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2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0420722, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241633

ABSTRACT

Backyard farming with limited biosecurity creates a massive potential for zoonotic spillover. Cambodia, a developing nation in Southeast Asia, is a hub for emerging and endemic infectious diseases. Due to pandemic-induced job losses in the tourism sector, rumors suggest that many former Cambodian tour guides have turned to backyard farming as a source of income and food security. A cross-sectional study including 331 tour guides and 69 poultry farmers in Cambodia before and during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was conducted. Participants were administered a survey to assess food security, income, and general farming practices. Survey data were collected to evaluate the risk perceptions for avian influenza virus (AIV), antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and general biosecurity management implemented on these poultry farms. Overall, food security decreased for 80.1% of the tour guides during the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately 21% of the tour guides interviewed used backyard poultry farming to supplement losses of income and food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a significantly higher risk than for traditional poultry farmers. Agricultural intensification in Cambodia due to the COVID-19 pandemic has caused an influx of makeshift farms with limited biosecurity. Inadequate biosecurity measures in animal farms can facilitate spillover and contribute to future pandemics. Improved biosecurity and robust viral surveillance systems are critical for reducing the risk of spillover from backyard farms. IMPORTANCE While this study highlights COVID-19-associated changes in poultry production at a small scale in Cambodia, poultry production is expected to expand due to an increase in the global demand for poultry protein during the pandemic, changes in urbanization, and the reduction of the global pork supply caused by African swine fever (ASF). The global demand and surge in poultry products, combined with inadequate biosecurity methods, can lead to an increased risk of domestic animal and human spillovers of zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenza. Countries in regions of endemicity are often plagued by complex emergency situations (i.e., food insecurity and economic fallouts) that hinder efforts to effectively address the emergence (or reemergence) of zoonotic diseases. Thus, novel surveillance strategies for endemic and emerging infectious diseases require robust surveillance systems and biosecurity training programs to prevent future global pandemics.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Humans , Animals , Swine , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cambodia/epidemiology , Farms , Biosecurity , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Animal Husbandry/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Poultry
3.
Infect Genet Evol ; 104: 105355, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996425

ABSTRACT

The rampant spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus has drawn additional concerns along with ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. Due to its migration-related diffusion, the situation is deteriorating. Without an existing effective therapy and vaccines, it will be baffling to take control measures. In this regard, we propose a revers vaccinology approach for prediction and design of a multi-epitope peptide based vaccine. The induction of humoral and cell-mediated immunity seems to be the paramount concern for a peptide vaccine candidate; thus, antigenic B and T cell epitopes were screened from the surface, membrane and envelope proteins of the avian influenza A (H5N6) virus, and passed through several immunological filters to determine the best possible one. Following that, the selected antigenic with immunogenic epitopes and adjuvant were linked to finalize the multi-epitope-based peptide vaccine by appropriate linkers. For the prediction of an effective binding, molecular docking was carried out between the vaccine and immunological receptors (TLR8). Strong binding affinity and good docking scores clarified the stringency of the vaccines. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation was performed within the highest binding affinity complex to observe the stability, and minimize the designed vaccine's high mobility region to order to increase its stability. Then, Codon optimization and other physicochemical properties were performed to reveal that the vaccine would be suitable for a higher expression at cloning level and satisfactory thermostability condition. In conclusion, predicting the overall in silico assessment, we anticipated that our designed vaccine would be a plausible prevention against avian influenza A (H5N6) virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Computational Biology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptides , Toll-Like Receptor 8 , Vaccines, Subunit
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5676-5679, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432416

ABSTRACT

Over the months of April and May 2021, South Africa has witnessed several outbreaks of highly infective avian influenza (H5N1) in different poultry farms. This came as a shock to a country that was already battling with the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. The emergence of the virus has spurred import bans and massive culls in the poultry business. Local experts have also called for a restriction on the movement of people and cars in and out of their chicken farms. Employees have also been encouraged to shower in the mornings when they arrive at the farms and wear fresh clothes, as the flu spreads very quickly. In a country that is already facing the economic implications of the COVID-19, this has the potential to cause a significant dent in the economy, as well as severely impact people's day-to-day life. Bird flu-also called avian influenza-is a viral infection that can infect not only birds but also humans and other animals. The threat of a new influenza pandemic has prompted countries to draft national strategic preparedness plans to prevent, contain and mitigate the next human influenza pandemic. This paper describes the South African burden, current efforts, and preparedness against the avian influenza virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Animals , Chickens , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
Nanomedicine ; 37: 102438, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306447

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) pose a significant threat to human health, with high mortality rates, and require effective vaccines. We showed that, harnessed with novel RNA-mediated chaperone function, hemagglutinin (HA) of H5N1 HPAIV could be displayed as an immunologically relevant conformation on self-assembled chimeric nanoparticles (cNP). A tri-partite monomeric antigen was designed including: i) an RNA-interaction domain (RID) as a docking tag for RNA to enable chaperna function (chaperna: chaperone + RNA), ii) globular head domain (gd) of HA as a target antigen, and iii) ferritin as a scaffold for 24 mer-assembly. The immunization of mice with the nanoparticles (~46 nm) induced a 25-30 fold higher neutralizing capacity of the antibody and provided cross-protection from homologous and heterologous lethal challenges. This study suggests that cNP assembly is conducive to eliciting antibodies against the conserved region in HA, providing potent and broad protective efficacy.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza in Birds/immunology , RNA/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Birds/virology , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/therapeutic use , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza in Birds/virology , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pandemics , RNA/genetics , RNA/therapeutic use
7.
Virus Res ; 297: 198383, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122464

ABSTRACT

Slightly acidic hypochlorous acid waters (SAHWs) with pH of 5.2-5.8 containing different concentrations of free available chlorine - 62, 119, 220, 300, and 540 ppm (SAHW-62, -119, -220, -300, and -540, respectively) - were evaluated for their virucidal activity toward a low pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) and an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in suspension, abiotic carrier, and direct spray tests, with the presence of organic materials. In the carrier test, the dropping and wiping techniques were performed toward viruses on carriers. In the suspension test, SAHW-62 could decrease the viral titer of both AIV and IBV by more than 1000 times within 30 s. With the dropping technique, IBV on carriers showed high resistance to SAHW, while AIV on plastic carrier was inactivated to an effective level (≧3 log virus reduction) within 1 min. With the wiping technique, SAHW-62 could inactivate both AIV and IBV on wiped plastic carriers to an effective level within 30 s. However, SAHW-220 could not inactivate IBV in the wiping rayon sheet to an effective level. In the direct spray test, sprayed SAHW-300 within 10 min, and SAHW-540 within 20 min, inactivated AIV and IBV on the rayon sheets to undetectable level, respectively. Our study indicates that the usage of wipes with SAHW could remove viruses from plastic carriers, while viruses remained in the wipes. Besides, a small volume of sprayed SAHW was effective against the viruses on the rayon sheets for daily cleaning in the application area. The findings we obtained concerning IBV might basically be applicable in relation to SARS-CoV-2, given the resemblance between the two viruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/drug effects , Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype/drug effects , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dogs , Ducks , Hepatocytes , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
8.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 21-28, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-822641

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific-pathogen-free chickens. Most common field vaccine programmes were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco/SF1/2016 (Mor-H9N2) were thus inoculated to commercial chickens. We showed that vaccination with two heterologous IBV vaccines (H120 at day one and 4/91 at day 14 of age) reduced the severity of clinical signs as well as macroscopic lesions after simultaneous experimental challenge. In addition, LPAI H9N2 vaccination was more efficient at day 7 than at day 1 in limiting disease post simultaneous challenge.RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Simultaneous challenge with IBV and AIV H9N2 induced higher pathogenicity in SPF birds than inoculation with IBV or AIV H9N2 alone.Recommended vaccination programme in commercial broilers to counter Mor-IT02 IBV and LPAIV H9N2 simultaneous infections: IB live vaccine H120 (d1), AIV H9N2 inactivated vaccine (d7), IB live vaccine 4-91 (d14).


