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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1884-1894, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We described the demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and outcomes of patients with a history of cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Second, we compared patients hospitalized with COVID-19 to patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients hospitalized with influenza. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using eight routinely collected health care databases from Spain and the United States, standardized to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model. Three cohorts of patients with a history of cancer were included: (i) diagnosed with COVID-19, (ii) hospitalized with COVID-19, and (iii) hospitalized with influenza in 2017 to 2018. Patients were followed from index date to 30 days or death. We reported demographics, cancer subtypes, comorbidities, and 30-day outcomes. RESULTS: We included 366,050 and 119,597 patients diagnosed and hospitalized with COVID-19, respectively. Prostate and breast cancers were the most frequent cancers (range: 5%-18% and 1%-14% in the diagnosed cohort, respectively). Hematologic malignancies were also frequent, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma being among the five most common cancer subtypes in the diagnosed cohort. Overall, patients were aged above 65 years and had multiple comorbidities. Occurrence of death ranged from 2% to 14% and from 6% to 26% in the diagnosed and hospitalized COVID-19 cohorts, respectively. Patients hospitalized with influenza (n = 67,743) had a similar distribution of cancer subtypes, sex, age, and comorbidities but lower occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of cancer and COVID-19 had multiple comorbidities and a high occurrence of COVID-19-related events. Hematologic malignancies were frequent. IMPACT: This study provides epidemiologic characteristics that can inform clinical care and etiologic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4291-4295, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years. To explore the impact of COVID-19 on vaccination, we fit a model with a logit link (estimated via generalized estimating equations to account for clustering by patient over time) on calendar year, adjusted for race, ethnicity, age, and insurance type. We examined interaction effects of demographic covariates with calendar year. RESULTS: Early vaccination rates were lower in 2020 (29.7%) compared with 2018 and 2019 (34.2% and 33.3%). After adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering over time, the odds of early vaccination in 2020 were 19% lower compared to 2018 (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.78-0.85). In 2020, children with private insurance were more likely to receive early vaccination than in 2018 (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15), whereas children with public insurance were less likely to receive early vaccination in 2020 than in 2018 (OR 0.62, 95% CI: 1.38-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Early influenza vaccination rates declined in a year with a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. Modeling that accounts for individual trends and demographic variables identified specific populations with lower odds of early vaccination in 2020. Additional research is needed to investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacted parental intent to obtain the influenza vaccine, or introduced barriers to healthcare access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(805): 2260-2261, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2207111

ABSTRACT

Réunir les professionnels de la première ligne et les responsables des politiques publiques pour définir les missions et les rôles de chacun.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Humans , Public Health , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(6): 366-374, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198263

