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1.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 25(1): e13998, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been raging since the end of 2019 and has shown worse outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The clinical differences as well as outcomes between respiratory viruses have not been well defined in this population. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adult SOT recipients with nasopharyngeal swab or bronchoalveolar lavage PCR positive for either SARS-CoV-2, seasonal coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza virus from January 2017 to October 2020. The follow up period was 3 months. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 377 recipients including 157 SARS-CoV-2, 70 seasonal coronavirus, 50 RSV and 100 influenza infections were identified. The most common transplanted organ was kidney 224/377 (59.4%). Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was found in 210/377 (55.7%) and the risk factors identified with multivariable analysis were SARS-CoV-2 infection, steroid use, and older age. Co- and secondary infections were seen in 77/377 (20.4%) recipients with bacterial pathogens as dominant. Hospital admission was seen in 266/377 (67.7%) recipients without significant statistical difference among viruses, however, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality were higher with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the multivariable model, the risk factors for mortality were SARS-CoV-2 infection and older age. CONCLUSIONS: We found higher incidence of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality among SARS-CoV-2 infected recipients. Older age was found to be the risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection and mortality for SARS-CoV-2, coronaviruses, RSV and influenza virus groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Organ Transplantation , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Transplant Recipients
2.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3684-3689, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009-2010. METHODS: This study was conducted within a prospective birth-cohort study (STEPS Study), where children born in 2008-2010 are followed from pregnancy to adulthood. Demographic and socioeconomic factors of parents were collected through questionnaires and vaccination data from electronic registers. Before and after the birth of the child, the mother's and father's individual and relational psychosocial well-being, i.e. depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with the relationship, experienced social and emotional loneliness, and maternal anxiety during pregnancy, were measured by validated questionnaires (BDI-II, RDAS, PRAQ, and UCLA). RESULTS: Of 1020 children aged 6-20 months at the beginning of pandemic influenza vaccinations, 820 (80%) received and 200 (20%) did not receive the vaccine against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. All measures of parents' psychosocial well-being were similar between vaccinated and non-vaccinated children. Children of younger mothers had a higher risk of not receiving the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine than children of older mothers (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.52-4.43, for mothers < 27.7 years compared to ≥ 33.6 years of age). Children of mothers with lower educational level had an increased risk of not receiving the vaccine (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.00-2.14). CONCLUSIONS: Mother's younger age and lower education level were associated with an increased risk for the child not to receive the 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine, but individual or relational psychosocial well-being of parents was not associated with children's vaccination. Our findings suggest that young and poorly educated mothers should receive targeted support in order to promote children's vaccinations during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Parents/psychology , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors , Vaccination
3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(12): e24100, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore clinical indexes for management of severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, influenza A H7N9, and H1N1 pneumonia by comparing hematological and radiological characteristics. METHODS: Severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, H7N9, and H1N1 pneumonia were retrospectively enrolled. The demographic data, clinical manifestations, hematological parameters, and radiological characteristics were compared. RESULTS: In this study, 16 cases of COVID-19, 10 cases of H7N9, and 13 cases of H1N1 who met severe/critically ill criteria were included. Compared with COVID-19, H7N9 and H1N1 groups had more chronic diseases (80% and 92.3% vs. 25%, p < 0.05), higher APACHE Ⅱ scores (16.00 ± 8.63 and 15.08 ± 6.24, vs. 5.50 ± 2.58, p < 0.05), higher mortality rates (40% and 46.2% vs. 0%, p < 0.05), significant lymphocytopenia (0.59 ± 0.31 × 109 /L and 0.56 ± 0.35 × 109 /L vs. 0.97 ± 0.33 × 109 /L, p < 0.05), and elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; 14.67 ± 6.10 and 14.64 ± 10.36 vs. 6.29 ± 3.72, p < 0.05). Compared with the H7N9 group, ground-glass opacity (GGO) on chest CT was common in the COVID-19 group (p = 0.028), while pleural effusion was rare (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The NLR can be used as a clinical parameter for the predication of risk stratification and outcome in COVID-19 and influenza A pneumonia. Manifestations of pleural effusion or GGO in chest CT may be helpful for the identification of different viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/etiology , Chronic Disease , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors
6.
World J Pediatr ; 17(3): 272-279, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It had been documented in many studies that pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by low infectivity rates, low mortalities, and benign disease course. On the other hand, influenza type A viruses are recognized to cause severe and fatal infections in children populations worldwide. This study is aimed to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza infections. METHODS: A retrospective study comprising 107 children hospitalized at Abha Maternity and Children Hospital, Southern region of Saudi Arabia, with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza infections was carried out. A complete follow-up for all patients from the hospital admission until discharge or death was made. The clinical data and laboratory parameters for these patients were collected from the medical records of the hospital. RESULTS: Out of the total enrolled patients, 73 (68.2%) were diagnosed with COVID-19, and 34 (31.8%) were diagnosed with H1N1 influenza. The median age is 12 months for COVID-19 patients and 36 months for influenza patients. A relatively higher number of patients with influenza had a fever and respiratory symptoms than COVID-19 patients. In contrast, gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in a higher number of COVID-19 patients than in influenza patients. A statistically significant increase in white cell counts is noted in COVID-19 but not in influenza patients (P < 0.05). There are no obvious variations in the mean period of duration of hospitalization between COVID-19 and influenza patients. However, the total intensive care unit length of stay was longer for influenza compared to COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable number of children infected with COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza were noted and reported in this study. There were no significant variations in the severity of the symptomatology and laboratory findings between the two groups of patients. Significant differences between these patients in some hospitalization factors and diagnosis upon admission also were not observed. However, more severe clinical manifestations and serious consequences were observed among pediatric patients hospitalized with influenza infections than among those with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child, Hospitalized , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 412, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019, more than 8 million cases have occurred worldwide as of June 16, 2020. However, it is important to distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza. Here, we comparatively described the clinical characteristics of children with COVID-19 and paediatric patients with influenza. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-centre study, we reviewed the electronic medical records of 585 paediatric patients with COVID-19 or influenza in Wuhan Children's Hospital, China. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were comparatively analysed. RESULTS: The median ages were 6.96 years (IQR, 2-10.81) for children with confirmed COVID-19, 2.67 years (IQR, 1.03-15.25) for those with influenza A and 3.67 years (IQR, 1.62-5.54) for those with influenza B. Fever was a symptom in 84 (34.7%) COVID-19 cases, 132 (70.21%) influenza A cases and 111 (74.50%) influenza B cases. The median length of stay (LOS) was 11 (8-15) days for paediatric COVID-19 patients, 4 (3-6) days for influenza A patients and 5 (3-6) days for influenza B patients. Twenty-six (13.98%) influenza A patients and 18 (12.59%) influenza B patients presented with decreased white blood cell counts, while 13 (5.33%) COVID-19 patients presented with decreased white blood cell counts. Eight (3.28%) COVID-19 patients, 23 (12.71%) influenza A patients and 21 (14.79%) influenza B patients experienced lymphocytopenia. Acute cardiac injury occurred in 18 (7.29%) COVID-19 patients, while 37 (19.68%) influenza A and 27 (18.12%) influenza B patients had acute cardiac injury. CONCLUSION: In this study, the illnesses of children with COVID-19 were demonstrated to be less severe than those of paediatric patients with influenza, and COVID-19 patients had milder illness and fewer complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/etiology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Aten Primaria ; 53(5): 102021, 2021 May.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196671

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study seeks to analyse sociodemographic determinants related to severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and calculate the priorization index in the cantons of Ecuador to identify areas probably most vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission. DESIGN: This descriptive ecological observational study. SETTING: 224 cantons (geographical area) of Ecuador with secondary data sources of hospital information. PARTICIPANTS: The unit of measurement was 224 cantons of Ecuador, in which analysed morbidity and lethality rates for SARI using hospital release data (2016-2018). MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Eight sociodemographic indicators were structuralized, and correlation tests applied for a multiple regression model. The priorization index was created with criteria of efficiency, efficacy, effect size (IRR) and equity. Using the sum of the index for each indicator, the priorization score was calculated and localized in a territorial map. RESULTS: Morbidity associated factors where: school attendance years, urbanization and population density; for mortality resulted: school attendance and ethnics (indigenous) IRR: 1.09 (IC95%:1.06-1.15) and IRR: 1.024 (IC95%:102-1.03) respectively. With lethality where related cantons, with population older than 60 years, IRR: 1.049 (IC95%: 1.03-1.07); 87 cantons had high priority mostly localized in the mountain region and the Morona Santiago Province. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity and mortality of SARI in Ecuador are associated to social and demographic factors. Priorization exercises considering these factors permit the identification of vulnerable territories facing respiratory disease propagation. The social determinants characteristic for each territory should be added to known individual factors to analyse the risk and vulnerability for COVID in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Social Determinants of Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Ecuador/epidemiology , Environment , Female , Geographic Mapping , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations , Young Adult
9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(1): 236-243, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060086

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza vaccination for all patients with solid organ malignancies prior to initiating chemotherapy. Baseline vaccination rates (March 2019) for pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza at our tertiary cancer centre were 8% and 40%, respectively. The aim of this study was to increase the number of gynecologic chemotherapy patients receiving pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations to 80% by March 2020. METHODS: We performed an interrupted time series study using structured quality improvement methodology. Three interventions were introduced to address vaccination barriers: an in-house vaccination program, a staff education campaign, and a patient care bundle (pre-printed prescription, information brochure, vaccine record booklet). Process and outcome data were collected by patient survey and pharmacy audit and analyzed on statistical process control charts. RESULTS: We identified 195 eligible patients. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination rates rose significantly from 5% to a monthly mean of 61% and from 36% to a monthly mean of 67%, respectively. The 80% target was reached for both vaccines during one or more months of study. The in-house vaccination and staff education programs were major contributors to the improvement, whereas the information brochure and record booklet were minor contributors. CONCLUSIONS: Three interventions to promote pneumococcal and influenza vaccination among chemotherapy patients resulted in significantly improved vaccination rates. Lessons learned about promoting vaccine uptake may be generalizable to different populations and vaccine types. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, initiatives to expand the program to all chemotherapy patients at our centre are underway.


Subject(s)
Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/drug therapy , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Influenza, Human/etiology , Ontario , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/etiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Professional-Patient Relations , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration
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