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chick Embryo , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Morocco , Oropharynx/virology , Pilot Projects , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Poultry Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Trachea/pathology , Vaccination/veterinary , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Vaccines , Virus Shedding
9.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(8): 823-842, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639090

ABSTRACT

Biological evolution of the microbiome continually drives the emergence of human viral pathogens, a subset of which attack the nervous system. The sheer number of pathogens that have appeared, along with their abundance in the environment, demand our attention. For the most part, our innate and adaptive immune systems have successfully protected us from infection; however, in the past 5 decades, through pathogen mutation and ecosystem disruption, a dozen viruses emerged to cause significant neurologic disease. Most of these pathogens have come from sylvatic reservoirs having made the energetically difficult, and fortuitously rare, jump into humans. But the human microbiome is also replete with agents already adapted to the host that need only minor mutations to create neurotropic/toxic agents. While each host/virus symbiosis is unique, this review examines virologic and immunologic principles that govern the pathogenesis of different viral CNS infections that were described in the past 50 years (Influenza, West Nile Virus, Zika, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Hendra/Nipah, Enterovirus-A71/-D68, Human parechovirus, HIV, and SARS-CoV). Knowledge of these pathogens provides us the opportunity to respond and mitigate infection while at the same time prepare for inevitable arrival of unknown agents.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Birds , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/prevention & control , Ecosystem , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza in Birds/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/prevention & control , West Nile Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zoonoses/prevention & control
10.
Avian Pathol ; 49(6): 529-531, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726975

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 should be a "call to arms" for the poultry industry to reassess containment of the H9N2 subtype of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Strains of this virus are a human pandemic threat and a severe economic burden on poultry production. Over the past 20 years they have spread throughout Asia, Africa, Middle East and parts of Europe. As a global industry, a critical need is to re-imagine production and marketing chains, especially in low and middle-income countries, where the structure of much of the industry facilitates virus transmission, especially, but not only, in improperly managed live poultry markets and related value chains. Better, appropriately matched vaccines are needed to support this process but such vaccines cannot, alone, overcome the existing defects in biosecurity, including high farm densities. None of this will occur unless the threat posed by this virus to global health security is recognized.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Birds , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Global Health , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poultry/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biomed J ; 43(4): 375-387, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic emerging and re-emerging viruses continuously threaten lives worldwide. In order to provide prophylactic prevention from the emerging and re-emerging viruses, vaccine is suggested as the most efficient way to prevent individuals from the threat of viral infection. Nonetheless, the highly pathogenic viruses need to be handled in a high level of biosafety containment, which hinders vaccine development. To shorten the timeframe of vaccine development, the pseudovirus system has been widely applied to examine vaccine efficacy or immunogenicity in the emerging and re-emerging viruses. METHODS: We developed pseudovirus systems for emerging SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and re-emerging avian influenza virus H5 subtypes which can be handled in the biosafety level 2 facility. Through the generated pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 and avian influenza virus H5 subtypes, we successfully established a neutralization assay to quantify the neutralizing activity of antisera against the viruses. RESULTS: The result of re-emerging avian influenza virus H5Nx pseudoviruses provided valuable information for antigenic evolution and immunogenicity analysis in vaccine candidate selection. Together, our study assessed the potency of pseudovirus systems in vaccine efficacy, antigenic analysis, and immunogenicity in the vaccine development of emerging and re-emerging viruses. CONCLUSION: Instead of handling live highly pathogenic viruses in a high biosafety level facility, using pseudovirus systems would speed up the process of vaccine development to provide community protection against emerging and re-emerging viral diseases with high pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Influenza in Birds/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Birds , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Development/methods , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza in Birds/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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