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2.
Cephalalgia ; 40(13): 1406-1409, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904038

ABSTRACT

New daily persistent headache was first documented in the medical literature in the 1980s. The leading trigger is a viral illness. As we navigate our way thru the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, looking back at past viral epidemics may help guide us for what to expect in the near future in regard to headaches as a persistent manifestation of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The 1890 viral pandemic known as the "Russian or Asiatic flu", has extensive documentation about the neurologic sequelae that presented months to years after the pandemic ended. One of the complications was daily persistent headache. There are actually many similarities between the viral presentation of the 1890 pandemic and the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which may then suggest that not only will NDPH be part of the neurological sequelae but a possible key consequence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/virology , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/history , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , History, 19th Century , Humans , Pandemics , Russia
4.
Med Confl Surviv ; 36(4): 315-332, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759793

ABSTRACT

This essay challenges generalizations since the late enlightenment about the effects of epidemics and pandemics on collective mentalities: that from antiquity to the present, epidemics, regardless of the disease, have sparked distrust, social violence, and the blaming of others. By contrast, the pandemic that killed the greatest numbers in world history-the Influenza of 1918-20 - was a pandemic of compassion. No one has yet to uncover this pandemic sparking collective violence or blaming any minorities for spreading the disease anywhere in the globe. The essay then explores the variety of charitable reactions and abnegation that cut across social divisions in communities from theatres of war in Europe to nations thousands of miles from the direct military encounters. Most remarkable, however, was the overflowing volunteerism of women, especially in the US, Canada, and Australia. To explain this widespread charitable reaction, the essay investigates the milieu of the First World War, showing how that context in domestic war settings was not conducive to risking life to aid total strangers, especially when those strangers came from different foreign countries classes, races, or religious faiths. I end with a reflection on the unfolding socio-psychological reactions to Covid-19 from the perspective of 1918-20.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Empathy , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , /psychology , Charities , Community Participation/history , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/psychology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Scapegoating , Volunteers , World War I
10.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(6): 474-481, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-535234

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is exacting a disproportionate toll on ethnic minority communities and magnifying existing disparities in health care access and treatment. To understand this crisis, physicians and public health researchers have searched history for insights, especially from a great outbreak approximately a century ago: the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, of the accounts examining the 1918 influenza pandemic and COVID-19, only a notable few discuss race. Yet, a rich, broader scholarship on race and epidemic disease as a "sampling device for social analysis" exists. This commentary examines the historical arc of the 1918 influenza pandemic, focusing on black Americans and showing the complex and sometimes surprising ways it operated, triggering particular responses both within a minority community and in wider racial, sociopolitical, and public health structures. This analysis reveals that critical structural inequities and health care gaps have historically contributed to and continue to compound disparate health outcomes among communities of color. Shifting from this context to the present, this article frames a discussion of racial health disparities through a resilience approach rather than a deficit approach and offers a blueprint for approaching the COVID-19 crisis and its afterlives through the lens of health equity.


Subject(s)
Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/history , Influenza, Human/ethnology , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/history , Betacoronavirus , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , United States
12.
NTM ; 28(2): 211-217, 2020 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197842

ABSTRACT

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The Spanish Flu 1918-1920 caused between 50 and 100 million deaths. Despite this, West German officials ignored the pandemics of 1957/1958 and 1968-1970. Patient perseverance seems to be an appropriate label for the lack of any action. The appearance of new viruses had a massive impact on the discourse concerning pandemics: "patient perseverance" became "omnipresent prevention." The actual measures against SARS-CoV­2 exceed the "omnipresent prevention" used during the 2009 swine flu pandemic by far.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Germany, West , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Vaccination/history
13.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 33(4): 158-163, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186435

ABSTRACT

In April 2009, Mexican, American, and Canadian authorities announced a novel influenza that became the first pandemic of the century. We report on lessons learned in Mexico. The Mexican Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan, developed and implemented since 2005, was a decisive element for the early response. Major lessons-learned were the need for flexible plans that consider different scenarios; the need to continuously strengthen routine surveillance programs and laboratory capacity and strengthen coordination between epidemiological departments, clinicians, and laboratories; maintain strategic stockpiles; establish a fund for public health emergencies; and collaboration among neighboring countries. Mexico responded with immediate reporting and transparency, implemented aggressive control measures and generous sharing of data and samples. Lessons learned induced changes leading to a better response to public health critical events.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiological Monitoring , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Federal Government , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/history , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , International Cooperation , Local Government , Mexico/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance
15.
Turk J Med Sci ; 50(SI-1): 515-519, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71834

ABSTRACT

Along the centuries, novel strain of virus such as influenza produces pandemics which increase illness, death and disruption in the countries. Spanish flu in 1918, Asian flu in 1957, Hong Kong flu in 1968 and swine flu in 2009 were known pandemic which had various characteristics in terms of morbidity and mortality. A current pandemic is caused by novel corona virus originated from China. COVID-19 pandemic is very similar to Spanish, Hong Kong, Asian and swine influenza pandemics in terms of spreading to world by the mobilized people. Burden of pandemic is considered in terms of disease transmissibility and the growth rate of epidemic and duration of pandemic can be calculated by transmissibility characteristic. The case definition, finding out cases and first case cluster, proper treatment, sufficient stockpiles of medicine and population cooperation with the containment strategy should be considered for reduction of burden of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Influenza, Human/history , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Turkey
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