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the stability of improvements in global respiratory virus surveillance in countries supported by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after reductions in CDC funding and with the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We assessed whether national influenza surveillance systems of CDC-funded countries: (i) continued to analyse as many specimens between 2013 and 2021; (ii) participated in activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System; (iii) tested enough specimens to detect rare events or signals of unusual activity; and (iv) demonstrated stability before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used CDC budget records and data from the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Findings: While CDC reduced per-country influenza funding by about 75% over 10 years, the number of specimens tested annually remained stable (mean 2261). Reporting varied substantially by country and transmission zone. Countries funded by CDC accounted for 71% (range 61-75%) of specimens included in WHO consultations on the composition of influenza virus vaccines. In 2019, only eight of the 17 transmission zones sent enough specimens to WHO collaborating centres before the vaccine composition meeting to reliably identify antigenic variants. Conclusion: Great progress has been made in the global understanding of influenza trends and seasonality. To optimize surveillance to identify atypical influenza viruses, and to integrate molecular testing, sequencing and reporting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into existing systems, funding must continue to support these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e27433, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt started in 2000 at 8 sentinel sites geographically distributed all over the country. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 was added to the panel of viral testing by polymerase chain reaction for the first 2 patients with ILI seen at one of the sentinel sites. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus co-infection with mild symptoms detected through routine ILI surveillance in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: This report aims to describe how the case was identified and the demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patient. METHODS: The case was identified by Central Public Health Laboratory staff, who contacted the ILI sentinel surveillance officer at the Ministry of Health. The case patient was contacted through a telephone call. Detailed information about the patient's clinical picture, course of disease, and outcome was obtained. The contacts of the patient were investigated for acute respiratory symptoms, disease confirmation, and outcomes. RESULTS: Among 510 specimens collected from patients with ILI symptoms from October 2019 to August 2020, 61 (12.0%) were COVID-19-positive and 29 (5.7%) tested positive for influenza, including 15 (51.7%) A(H1N1), 11 (38.0%) A(H3N2), and 3 (10.3%) influenza B specimens. A 21-year-old woman was confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A(H1N1) virus coinfection. She had a high fever of 40.2 °C and mild respiratory symptoms that resolved within 2 days with symptomatic treatment. All five of her family contacts had mild respiratory symptoms 2-3 days after exposure to the confirmed case, and their symptoms resolved without treatment or investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the possible occurrence of SARS-CoV-2/influenza A(H1N1) coinfection in younger and healthy people, who may resolve the infection rapidly. We emphasize the usefulness of the surveillance system for detection of viral causative agents of ILI and recommend broadening of the testing panel, especially if it can guide case management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sentinel Surveillance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(5-6): In press, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses share a common respiratory symptomatology and transmission mode. COVID-19 and influenza R0 overlapped in the first epidemic wave. In autumn 2021-winter 2022, the influenza epidemic had a delayed onset compared to pre-COVID-19 years and lower incidence rates than in the pre-pandemic period. The SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccination campaign overlapped in 2021-2022. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated cohort the effect of different timing of influenza vaccination on hospitalisations for COVID-19 and overall mortality. DESIGN: prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: subjects aged 65 years or older who were administered the first booster dose of SARS-COV-2 vaccine between 01.10.2021 and 01.03.2022. Based on the date of influenza vaccination, subjects were divided into the following 4 different mutually exclusive groups: 1. two vaccinations in the same vaccination session; 2. influenza vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; 3. influenza vaccination preceding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; 4. no influenza vaccination. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of hospitalisation and death were estimated for the influenza-vaccinated subjects compared to influenza-unvaccinated subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ordinary hospital admissions for COVID-19 and general mortality. RESULTS: the cohort included 618,964 subjects: 16.3% received two vaccinations in the same vaccination session, 8.5% received the influenza vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, 33.9% received it before and 41.1% did not receive an influenza vaccination. Those vaccinated against both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza had a combined HR of 0.73 (0.62-0.86) of hospitalisation for COVID-19 and 0.55 (0.49-0.62) of overall mortality compared to those vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 only. CONCLUSIONS: influenza vaccination combined with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination increases the protective effect against hospitalisations and overall mortality compared to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination alone. Both organisational and communication actions aimed to promote and encourage vaccination are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Italy/epidemiology , Vaccination , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Risk Assessment
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E405-E414, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145537

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are one of the highest priority groups recommended for seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV). Greater awareness of the importance of influenza vaccination was observed among HCWs after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to analyze SIV coverage rates in the 2019-2020, 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 seasons among HCWs employed at the IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino in Genoa, in order to observe how coverage has changed since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Methods: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted among HCWs working at the IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino in Genoa. The vaccinated population was stratified by gender, age, qualification and area of activity, and the characteristics of vaccinated HCWs were analyzed. Results: While SIV coverage was below the recommended target in all seasons, a sharp increase was observed in 2020/2021 (12.8%; 40.9% and 23% in 2019/2020, 2020/2021 and 2021/2022, respectively). The mean and median age of vaccinees also increased during the 2020/2021 vaccination campaign (46.7 and 49 years, respectively) in comparison with the 2019/2020 season (43.5 and 45, respectively). In the 2019/2020 and 2021/2022 seasons, a higher proportion of vaccinees were physicians. Vaccinated females outnumbered males, but the coverage rate resulted greater in males than females in all three seasons. While a higher proportion of vaccinated subjects worked in medical areas, the most evident increase over the three years was seen among subjects working in the services area. Conclusions: This survey highlights the importance of studying the determinants that influence vaccination adherence and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected SIV coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccination Coverage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Italy/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143095

