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2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 117, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767581

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to find the direct economic losses due to the three viral causes of the avian respiratory syndrome, including Newcastle disease (ND), H9N2 influenza, and infectious bronchitis (IB) in stamped-out broiler farms during 2016-2017 across the country. This study was carried out on the information on cross-sectional monitoring in the years 2016-2017. The statistical society of the study was all the active broiler farms of the country stamped out due to respiratory syndrome. This study used compensation insurance data, and other sources. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed data. In total, during the study period, 132 broiler farms and 1,723,131 fowls were stamped out. According to the results of the present investigation, the sum of costs and losses due to respiratory complex was 9.47 $US Million, 2016-2017 (5.72 from $US Million chicken meat losses and 3.75 $US Million was the total cost). ND was the main cause of economic losses and costs with 3.86 $US equal to 40.8% of the total. Cost of feeding was the highest followed by veterinary services and medicines, vaccination, and 1-day-old chicks costs with 2.27, 1.11, 0.33, and 0.036 $US Million, 2016-2017. In conclusion, we need to improve the preventive measures against respiratory viruses, especially NDV. Additionally, as the cost of feeding was the largest, it is important to shorten the time interval between disease occurrence and stamping out to reduce the cost.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies , Farms , Financial Stress , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(29): 44175-44185, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669935

ABSTRACT

The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has posed a major threat to global public health. Understanding the spatiotemporal outbreak characteristics and environmental factors of H5N1 outbreaks is of great significance for the establishment of effective prevention and control systems. The time and location of H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds officially confirmed by the World Organization for Animal Health from 2005 to 2019 were collected. Spatial autocorrelation analysis and multidistance spatial agglomeration analysis methods were used to analyze the global outbreak sites of H5N1. Combined with remote sensing data, the correlation between H5N1 outbreaks and environmental factors was analyzed using binary logistic regression methods. We analyzed the correlation between the H5N1 outbreak and environmental factors and finally made a risk prediction for the global H5N1 outbreaks. The results show that the peak of the H5N1 outbreaks occurs in winter and spring. H5N1 outbreaks exhibit aggregation, and a weak aggregation phenomenon is noted on the scale close to 5000 km. Water distance, road distance, railway distance, wind speed, leaf area index (LAI), and specific humidity were protective factors for the outbreak of H5N1, and the odds ratio (OR) were 0.985, 0.989, 0.995, 0.717, 0.832, and 0.935, respectively. Temperature was a risk factor with an OR of 1.073. The significance of these ORs was greater than 95%. The global risk prediction map was obtained. Given that the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is spreading globally, the methods and results of this study can provide a reference for studying the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Poultry
4.
Nature ; 600(7889): 386, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565095
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23223, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553757

ABSTRACT

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been widespread in poultry and wild birds throughout the world for many decades. LPAIV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause subclinical symptoms. However, the genetic reassortment of LPAIVs may generate novel viruses with increased virulence and cross-species transmission, posing potential risks to public health. To evaluate the epidemic potential and infection landscape of LPAIVs in Guangxi Province, China, we collected and analyzed throat and cloacal swab samples from chickens, ducks and geese from the live poultry markets on a regular basis from 2016 to 2019. Among the 7,567 samples, 974 (12.87%) were LPAIVs-positive, with 890 single and 84 mixed infections. Higher yearly isolation rates were observed in 2017 and 2018. Additionally, geese had the highest isolation rate, followed by ducks and chickens. Seasonally, spring had the highest isolation rate. Subtype H3, H4, H6 and H9 viruses were detected over prolonged periods, while H1 and H11 viruses were detected transiently. The predominant subtypes in chickens, ducks and geese were H9, H3, and H6, respectively. The 84 mixed infection samples contained 22 combinations. Most mixed infections involved two subtypes, with H3 + H4 as the most common combination. Our study provides important epidemiological data regarding the isolation rates, distributions of prevalent subtypes and mixed infections of LPAIVs. These results will improve our knowledge and ability to control epidemics, guide disease management strategies and provide early awareness of newly emerged AIV reassortants with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry/virology , Animals , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Influenza A virus/genetics
6.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538547

ABSTRACT

2014 marked the first emergence of avian influenza A(H5N8) in Jeonbuk Province, South Korea, which then quickly spread worldwide. In the midst of the 2020-2021 H5N8 outbreak, it spread to domestic poultry and wild waterfowl shorebirds, leading to the first human infection in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Despite being clinically asymptomatic and without direct human-to-human transmission, the World Health Organization stressed the need for continued risk assessment given the nature of Influenza to reassort and generate novel strains. Given its promiscuity and easy cross to humans, the urgency to understand the mechanisms of possible species jumping to avert disastrous pandemics is increasing. Addressing the epidemiology of H5N8, its mechanisms of species jumping and its implications, mutational and reassortment libraries can potentially be built, allowing them to be tested on various models complemented with deep-sequencing and automation. With knowledge on mutational patterns, cellular pathways, drug resistance mechanisms and effects of host proteins, we can be better prepared against H5N8 and other influenza A viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N8 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Birds/virology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Pandemics/veterinary , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology
7.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3180-3186, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532922

