Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 195
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1797-1804, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023649

ABSTRACT

In a short time, humanity has experienced two pandemics: the influenza A virus pandemic (pH1N1) in 2009 and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. Therefore, it is likely that the general population will erroneously seek to compare the two pandemics and adopt similar attitudes in facing them. However, the two pandemics have their intrinsic characteristics that distinguish them considerably; for example, the virulence of the infectious agents and the availability of treatment and vaccine. Consequently, given this knowledge gap between the pH1N1 and COVID-19 pandemics, we conducted this review to clarify and summarize, above all, the epidemiological historical aspects of these two viruses of great importance to global public health.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Epidemics , Global Health , Humans
3.
Am J Public Health ; 110(12): 1817-1824, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021766

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To identify spatiotemporal patterns of epidemic spread at the community level.Methods. We extracted influenza cases reported between 2016 and 2019 and COVID-19 cases reported in March and April 2020 from a hospital network in Rhode Island. We performed a spatiotemporal hotspot analysis to simulate a real-time surveillance scenario.Results. We analyzed 6527 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases and identified microepidemics in more than 1100 neighborhoods, and more than half of the neighborhoods that had hotspots in a season became hotspots in the next season. We used data from 731 COVID-19 cases, and we found that a neighborhood was 1.90 times more likely to become a COVID-19 hotspot if it had been an influenza hotspot in 2018 to 2019.Conclusions. The use of readily available hospital data allows the real-time identification of spatiotemporal trends and hotspots of microepidemics.Public Health Implications. As local governments move to reopen the economy and ease physical distancing, the use of historic influenza hotspots could guide early prevention interventions, while the real-time identification of hotspots would enable the implementation of interventions that focus on small-area containment and mitigation.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza A virus , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance , Rhode Island/epidemiology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011420

ABSTRACT

The medical burden caused by respiratory manifestations of influenza virus (IV) outbreak as an infectious respiratory disease is so great that governments in both developed and developing countries have allocated significant national budget toward the development of strategies for prevention, control, and treatment of this infection, which is seemingly common and treatable, but can be deadly. Frequent mutations in its genome structure often result in resistance to standard medications. Thus, new generations of treatments are critical to combat this ever-evolving infection. Plant materials and active compounds have been tested for many years, including, more recently, active compounds like flavonoids. Quercetin is a compound belonging to the flavonols class and has shown therapeutic effects against influenza virus. The focus of this review includes viral pathogenesis as well as the application of quercetin and its derivatives as a complementary therapy in controlling influenza and its related symptoms based on the targets. We also touch on the potential of this class of compounds for treatment of SARS-COV-2, the cause of new pandemic.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza, Human , Quercetin/therapeutic use , /metabolism , /drug therapy , /metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/metabolism
7.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1549-1555, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995989

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since then the novel coronavirus pneumonia disease has been spreading quickly and many countries and territories have been affected, with major outbreaks in China, South Korea, Italy, and Iran. Influenza virus has been known as a common pathogen in winter and it can cause pneumonia. It was found clinically that very few patients were diagnosed with both COVID-19 and influenza virus. A total of 5 of the 115 patients confirmed with COVID-19 were also diagnosed with influenza virus infection, with three cases being influenza A and two cases being influenza B. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics of those patients who got infected with COVID-19 as well as influenza virus. Common symptoms at onset of illness included fever (five [100%] patients), cough (five [100%] patients), shortness of breath (five [100%] patients), nasal tampon (three [60%] patients), pharyngalgia (three [60%] patients), myalgia (two [40%] patients), fatigue (two [40%] patients), headache (two [40%] patients), and expectoration (two [40%] patients). The laboratory results showed that compared to the normal values, the patients' lymphocytes were reduced (four [80%] patients), and liver functions alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (two [40%] patients and two [40%] patients) and C-reactive protein (four [80%] patients) were increased when admitted to hospital. They stayed in the hospital for 14, 30, 17, 12, and 19 days (28.4 ± 7.02), respectively. The main complications for the patients were acute respiratory distress syndrome (one [20%] patients), acute liver injury (three [60%] patients), and diarrhea (two [40%] patients). All patients were given antiviral therapy (including oseltamivir), oxygen inhalation, and antibiotics. Three patients were treated with glucocorticoids including two treated with oral glucocorticoids. One of the five patients had transient hemostatic medication for hemoptysis. Fortunately, all patients did not need intensive care unit and were discharged from the hospital without death. In conclusion, those patients with both COVID-19 and influenza virus infection did not appear to show a more severe condition because based on the laboratory findings, imaging studies, and patient prognosis, they showed similar clinical characteristics as those patients with COVID-19 infection only. However, it is worth noting that the symptoms of nasal tampon and pharyngalgia may be more prone to appear for those coinfection patients.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Coinfection , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Biomarkers , /virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/virology , Patient Outcome Assessment , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Public Health Surveillance , Symptom Assessment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244174, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992709

