmacy patients to receive one of 22 different text reminders using a variety of different behavioral science principles to nudge flu vaccination or to a business-as-usual control condition that received no messages. We found that the reminder texts that we tested increased pharmacy vaccination rates by an average of 2.0 percentage points, or 6.8%, over a 3-mo follow-up period. The most-effective messages reminded patients that a flu shot was waiting for them and delivered reminders on multiple days. The top-performing intervention included two texts delivered 3 d apart and communicated to patients that a vaccine was "waiting for you." Neither experts nor lay people anticipated that this would be the best-performing treatment, underscoring the value of simultaneously testing many different nudges in a highly powered megastudy.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pharmacies , Vaccination/methods , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , Reminder Systems , Text Messaging , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
5.
Circulation ; 144(18): 1476-1484, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational and small, randomized studies suggest that influenza vaccine may reduce future cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We conducted an investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind trial to compare inactivated influenza vaccine with saline placebo administered shortly after myocardial infarction (MI; 99.7% of patients) or high-risk stable coronary heart disease (0.3%). The primary end point was the composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis at 12 months. A hierarchical testing strategy was used for the key secondary end points: all-cause death, cardiovascular death, MI, and stent thrombosis. RESULTS: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the data safety and monitoring board recommended to halt the trial before attaining the prespecified sample size. Between October 1, 2016, and March 1, 2020, 2571 participants were randomized at 30 centers across 8 countries. Participants assigned to influenza vaccine totaled 1290 and individuals assigned to placebo equaled 1281; of these, 2532 received the study treatment (1272 influenza vaccine and 1260 placebo) and were included in the modified intention to treat analysis. Over the 12-month follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 67 participants (5.3%) assigned influenza vaccine and 91 participants (7.2%) assigned placebo (hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.52-0.99]; P=0.040). Rates of all-cause death were 2.9% and 4.9% (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.89]; P=0.010), rates of cardiovascular death were 2.7% and 4.5%, (hazard ratio, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.39-0.90]; P=0.014), and rates of MI were 2.0% and 2.4% (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.50-1.46]; P=0.57) in the influenza vaccine and placebo groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination early after an MI or in high-risk coronary heart disease resulted in a lower risk of a composite of all-cause death, MI, or stent thrombosis, and a lower risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular death, as well, at 12 months compared with placebo. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02831608.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Myocardial Infarction/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 18, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639142

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are the most serious problem for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment. To determine whether the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain should be updated following variant emergence like seasonal flu vaccine, the changed degree on antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants and H3N2 flu vaccine strains was compared. The neutralization activities of Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants' spike protein-immunized sera were analysed against the eight current epidemic variants and 20 possible variants combining the top 10 prevalent RBD mutations based on the Delta variant, which were constructed using pseudotyped viruses. Meanwhile, the neutralization activities of convalescent sera and current inactivated and recombinant protein vaccine-elicited sera were also examined against all possible Delta variants. Eight HA protein-expressing DNAs elicited-animal sera were also tested against eight pseudotyped viruses of H3N2 flu vaccine strains from 2011-2019. Our results indicate that the antigenicity changes of possible Delta variants were mostly within four folds, whereas the antigenicity changes among different H3N2 vaccine strains were approximately 10-100-fold. Structural analysis of the antigenic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 and H3N2 mutations supports the neutralization results. This study indicates that the antigenicity changes of the current SARS-CoV-2 may not be sufficient to require replacement of the current vaccine strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/metabolism , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28479, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625754

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To facilitate the understanding of the interaction between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causing the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other pathogens causing respiratory system affection we investigated the effect of influenza vaccination on the incidence and severity of COVID-19 among members of staff working in the Bahrain Defense Force Hospital.All staff members working in the hospital between February 2020 and March 2021 were divided into 2 main groups based on whether or not they received influenza vaccination. None of the participants had received any of the COVID-19 vaccines throughout this time period. The records of each were scrutinized to see the effect of influenza vaccination on incidence and severity of COVID-19. Severity measures were: need for hospital and intensive care unit admission and total length of hospital stay.Incidence of affection with COVID-19 was much lower in the vaccinated group (3.7% vs 8.1%, P < .001). Influenza vaccination also reduced total length of hospital stay (6.2 days vs 12.7 days, P < .05) and need for intensive care unit admission among the patients.Influenza vaccine reduces both the incidence of affection as well as the overall burden of COVID-19. This is of particular importance for people working in the healthcare field during the serious COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Adult , Bahrain/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines has brought an unprecedented focus on public attitudes to vaccines, with intention to accept a COVID-19 vaccine fluctuating during the pandemic. However, it is unclear how the pandemic may influence attitudes and behaviour in relation to vaccines in general. The aim of the current study is to examine older adults' changes in vaccination attitudes and behaviour over the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: In February-March 2020 (before the first COVID-19 national lockdown in the UK), 372 older adults (aged 65+) provided sociodemographic information, self-reported influenza vaccine uptake, and completed two measures of vaccination attitudes: the 5C scale and the Vaccination Attitudes Examination Scale. One-year later, following rollout of COVID-19 vaccines to older adults, participants provided information on their COVID-19 and influenza vaccine uptake in the previous 12 months, and completed the 5C and VAX scales again. Paired samples t-tests were used to examine changes in vaccination attitudes over time. RESULTS: Almost all participants (98.7%) had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, and a significant increase in influenza uptake was identified (83.6% in 2020 to 91.6% in 2021). Complacency, mistrust of vaccine benefit, concerns about commercial profiteering, and constraints to vaccination had significantly decreased between Time 1 and Time 2, and collective responsibility had significant increased. However, calculation and worries about unforeseen future effects had increased, indicating that participants now perceived higher risks related to vaccination and were taking a more deliberative information-seeking approach. CONCLUSION: The results show significant changes in vaccination attitudes across the pandemic. These changes suggest that while older adults became less complacent about the importance of vaccines, concerns about potential risks associated with vaccination increased. It will be important for public health communication to address these concerns for all vaccines offered to this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , /trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination , /statistics & numerical data
9.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e46-e50, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at high-risk of complications from influenza and should receive an influenza vaccination seasonally. Despite this recommendation, vaccination rates remain suboptimal. Boston Medical Center (BMC) previously achieved high influenza vaccination rates among its pediatric patients with SCD. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this high vaccination rate has been maintained and whether it has influenced outcome measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted in the hematology clinic at an urban, academic medical center. Fisher's exact test and the independent samples t test were used to determine if there were any significant differences in characteristics between patients with influenza and patients without influenza, as well as between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. Influenza vaccination rate, influenza-related hospitalization rate, and influenza-positive rate were collected and compared with reported rates. RESULTS: Data from 124 pediatric patients with SCD were examined. The influenza vaccination rate for pediatric patients with SCD at BMC (90.32%) was higher than previous studies that were not conducted at BMC, while BMC's influenza-related hospitalization rate (0) and influenza-positive rate (4.84%) were lower than other studies. Subjects who contracted influenza were younger than those who did not (4.67 vs. 10.03 y, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: BMC has maintained a high influenza vaccination rate among pediatric patients with SCD. BMC's vaccination strategy has been successful at improving outcome measures including rates of influenza and influenza hospitalizations without requiring additional staff. Such efforts should be replicated at other centers.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Registries , Vaccination , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
10.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 11(1): 44-54, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616093

ABSTRACT

The identification of influenza epidemics and assessment of the efficacy of vaccination against this infection are major challenges for the implementation of effective public health strategies, such as vaccination programs. In this study, we developed a new pharmacometric model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination based on infection surveillance data from the 2010/2011 to 2018/2019 influenza seasons in Japan. A novel susceptible-infected-removed plus vaccination model, based on an indirect response structure with the effect of vaccination, was applied to describe seasonal influenza epidemics using a preseasonal collection of data regarding serological H1 antibody titer positivity and the fraction of virus strains. Using this model, we evaluated Kin (a parameter describing the transmission rate of symptomatic influenza infection) for different age groups. Furthermore, we defined a new parameter (prevention factor) showing the efficacy of vaccination against each viral strain and in different age groups. We found that the prevention factor of vaccination against influenza varied among age groups. Notably, children aged 5-14 years showed the highest Kin value during the 10 influenza seasons and the greatest preventive effect of vaccination (prevention factor = 70.8%). The propagation of influenza epidemics varies in different age groups. Children aged 5-14 years most likely play a leading role in the transmission of influenza. Prioritized vaccination in this age group may be the most effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of influenza in the community.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Basic Reproduction Number , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
12.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 88(6): 524-532, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Behavioral changes among Japanese, along with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, may affect the seasonal influenza epidemic in Japan and change influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: This single-center, test-negative case-control (TNCC) study estimated influenza VE in children for the first influenza season (2019/20) to overlap the COVID-19 epidemic in. Effects of prior influenza infection and vaccination in children were assessed for the 2019-2020 season. RESULTS: Among 386 children, adjusted VE was significant for influenza A/H1N1 (45.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-69.7) and influenza B (66.7%; 95% CI: 35.9-82.7). Among patients aged 0-6 years, adjusted VE was significant for influenza A (total: A/H1N1+A/H3N2) (65.0%; 95% CI: 22.2-84.3), influenza A/H1N1 (64.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-85.1) and influenza B (87.4%; 95% CI: 50.5-96.8). No VE was observed in patients aged 7-15 years. Administration of two vaccine doses tended to decrease incidences of influenza A (total) and influenza A/H1N1 in patients aged 0-6 years. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of influenza B infection in patients, who had influenza during the previous season, were significantly lower among all participants (0.29; 95% CI: 0.11-0.78) and patients aged 7-15 years (0.34; 95% CI: 0.12-0.94). The adjusted ORs of influenza infections were not significant in patients vaccinated during the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: TNCC-based estimates of influenza VE were consistent despite the overlapping COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
14.
Am J Public Health ; 111(12): 2111-2114, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562083

ABSTRACT

The University of Wisconsin Neighborhood Health Partnerships Program used electronic health record and influenza vaccination data to estimate COVID-19 relative mortality risk and potential barriers to vaccination in Wisconsin ZIP Code Tabulation Areas. Data visualization revealed four groupings to use in planning and prioritizing vaccine outreach and communication based on ZIP Code Tabulation Area characteristics. The program provided data, visualization, and guidance to health systems, health departments, nonprofits, and others to support planning targeted outreach approaches to increase COVID-19 vaccination uptake. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(12):2111-2114. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306524).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , Wisconsin/epidemiology
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(45): 1575-1578, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559837

ABSTRACT

Influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Between 2010 and 2020, an estimated 9-41 million cases resulted in 140,000-710,000 hospitalizations and 12,000-52,000 deaths annually (1). As the United States enters the 2021-22 influenza season, the potential impact of influenza illnesses is of concern given that influenza season will again coincide with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which could further strain overburdened health care systems. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine annual influenza vaccination for the 2021-22 influenza season for all persons aged ≥6 months who have no contraindications (2). To assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on influenza vaccination coverage, the percentage change between administration of at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine during September-December 2020 was compared with the average administered in the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. The data analyzed were reported from 11 U.S. jurisdictions with high-performing state immunization information systems.* Overall, influenza vaccine administration was 9.0% higher in 2020 compared with the average in 2018 and 2019, combined. However, in 2020, the number of influenza vaccine doses administered to children aged 6-23 months and children aged 2-4 years, was 13.9% and 11.9% lower, respectively than the average for each age group in 2018 and 2019. Strategic efforts are needed to ensure high influenza vaccination coverage among all age groups, especially children aged 6 months-4 years who are not yet eligible to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Administration of influenza vaccine and a COVID-19 vaccine among eligible populations is especially important to reduce the potential strain that influenza and COVID-19 cases could place on health care systems already overburdened by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , Aged , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization/standards , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551616

ABSTRACT

A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 72 volunteers who received a synergistic combination of yeast-based ingredients with a unique ß-1,3/1,6-glucan complex and a consortium of heat-treated probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae rich in selenium and zinc (ABB C1®) or placebo on the next day after getting vaccinated against influenza (Chiromas®) (n = 34) or the COVID-19 (Comirnaty®) (n = 38). The duration of treatment was 30 and 35 days for the influenza and COVID-19 vaccine groups, respectively. Mean levels of CD4+T cells increased from 910.7 at baseline to 1000.2 cells/µL after the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in the ABB C1® group, whereas there was a decrease from 1055.1 to 929.8 cells/µL in the placebo group. Changes of CD3+T and CD8+T lymphocytes showed a similar trend. In the COVID-19 cohort, the increases in both IgG and IgM were higher in the ABB C1® supplement than in the placebo group. Serum levels of selenium and zinc showed a higher increase in subjects treated with the active product than in those receiving placebo. No serious adverse events related to ABB C1® or tolerance issues were reported. The study findings validate the capacity of the ABB C1® product to stimulate trained immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Selenium/administration & dosage , Zinc/administration & dosage , beta-Glucans/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Selenium/immunology , Zinc/immunology , beta-Glucans/immunology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260213, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526695

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Influenza is a major concern in hospitals, including the emergency department (ED), mainly because of a high risk for ED personnel to acquire and transmit the disease. Although influenza vaccination is recommended for health care workers, vaccination coverage is low. METHODS: This survey was conducted in the 2016/2017 and 2020/2021 influenza seasons. Questionnaires were sent to ED personnel in 12 hospitals in Bavaria, South-Eastern Germany. The response rates were 62% and 38% in 2016/2017 and 2020/2021, respectively. Data were compared between the two seasons as well as between vaccinated and not vaccinated respondents in 2020/2021. RESULTS: Significantly more ED personnel reported having been vaccinated in the 2020/2021 season. Factors associated with vaccination coverage (or the intention to get vaccinated) were profession (physician / medical student), having been vaccinated at least twice, the availability of an influenza vaccination on site (in the ED) as well as the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, significant differences in the assessment and evaluation of influenza, its vaccination side effects and ethical aspects were found between vaccinated and not vaccinated ED personnel in 2020/2021. Unvaccinated respondents estimated higher frequencies of almost all potential vaccination side effects, were less likely to accept lay-offs if employees would not come to work during an influenza pandemic and more likely to agree that work attendance should be an employee´s decision. Vaccinated participants instead, rather agreed that vaccination should be mandatory and were less likely to consider job changes in case of a mandatory vaccination policy. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic might have contributed to a higher influenza vaccination rate among ED workers. Vaccination on site and interventions targeting the perception of influenza vaccination and its side effects may be most promising to increase the vaccination coverage among ED personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Germany , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 225, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Italy only recently, for the 2020-21 season, has the flu vaccination been extended to all children. A quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (qLAIV) was administered to children aged 2-17 years for the first time. We registered the number and severity of adverse reactions to (Fluenz Tetra™) and the factors influencing them, evaluated uniformity of access to care and assessed the degree of satisfaction with the vaccination of both parents and health care providers, in order to improve the 2021-22 vaccination program. METHODS: On vaccination day, a questionnaire was given out to collect information about the children and their parents. Between 1 and 3 months later, the parents were contacted to record any adverse reactions following (Fluenz Tetra™) and rate the degree of satisfaction. RESULTS: We received data of 3226 children from 2152 families. Adverse events were reported in 24.8% of children: 80.6% mild, 18.1% moderate and 1.3% significant. The most common were rhinitis (52.5%) and fever (24.4%). Statistical analysis performed with a multiple regression model, showed that children aged 2-5 years have an increased risk of adverse events compared to both 6-10 years old (aRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.9, p < 0. 001) and 11-17 years old (aRR 1.5, 95% CI 1-2.2, p = 0.051). Most families chose to vaccinate their children to protect them and because they were concerned about Covid19. The main channel through which parents became aware of a new flu vaccination was word-of-mouth (39.8%), which occurred mostly among parents of the same school group, followed by information from the child's doctor (30.6%), the Internet (26.9%), personal research (15%), newspapers (4%), telecommunications (7.5%) and other (2.6%). Most parents (83.3%) were very satisfied and intend to vaccinate their children with qLAIV again (83.8%). The majority of operators (93%) considered the experience as excellent and are willing to repeat it (94.6%). CONCLUSION: (Fluenz Tetra™) proved to be easy to administer and the degree of satisfaction was high among both health workers and parents. Considering its substantial safety profile especially in school-age children and adolescents, all these aspects make the nasal qLAIV optimal for widespread immunization. Schools offer the best setting to reach more families and physicians should be actively involved.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Nasal Sprays , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage
19.
Lancet ; 398(10318): 2277-2287, 2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concomitant administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines could reduce burden on health-care systems. We aimed to assess the safety of concomitant administration of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 plus an age-appropriate influenza vaccine. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 4 trial, adults in receipt of a single dose of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 were enrolled at 12 UK sites and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive concomitant administration of either an age-appropriate influenza vaccine or placebo alongside their second dose of COVID-19 vaccine. 3 weeks later the group who received placebo received the influenza vaccine, and vice versa. Participants were followed up for 6 weeks. The influenza vaccines were three seasonal, inactivated vaccines (trivalent, MF59C adjuvanted or a cellular or recombinant quadrivalent vaccine). Participants and investigators were masked to the allocation. The primary endpoint was one or more participant-reported solicited systemic reactions in the 7 days after first trial vaccination(s), with a difference of less than 25% considered non-inferior. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Local and unsolicited systemic reactions and humoral responses were also assessed. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN14391248. FINDINGS: Between April 1 and June 26, 2021, 679 participants were recruited to one of six cohorts, as follows: 129 ChAdOx1 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine, 139 BNT162b2 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine, 146 ChAdOx1 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine, 79 BNT162b2 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine, 128 ChAdOx1 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine, and 58 BNT162b2 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine. 340 participants were assigned to concomitant administration of influenza and a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 followed by placebo at day 21, and 339 participants were randomly assigned to concomitant administration of placebo and a second dose of COVID-19 vaccine at day 0 followed by influenza vaccine at day 21. Non-inferiority was indicated in four cohorts, as follows: ChAdOx1 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine (risk difference for influenza vaccine minus placebos -1·29%, 95% CI -14·7 to 12·1), BNT162b2 plus cellular quadrivalent influenza vaccine (6·17%, -6·27 to 18·6), BNT162b2 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine (-12·9%, -34·2 to 8·37), and ChAdOx1 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine (2·53%, -13·3 to 18·3). In the other two cohorts, the upper limit of the 95% CI exceeded the 0·25 non-inferiority margin (ChAdOx1 plus MF59C adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine 10·3%, -5·44 to 26·0; BNT162b2 plus recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine 6·75%, -11·8 to 25·3). Most systemic reactions to vaccination were mild or moderate. Rates of local and unsolicited systemic reactions were similar between the randomly assigned groups. One serious adverse event, hospitalisation with severe headache, was considered related to the trial intervention. Immune responses were not adversely affected. INTERPRETATION: Concomitant vaccination with ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 plus an age-appropriate influenza vaccine raises no safety concerns and preserves antibody responses to both vaccines. Concomitant vaccination with both COVID-19 and influenza vaccines over the next immunisation season should reduce the burden on health-care services for vaccine delivery, allowing for timely vaccine administration and protection from COVID-19 and influenza for those in need. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Policy Research Programme.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom , Vaccines, Inactivated
20.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 73-84, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improved seasonal influenza vaccines for older adults that can induce broadly cross-reactive antibodies and enhanced T-cell responses, particularly against A H3N2 viruses, while avoiding egg-adaptive antigenic changes, are needed. We aimed to show that the Matrix-M-adjuvanted quadrivalent nanoparticle influenza vaccine (qNIV) was immunologically non-inferior to a licensed, standard-dose quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) in older adults. METHODS: This was a phase 3 randomised, observer-blinded, active-comparator controlled trial done across 19 US community-based clinical research sites during the 2019-20 influenza season. Participants were clinically stable and community-dwelling, aged at least 65 years, and were randomised in a 1:1 ratio using an interactive web response system to receive a single intramuscular dose of qNIV or IIV4. The primary objective was to describe safety and show that qNIV was immunologically non-inferior to IIV4. The primary outcomes were adverse events by treatment group and comparative haemagglutination-inhibiting antibody responses (assayed with egg-propagated virus) on day 28, summarised in terms of the ratio of geometric mean titres (GMTRqNIV/IIV4) and seroconversion rate (SCR) difference between participants receiving qNIV or IIV4 for all four vaccine homologous influenza strains. The immunogenicity outcome was measured in the per-protocol population. Non-inferiority was shown if the lower bound of the two-sided 95% CI on the GMTRqNIV/IIV4 was at least 0·67 and the lower bound of the two-sided 95% CI on the SCR difference -was at least -10%. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04120194, and is active and not recruiting. FINDINGS: 2742 adults were assessed for eligibility and 2654 were enrolled and randomised between Oct 14, 2019, and Oct 25, 2019; 1333 participants were randomised to the qNIV group and 1319 to the IIV4 group (two participants withdrew consent before being assigned to a group). qNIV showed immunological non-inferiority to IIV4: GMTRqNIV/IIV4 for the four vaccine homologous influenza strains was A/Brisbane 1·09 (95% CI 1·03 to 1·15), A/Kansas 1·19 (1·11 to 1·27), B/Maryland 1·03 (0·99 to 1·07), and B/Phuket 1·23 (1·16 to 1·29); and SCR difference was A/Brisbane 5·0 (95% CI 1·9 to 8·1), A/Kansas 7·3 (3·6 to 11·1), B/Maryland 0·5 (-1·9 to 2·9), and B/Phuket 8·5 (5·0 to 11·9). 659 (49·4%) of 1333 of participants in the qNIV group and 551 (41·8%) of 1319 participants in the IIV4 group had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. More solicited adverse events were reported by participants in the qNIV group (551 [41·3%] of 1333) than in the IIV4 group (420 [31·8%] of 1319), and were comprised primarily of mild to moderate transient injection site pain (341 [25·6%] in the qNIV group vs 212 [16·1%] in the IIV4 group). INTERPRETATION: qNIV was well tolerated and produced qualitatively and quantitatively enhanced humoral and cellular immune response in older adults compared with IIV4. qNIV might enhance the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination, and future studies to show clinical efficacy are planned. FUNDING: Novavax.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/standards , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Saponins/administration & dosage , Aged , Female , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Seasons
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