ABSTRACT

The first human case of zoonotic A(H7N4) avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in early 2018 in China. Two months after this case, novel A(H7N4) viruses phylogenetically related to the Jiangsu isolate emerged in ducks from live bird markets in Cambodia. During active surveillance in Cambodia, a novel A(H7N6) reassortant of the zoonotic low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) A(H7N4) was detected in domestic ducks at a slaughterhouse. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel A(H7N6) AIV is a reassortant, in which four gene segments originated from Cambodia A(H7N4) viruses and four gene segments originated from LPAIVs in Eurasia. Animal infection experiments revealed that chickens transmitted the A(H7N6) virus via low-level direct contacts, but ducks did not. Although avian-origin A(H7Nx) LPAIVs do not contain the critical mammalian-adaptive substitution (E627K) in PB2, the lethality and morbidity of the A(H7N6) virus in BALB/c mice were similar to those of A(H7N9) viruses, suggesting potential for interspecies transmission. Our study reports the emergence of a new reassortant of zoonotic A(H7N4) AIVs with novel viral characteristics and emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance of avian-origin A(H7Nx) viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Rodent Diseases , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , China , Ducks , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Reassortant Viruses/genetics
8.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3405-3414, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532918

ABSTRACT

Since its first detection in 1998, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has been enzootic in Iran. To better understand the evolutionary history of H9N2 viruses in Iran, we sequenced 15 currently circulating H9N2 viruses from domestic poultry during 2017-2019 and performed phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Iranian H9N2 viruses formed multiple well-supported monophyletic groups within the G1-lineage of H9N2 virus. Our analysis of viral population dynamics revealed an increase in genetic diversity until 2007, corresponding to the multiple introductions and diversification of H9N2 viruses into multiple genetic groups (named Iran 1-4 subgroups), followed by a sudden decrease after 2008. Only the Iran 4 subgroup has survived, expanded, and currently circulates in Iran. The H9N2 viruses possessed many molecular markers associated with mammalian adaption in all gene segments, except neuraminidase gene. Considering the presence of mammalian host-specific markers, the public health threat of H9N2 viruses continues. Molecular analysis showed that Iranian H9N2 strains have continued to evolve and recent strains have multiple amino acid changes and addition of potential N-glycosylation on the antigenic sites of haemagglutinin. Continued antigenic and molecular surveillance of H9N2 viruses in poultry and mammals would be required to monitor further increments in viral evolution and their potential threat to public health.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Animals , Chickens , Evolution, Molecular , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Poultry
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 127-131, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497592

ABSTRACT

This article aims to understand the changes in the detection rates of H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the live poultry markets (LPMs) in Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19. From 2019 to 2020, we monitored the LPM and collected specimens, using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technology to detect the nucleic acid of type A AIV in the samples. The H5, H7, and H9 subtypes of influenza viruses were further classified for positive results. We analyzed 1,959 samples before and after the outbreak and found that the positive rates of avian influenza A virus (39.69%) and H9 subtype (30.66%) after the outbreak were significantly higher than before the outbreak (26.84% and 20.90%, respectively; P < 0.001). In various LPMs, the positive rate of H9 subtypes has increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Positive rates of the H9 subtype in duck, fecal, daub, and sewage samples, but not chicken samples, have increased to varying degrees. This study shows that additional measures are needed to strengthen the control of AIVs now that LPMs have reopened after the relaxing of COVID-19-related restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Ducks/virology , Environmental Microbiology , Feces/virology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/classification , Poultry , Sewage/virology
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2742-2745, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453200

ABSTRACT

In February 2021, routine sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illness in Cambodia detected a human avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Investigations identified no recent H9N2 virus infections in 43 close contacts. One chicken sample from the infected child's house was positive for H9N2 virus and genetically similar to the human virus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Birds , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2619-2627, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453198

ABSTRACT

The numerous global outbreaks and continuous reassortments of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6/H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in birds pose a major risk to the public health. We investigated the tropism and innate host responses of 5 recent HPAI A(H5N6/H5N8) avian isolates of clades 2.3.4.4b, e, and h in human airway organoids and primary human alveolar epithelial cells. The HPAI A(H5N6/H5N8) avian isolates replicated productively but with lower competence than the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, HPAI A(H5N1), and HPAI A(H5N6) isolates from humans in both or either models. They showed differential cellular tropism in human airway organoids; some infected all 4 major epithelial cell types: ciliated cells, club cells, goblet cells, and basal cells. Our results suggest zoonotic potential but low transmissibility of the HPAI A(H5N6/H5N8) avian isolates among humans. These viruses induced low levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, which are unlikely to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe disease.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N8 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Birds , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5676-5679, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432416

ABSTRACT

Over the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of highly infective avian influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This came as a shock to a country that was already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import bans and massive culls in the poultry business. Local experts have also called for a restriction on the movement of people and cars in and out of their chicken farms. Employees have also been encouraged to shower in the mornings when they arrive at the farms and wear fresh clothes, as the flu spreads very quickly. In a country that is already facing the economic implications of the COVID-19, this has the potential to cause a significant dent in the economy, as well as severely impact people's day-to-day life. Bird flu-also called avian influenza-is a viral infection that can infect not only birds but also humans and other animals. The threat of a new influenza pandemic has prompted countries to draft national strategic preparedness plans to prevent, contain and mitigate the next human influenza pandemic. This paper describes the South African burden, current efforts, and preparedness against the avian influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 688007, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389153

ABSTRACT

Environmental transmission of viruses to humans has become an early warning for potential epidemic outbreaks, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus outbreaks. Recently, an H7N9 virus, A/environment/Hebei/621/2019 (H7N9), was isolated by environmental swabs from a live poultry market in Hebei, China. We found that this isolate could be transmitted by direct contact and aerosol in mammals. More importantly, after 5 passages in mice, the virus acquired two adaptive mutations, PB1-H115Q and B2-E627K, exhibiting increased virulence and aerosol transmissibility. These results suggest that this H7N9 virus might potentially be transmitted between humans through environmental or airborne routes.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mice , Poultry/virology
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 629295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376720

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been a worldwide pandemic, the early surveillance and public health emergency disposal are considered crucial to curb this emerging infectious disease. However, studies of COVID-19 on this topic in China are relatively few. Methods: A case-comparison study was conducted using a set of six key time nodes to form a reference framework for evaluating early surveillance and public health emergency disposal between H7N9 avian influenza (2013) in Shanghai and COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Findings: A report to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China, for the first hospitalized patient was sent after 6 and 20 days for H7N9 avian influenza and COVID-19, respectively. In contrast, the pathogen was identified faster in the case of COVID-19 than in the case of H7N9 avian influenza (12 vs. 31 days). The government response to COVID-19 was 10 days later than that to avian influenza. The entire process of early surveillance and public health emergency disposal lasted 5 days longer in COVID-19 than in H7N9 avian influenza (46 vs. 41 days). Conclusions: The identification of the unknown pathogen improved in China between the outbreaks of avian influenza and COVID-19. The longer emergency disposal period in the case of COVID-19 could be attributed to the government's slower response to the epidemic. Improving public health emergency management could lessen the adverse social effects of emerging infectious diseases and public health crisis in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5676-5679, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252011

ABSTRACT

Over the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of highly infective avian influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This came as a shock to a country that was already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import bans and massive culls in the poultry business. Local experts have also called for a restriction on the movement of people and cars in and out of their chicken farms. Employees have also been encouraged to shower in the mornings when they arrive at the farms and wear fresh clothes, as the flu spreads very quickly. In a country that is already facing the economic implications of the COVID-19, this has the potential to cause a significant dent in the economy, as well as severely impact people's day-to-day life. Bird flu-also called avian influenza-is a viral infection that can infect not only birds but also humans and other animals. The threat of a new influenza pandemic has prompted countries to draft national strategic preparedness plans to prevent, contain and mitigate the next human influenza pandemic. This paper describes the South African burden, current efforts, and preparedness against the avian influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
19.
Front Med ; 15(4): 507-527, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188167

ABSTRACT

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240442, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928214

ABSTRACT

Long endemicity of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype in Egypt poses a lot of threats to public health. Contrary to what is previously known, outbreaks have been circulated continuously in the poultry sectors all year round without seasonality. These changes call the need for epidemiological studies to prove or deny the influence of climate variability on outbreak occurrence, which is the aim of this study. This work proposes a modern approach to examine the degree to which the HPAI-H5N1disease event is being influenced by climate variability as a potential risk factor using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). GEE model revealed that the effect of climate variability differs according to the timing of the outbreak occurrence. Temperature and relative humidity could have both positive and negative effects on disease events. During the cold seasons especially in the first quarter, higher minimum temperatures, consistently show higher risks of disease occurrence, because this condition stimulates viral activity, while lower minimum temperatures support virus survival in the other quarters of the year with the highest negative effect in the third quarter. On the other hand, relative humidity negatively affects the outbreak in the first quarter of the year as the humid weather does not support viral circulation, while the highest positive effect was found in the second quarter during which low humidity favors the disease event.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Animals , Climate Change , Egypt/epidemiology , Poultry , Risk Factors
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