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic infecting millions of people, large-scale isolation policies have been enacted across the globe. To assess the impact of isolation measures on deaths, hospitalizations, and economic output, we create a mathematical model to simulate the spread of COVID-19, incorporating effects of restrictive measures and segmenting the population based on health risk and economic vulnerability. Policymakers make isolation policy decisions based on current levels of disease spread and economic damage. For 76 weeks in a population of 330 million, we simulate a baseline scenario leaving strong isolation restrictions in place, rapidly reducing isolation restrictions for non-seniors shortly after outbreak containment, and gradually relaxing isolation restrictions for non-seniors. We use 76 weeks as an approximation of the time at which a vaccine will be available. In the baseline scenario, there are 235,724 deaths and the economy shrinks by 34.0%. With a rapid relaxation, a second outbreak takes place, with 525,558 deaths, and the economy shrinks by 32.3%. With a gradual relaxation, there are 262,917 deaths, and the economy shrinks by 29.8%. We also show that hospitalizations, deaths, and economic output are quite sensitive to disease spread by asymptomatic people. Strict restrictions on seniors with very gradual lifting of isolation for non-seniors results in a limited number of deaths and lesser economic damage. Therefore, we recommend this strategy and measures that reduce non-isolated disease spread to control the pandemic while making isolation economically viable.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , /transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/virology , Public Policy , /pathogenicity
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242954, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992692

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses and influenza viruses have similarities and differences. In order to comprehensively compare them, their genome sequencing data were examined by principal component analysis. Coronaviruses had fewer variations than a subclass of influenza viruses. In addition, differences among coronaviruses that infect a variety of hosts were also small. These characteristics may have facilitated the infection of different hosts. Although many of the coronaviruses were conservative, those repeatedly found among humans showed annual changes. If SARS-CoV-2 changes its genome like the Influenza H type, it will repeatedly spread every few years. In addition, the coronavirus family has many other candidates for new pandemics.


Subject(s)
/virology , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Seasons , /epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Principal Component Analysis , /genetics
10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 403, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the overlapping clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza, parallels are often drawn between the two diseases. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at a higher risk for severe manifestations of both illnesses. Considering the high transmission rate of COVID-19 and with the seasonal influenza approaching in late 2020, the dual epidemics of COVID-19 and influenza pose serious cardiovascular implications. This review highlights the similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19 and the potential risks associated with coincident pandemics. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 has a higher mortality compared to influenza with case fatality rate almost 15 times more than that of influenza. Additionally, a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes has been noted in patients with CVD, with ~ 15 to 70% of COVID-19 related deaths having an underlying CVD. The critical care need have ranged from 5 to 79% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, a proportion substantially higher than with influenza. Similarly, the frequency of vascular thrombosis including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is markedly higher in COVID-19 patients compared with influenza in which vascular complications are rarely seen. Unexpectedly, while peak influenza season is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations, a decrease of ~ 50% in cardiovascular hospitalizations has been observed since the first diagnosed case of COVID-19, owing in part to deferred care. CONCLUSION: In the coming months, increasing efforts towards evaluating new interventions will be vital to curb COVID-19, especially as peak influenza season approaches. Currently, not enough data exist regarding co-infection of COVID-19 with influenza or how it would progress clinically, though it may cause a significant burden on an already struggling health care system. Until an effective COVID-19 vaccination is available, high coverage of influenza vaccination should be of utmost priority.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Male , Middle Aged
14.
J Infect Dis ; 222(11): 1780-1783, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967699

ABSTRACT

To suppress the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese government has implemented nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Because COVID-19 and influenza have similar means of transmission, NPIs targeting COVID-19 may also affect influenza transmission. In this study, the extent to which NPIs targeting COVID-19 have affected seasonal influenza transmission was explored. Indicators of seasonal influenza activity in the epidemiological year 2019-2020 were compared with those in 2017-2018 and 2018-2019. The incidence rate of seasonal influenza reduced by 64% in 2019-2020 (P < .001). These findings suggest that NPIs aimed at controlling COVID-19 significantly reduced seasonal influenza transmission in China.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , /transmission , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/transmission , Pandemics , Public Health , Seasons
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243408, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966664