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic event that marked the history of humanity. The virus's transmissibility has primarily prevented the control of the pandemic, so it has become vital to determine and control the dynamics of the population mobility to reduce the epidemiological impact. Considering the above, this paper uses an exposure indicator based on the movement ranges provided by Facebook to determine the dynamics of population mobility in Popayán city for the period after the appearance of COVID-19. Using statistical analysis techniques, it then contrasts the data obtained with the public circulation reports provided by Google and Apple. The results suggest that the exposure indicator is reliable and presents moderate to strong linear relationships for the public data, which implies that it can be an additional resource for decision-making to curb the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Colombia , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Population Dynamics
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950469, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142320

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, surveillance systems worldwide underestimated mortality in real time due to longer death reporting lags. In Spain, the mortality monitor "MoMo" published downward biased excess mortality estimates daily. I study the correction of such bias using polynomial regressions in data from January to March 2021 for Spain and the Comunitat Valenciana, the region with the highest excess mortality. Methods: This adjustment for real-time statistics consisted of (1) estimating forthcoming revisions with polynomial regressions of past revisions, and (2) multiplying the daily-published excess mortality by these estimated revisions. The accuracy of the corrected estimates compared to the original was measured by contrasting their mean absolute errors (MAE) and root mean square errors (RMSE). Results: Applying quadratic and cubic regressions improved the first communication of cumulative mortality in Spain by 2-3%, on average, and the flow in registered deaths by 20%. However, for the Comunitat Valenciana, those corrections improved the first publications of the cumulative mortality by 36-45%, on average; their second publication, by 23-30%; and the third, by 15-21%. The flow of deaths registered each day improved by 62-63% on their first publication, by 19-36% on the second, and by 12-17% on the third. Conclusion: It is recommended that MoMo's estimates for excess mortality be corrected from the effect of death reporting lags by using polynomial regressions. This holds for the flows in each date and their cumulative sum, as well as national and regional data. These adjustments can be applied by surveillance systems in other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Communication
15.
Orv Hetil ; 163(40): 1585-1596, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140901

ABSTRACT

The different types of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure are highly prevalent in the society. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality. Although the influenza is forced out from the mainstream of thinking nowadays because of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it still has its serious epidemiological significance. The seasonal influenza epidemic often contributes to mortality mainly, but not exclusively among old, multi-morbid patients. There are a vast number of scientific publications and evidence which prove and emphasize the synergic health-destroying and mortality-increasing effect of co-existing cardiovascular disease and influenza. Moreover, the beneficial effect of vaccination against influenza infection and its major role in prevention is also well documented. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic enforces the importance of influenza vaccination because both viruses can lead to severe or often fatal disease, especially among old and frail patients. In addition, the younger population can be far more vulnerable against the novel coronavirus in the case of a co-existing influenza infection. International guidelines recommend influenza vaccination for patients having heart disease, like for other high-risk populations. Despite the nationally reimbursed, cost-free vaccines, the influenza vaccination rate of the society is still low not just in Hungary but also internationally. The authors review the effect of influenza infection on heart diseases, and draw attention to the role of influenza vaccination in decreasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(40): 1585-1596.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Mentha , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140682

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we study the relationship between trust and COVID-19 vaccination intentions. Vaccinating a large share of the population is essential for containing the COVID-19 pandemic. However, many individuals refuse to get vaccinated, which might be related to a lack of trust. Using unique survey data from Lithuania during the COVID-19 pandemic, we show that trust in government authorities, science, and pharmaceutical companies are important predictors of individual vaccination intentions. We do not find evidence that trust in strangers, the healthcare system, or the media predict intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Trust , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Lithuania/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination
17.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140678

ABSTRACT

Little is publicly known about the conditions surrounding the emergence of COVID in China. Using two nationally representative datasets, the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we engage in a descriptive analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of lung and other diseases before 2019. In both datasets, the incidence of lung disease in 2018 was elevated in Hubei province relative to other provinces. The incidence of psychiatric and nervous system disease was elevated as well. Overall, the evidence is consistent with many possible explanations. One conjecture is that there was an outbreak of influenza in central China, which implies the conditions that increased the susceptibility to influenza also facilitated the later spread of COVID. Another conjecture, though less likely, is that COVID was circulating at low levels in the population in central China during 2018. This study calls for more investigation to understand the conditions surrounding the emergence of COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Retirement
18.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0274024, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140502

ABSTRACT

To limit an infectious outbreak, the public must be informed about the infection risk and be motivated to comply with infection control measures. Perceiving a situation as threatening and seeing benefits to complying may be necessary to motivate for compliance. The current study used a preregistered survey experiment with a 2-by-2 between-subject design to investigate if emphasizing high infection risk and appealing to societal benefits impacted intention to comply with infection control measures. The results from a representative Norwegian sample (N = 2533) show that describing a high (as opposed to low) personal risk scenario had a small main effect on compliance. Further, appealing to public (as opposed to self-interested) benefits also had a small main effect. There was no interaction between risk scenario and motivational emphasis. The results suggest that to maximize compliance, information about disease outbreak should emphasize the individual risk of contracting the disease, and could also underline the public value of limiting infection spread. These findings can inform health authorities about the motives underlying compliance with infection control measures during an infectious disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Infection Control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062724, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical severity and outcome of hospitalised patients during the two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. SETTING: A tertiary care referral hospital in South India. PARTICIPANTS: Symptomatic SARS CoV-2 reverse transcriptase PCR positive patients presenting to the emergency department during the two waves were recruited. The first wave spanned between April and December 2020 and the second wave between April and May 2021. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of interest was mortality. Secondary outcomes included illness severity at presentation, need for oxygen therapy, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and hospital or intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the 4971 hospitalised patients in the first wave was similar to the 2293 patients in the second wave (52.5±15.4 vs 52.1±15.1 years, p=0.37). When compared with the first wave, during the second wave, a higher proportion of patients presented with critical illness (11% vs 1.1%, p<0.001) and needed supplemental oxygen therapy (n=2092: 42.1% vs n=1459: 63.6%; p<0.001), NIV (n=643; 12.9% vs n=709; 30.9%; p<0.001) or inotropes/vasoactive drugs (n=108; 2.2% vs n=77: 3.4%; p=0.004). Mortality was higher during the second wave (19.2% vs 9.3%; p<0.001). On multivariable regression analysis, age >60 years (risk ratio, RR 2.80; 95% CI 2.12 to 3.70), D-dimer >1000 ng/mL (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.55), treatment with supplemental oxygen (RR 14.6; 95% CI 8.98 to 23.6) and presentation during the second wave (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.62) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India appeared to be associated with more severe presentation and higher mortality when compared with the first wave. Increasing age, elevated D-dimer levels and treatment with supplemental oxygen were independent predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Oxygen
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19832, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133608

ABSTRACT

The promise of COVID-19 vaccines in ending the pandemic can only be achieved by overcoming the challenge of vaccine refusal. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are the trusted advisors of vaccination decisions. Recommendations for vaccinating children against COVID-19 are recently gaining more public health attention due to the role of children in disease transmission and associated morbidities. Vaccination is one of the first medical decisions parents or guardians make on behalf of their children. To investigate the determinants associated with vaccine acceptability among the general population through a direct interview questionnaire and assess guardians' views towards childhood COVID-19 vaccinations. This cross-sectional study included 2919 participants A pre-designed structured questionnaire about COVID-19 vaccination acceptability was completed by trained interviewers and interviewing the participants or their guardians (for those below 18 years old). Nearly two-thirds of participants (66.5%) accepted vaccination, 20.2% were refusing and 13.3% were hesitant. Most participants who were guardians of children below 12 years and from 13 to 17 years reported that they would accept vaccination of their children (72.5% and 70.5%, respectively). The acceptance rate among HCWs was 58.2%. The main reasons beyond vaccine refusal were mistrust of vaccine efficacy (39.5%) and having concerns regarding vaccine safety (38.8%). In a multivariable regression model, being male (OR 1.362, 95% CI 1.082-1.714, p = 0.008) resident in rural area (OR 1.796, 95% CI 1.435-2.247, p = 0.000), and lower education (OR 1.245, 95% CI 1.018-1.523, p = 0.033) were associated with an increased acceptance to be vaccinated. The acceptance rate for vaccinating children reported among their guardians was higher than adults for themselves. Extremes of age showed higher vaccine acceptance compared to young adults. Upper Egypt governorates (Faiyum and Giza) were outpacing Lower Egypt governorates in vaccination acceptance rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Young Adult , Child , Male , Adolescent , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intersectional Framework , Health Personnel
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