ABSTRACT

We study a novel multi-strain SIR epidemic model with selective immunity by vaccination. A newer strain is made to emerge in the population when a preexisting strain has reached equilbrium. We assume that this newer strain does not exhibit cross-immunity with the original strain, hence those who are vaccinated and recovered from the original strain become susceptible to the newer strain. Recent events involving the COVID-19 virus shows that it is possible for a viral strain to emerge from a population at a time when the influenza virus, a well-known virus with a vaccine readily available, is active in a population. We solved for four different equilibrium points and investigated the conditions for existence and local stability. The reproduction number was also determined for the epidemiological model and found to be consistent with the local stability condition for the disease-free equilibrium.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Epidemics , Models, Biological , /prevention & control , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(12): 828-829, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962407

ABSTRACT

Cheryl Cohen talks to Gary Humphreys about how the COVID-19 pandemic is encouraging respiratory disease surveillance collaboration in South Africa.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Policy , Population Surveillance/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , /transmission , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Politics , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Risk Factors , South Africa/epidemiology
17.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 47(6): 621-622, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953891

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect most aspects of daily life, and looking for ways to cope and adapt in this altered state is a priority. Days of unsettling changes have turned into weeks, months, and, most likely, at least a year or more until an effective vaccine is distributed worldwide. COVID-19 has disrupted societies across the world, with a global scope that is unprecedented, ongoing, and without a demarcated end. Combined with the political turmoil related to the presidential election in the United States, environmental turmoil including widespread fires, and ongoing structural barriers (most notably systemic racism), 2020 has been, for most, a year that will live on in our minds long after the pandemic ends. .


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Influenza, Human , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Uncertainty
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 910, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both COVID-19 and influenza A contribute to increased mortality among the elderly and those with existing comorbidities. Changes in the underlying immune mechanisms determine patient prognosis. This study aimed to analyze the role of lymphocyte subsets in the immunopathogenesisof COVID-19 and severe influenza A, and examined the clinical significance of their alterations in the prognosis and recovery duration. METHODS: By retrospectively reviewing of patients in four groups (healthy controls, severe influenza A, non-severe COVID-19 and severe COVID-19) who were admitted to Ditan hospital between 2018 to 2020, we performed flow cytometric analysis and compared the absolute counts of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and lymphocyte subsets of the patients at different time points (weeks 1-4). RESULTS: We reviewed the patients' data of 94 healthy blood donors, 80 Non-severe-COVID-19, 19 Severe-COVID-19 and 37 severe influenza A. We found total lymphocytes (0.81 × 109/L vs 1.74 × 109/L, P = 0.001; 0.87 × 109/L vs 1.74 × 109/L, P < 0.0001, respectively) and lymphocyte subsets (T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets) of severe COVID-19 and severe influenza A patients to be significantly lower than those of healthy donors at early infection stages. Further, significant dynamic variations were observed at different time points (weeks 1-4). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the plausible role of lymphocyte subsets in disease progression, which in turn affects prognosis and recovery duration in patients with severe COVID-19 and influenza A.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Beijing/epidemiology , /epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2273, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies focusing on pediatric patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been limited to small case series. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of a large population of pediatric patients with severe COVID-19 and compare them with patients with severe cases of influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of Brazilian data from the National Epidemiological Surveillance Information System, gathered from January 1st to July 14th, 2020. The sample included 4,784 patients (2,570 with confirmed COVID-19, 659 with influenza, 1,555 with ORV). Outcome measures included clinical features, preexisting comorbidities, pediatric intensive care unit admissions, need for ventilatory support, and death. RESULTS: Compared with the influenza and ORV groups, the COVID-19 group had a higher proportion of newborns and adolescents, as well as lower frequencies of fever, cough, dyspnea, respiratory distress, and desaturation. Although use of invasive ventilatory support was similar among groups, death rate was highest for COVID-19 (15.2% vs. 4.5% vs. 3.2%, p<0.001), with death risk more than three times the other groups (adjusted OR=3.7 [95% CI 2.5-5.6]). The presence of two or more comorbidities further increased this risk (OR=4.8 [95% CI 3.5-6.6]). Preexisting comorbidities were reported in 986 patients with severe COVID-19 (38%). Mortality rate among COVID-19 patients was significantly higher for almost all comorbidities reported. CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 had a higher mortality rate than other viral respiratory illnesses, despite the lower frequency of fever, cough, dyspnea, respiratory distress, and desaturation. Death risk was strongly associated with preexisting comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL