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1.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 433-439, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate absolute and relative risks for seasonal influenza outcomes in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). To contextualise recent findings on corresponding COVID-19 risks. METHODS: Using Swedish nationwide registers for this cohort study, we followed 116 989 patients with IJD and matched population comparators across four influenza seasons (2015-2019). We quantified absolute risks of hospitalisation and death due to influenza, and compared IJD to comparators via Cox regression. We identified 71 556 patients with IJD on active treatment with conventional synthetic DMARDs and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (tsDMARDs) at the start of each influenza season, estimated risks for the same outcomes and compared these risks across DMARDs via Cox regression. RESULTS: Per season, average risks for hospitalisation listing influenza were 0.25% in IJD and 0.1% in the general population, corresponding to a crude HR of 2.38 (95% CI 2.21 to 2.56) that decreased to 1.44 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.56) following adjustments for comorbidities. For death listing influenza, the corresponding numbers were 0.015% and 0.006% (HR=2.63, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.58, and HR=1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01). Absolute risks for influenza outcomes were half (hospitalisation) and one-tenth (death) of those for COVID-19, but relative estimates comparing IJD to the general population were similar. CONCLUSIONS: In absolute terms, COVID-19 in IJD outnumbers that of average seasonal influenza, but IJD entails a 50%-100% increase in risk for hospitalisation and death for both types of infections, which is largely dependent on associated comorbidities. Overall, bDMARDs/tsDMARDs do not seem to confer additional risk for hospitalisation or death related to seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Sweden/epidemiology
2.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 78: 102252, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269277

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic one year after the centennial of the 1918 influenza pandemic reaffirms the catastrophic impact respiratory viruses can have on global health and economy. A key feature of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A viruses (IAV) is their remarkable ability to suppress or dysregulate human immune responses. Here, we summarize the growing knowledge about the interplay of SARS-CoV-2 and antiviral innate immunity, with an emphasis on the regulation of type-I or -III interferon responses that are critically implicated in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Furthermore, we draw parallels to IAV infection and discuss shared innate immune sensing mechanisms and the respective viral countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Interferons , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferons/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1105309, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285575

ABSTRACT

Interferons (IFNs), IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and inflammatory cytokines mediate innate immune responses, and are essential to establish an antiviral response. Within the innate immune responses, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key sensor of virus infections, mediating the transcriptional induction of IFNs and inflammatory proteins. Nevertheless, since excessive responses could be detrimental to the host, these responses need to be tightly regulated. In this work, we describe, for the first time, how knocking-down or knocking-out the expression of IFN alpha-inducible protein 6 (IFI6) increases IFN, ISG, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after the infections with Influenza A Virus (IAV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and Sendai Virus (SeV), or poly(I:C) transfection. We also show how overexpression of IFI6 produces the opposite effect, in vitro and in vivo, indicating that IFI6 negatively modulates the induction of innate immune responses. Knocking-out or knocking-down the expression of IFI6 diminishes the production of infectious IAV and SARS-CoV-2, most likely because of its effect on antiviral responses. Importantly, we report a novel interaction of IFI6 with RIG-I, most likely mediated through binding to RNA, that affects RIG-I activation, providing a molecular mechanism for the effect of IFI6 on negatively regulating innate immunity. Remarkably, these new functions of IFI6 could be targeted to treat diseases associated with an exacerbated induction of innate immune responses and to combat viral infections, such as IAV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Mitochondrial Proteins , Receptors, Immunologic , Virus Diseases , Humans , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Diseases/immunology , Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology
4.
Transplantation ; 105(5): 968-978, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270893

ABSTRACT

Influenza infection poses significant risk for solid organ transplant recipients who often experience more severe infection with increased rates of complications, including those relating to the allograft. Although symptoms of influenza experienced by transplant recipients are similar to that of the general population, fever is not a ubiquitous symptom and lymphopenia is common. Annual inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended for all transplant recipients. Newer strategies such as using a higher dose vaccine or multiple doses in the same season appear to provide greater immunogenicity. Neuraminidase inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment and chemoprophylaxis although resistance may occur in the transplant setting. Influenza therapeutics are advancing, including the recent licensure of baloxavir; however, many remain to be evaluated in transplant recipients and are not yet in routine clinical use. Further population-based studies spanning multiple influenza seasons are needed to enhance our understanding of influenza epidemiology in solid organ transplant recipients. Specific assessment of newer influenza therapeutics in transplant recipients and refinement of prevention strategies are vital to reducing morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Organ Transplantation , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/mortality , Graft Survival/drug effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/virology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
5.
J Virol ; 97(1): e0143122, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193450

ABSTRACT

Since 2013, H7N9 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have caused more than 1,500 human infections and the culling of millions of poultry. Despite large-scale poultry vaccination, H7N9 AIVs continue to circulate among poultry in China and pose a threat to human health. Previously, we isolated and generated four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from humans naturally infected with H7N9 AIV. Here, we investigated the hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes of H7N9 AIV targeted by these mAbs (L3A-44, K9B-122, L4A-14, and L4B-18) using immune escape studies. Our results revealed four key antigenic epitopes at HA amino acid positions 125, 133, 149, and 217. The mutant H7N9 viruses representing escape mutations containing an alanine-to-threonine substitution at residue 125 (A125T), a glycine-to-glutamic acid substitution at residue 133 (G133E), an asparagine-to-aspartic acid substitution at residue 149 (N149D), or a leucine-to-glutamine substitution at residue 217 (L217Q) showed reduced or completely abolished cross-reactivity with the mAbs, as measured by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. We further assessed the potential risk of these mutants to humans should they emerge following mAb treatment by measuring the impact of these HA mutations on virus fitness and evasion of host adaptive immunity. Here, we showed that the L4A-14 mAb had broad neutralizing capabilities, and its escape mutant N149D had reduced viral stability and human receptor binding and could be neutralized by both postinfection and antigen-induced sera. Therefore, the L4A-14 mAb could be a therapeutic candidate for H7N9 AIV infection in humans and warrants further investigation for therapeutic applications. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N9 continues to circulate and evolve in birds, posing a credible threat to humans. Antiviral drugs have proven useful for the treatment of severe influenza infections in humans; however, concerns have been raised as antiviral-resistant mutants have emerged. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been studied for both prophylactic and therapeutic applications in infectious disease control and have demonstrated great potential. For example, mAb treatment has significantly reduced the risk of people developing severe disease with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In addition to the protection efficiency, we should also consider the potential risk of the escape mutants generated by mAb treatment to public health by assessing their viral fitness and potential to compromise host adaptive immunity. Considering these parameters, we assessed four human mAbs derived from humans naturally infected with H7N9 AIV and showed that the mAb L4A-14 displayed potential as a therapeutic candidate.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Epitopes , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation
6.
Nature ; 614(7949): 752-761, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185939

ABSTRACT

Acute viral infections can have durable functional impacts on the immune system long after recovery, but how they affect homeostatic immune states and responses to future perturbations remain poorly understood1-4. Here we use systems immunology approaches, including longitudinal multimodal single-cell analysis (surface proteins, transcriptome and V(D)J sequences) to comparatively assess baseline immune statuses and responses to influenza vaccination in 33 healthy individuals after recovery from mild, non-hospitalized COVID-19 (mean, 151 days after diagnosis) and 40 age- and sex-matched control individuals who had never had COVID-19. At the baseline and independent of time after COVID-19, recoverees had elevated T cell activation signatures and lower expression of innate immune genes including Toll-like receptors in monocytes. Male individuals who had recovered from COVID-19 had coordinately higher innate, influenza-specific plasmablast, and antibody responses after vaccination compared with healthy male individuals and female individuals who had recovered from COVID-19, in part because male recoverees had monocytes with higher IL-15 responses early after vaccination coupled with elevated prevaccination frequencies of 'virtual memory'-like CD8+ T cells poised to produce more IFNγ after IL-15 stimulation. Moreover, the expression of the repressed innate immune genes in monocytes increased by day 1 to day 28 after vaccination in recoverees, therefore moving towards the prevaccination baseline of the healthy control individuals. By contrast, these genes decreased on day 1 and returned to the baseline by day 28 in the control individuals. Our study reveals sex-dimorphic effects of previous mild COVID-19 and suggests that viral infections in humans can establish new immunological set-points that affect future immune responses in an antigen-agnostic manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Influenza Vaccines , Sex Characteristics , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccination , Female , Humans , Male , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Interleukin-15/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Monocytes , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Healthy Volunteers
7.
J Exp Med ; 219(11)2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037304

ABSTRACT

Autoantibodies neutralizing type I interferons (IFNs) can underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia and yellow fever vaccine disease. We report here on 13 patients harboring autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 alone (five patients) or with IFN-ω (eight patients) from a cohort of 279 patients (4.7%) aged 6-73 yr with critical influenza pneumonia. Nine and four patients had antibodies neutralizing high and low concentrations, respectively, of IFN-α2, and six and two patients had antibodies neutralizing high and low concentrations, respectively, of IFN-ω. The patients' autoantibodies increased influenza A virus replication in both A549 cells and reconstituted human airway epithelia. The prevalence of these antibodies was significantly higher than that in the general population for patients <70 yr of age (5.7 vs. 1.1%, P = 2.2 × 10-5), but not >70 yr of age (3.1 vs. 4.4%, P = 0.68). The risk of critical influenza was highest in patients with antibodies neutralizing high concentrations of both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω (OR = 11.7, P = 1.3 × 10-5), especially those <70 yr old (OR = 139.9, P = 3.1 × 10-10). We also identified 10 patients in additional influenza patient cohorts. Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs account for ∼5% of cases of life-threatening influenza pneumonia in patients <70 yr old.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Influenza, Human , Interferon Type I , Pneumonia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2210321119, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001009

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, yet their contribution to immune regulation in humans remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the primate-specific lncRNA CHROMR is induced by influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection and coordinates the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that execute antiviral responses. CHROMR depletion in human macrophages reduces histone acetylation at regulatory regions of ISG loci and attenuates ISG expression in response to microbial stimuli. Mechanistically, we show that CHROMR sequesters the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2-dependent transcriptional corepressor IRF2BP2, thereby licensing IRF-dependent signaling and transcription of the ISG network. Consequently, CHROMR expression is essential to restrict viral infection of macrophages. Our findings identify CHROMR as a key arbitrator of antiviral innate immune signaling in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA-Binding Proteins , Immunity, Innate , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , RNA, Long Noncoding , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transcription Factors/metabolism
9.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0076522, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992938

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus (IAV) represent two highly transmissible airborne pathogens with pandemic capabilities. Although these viruses belong to separate virus families-SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the family Coronaviridae, while IAV is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae-both have shown zoonotic potential, with significant animal reservoirs in species in close contact with humans. The two viruses are similar in their capacity to infect human airways, and coinfections resulting in significant morbidity and mortality have been documented. Here, we investigate the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 and influenza H1N1 A/California/04/2009 virus during coinfection. Competition assays in vitro were performed in susceptible cells that were either interferon type I/III (IFN-I/-III) nonresponsive or IFN-I/-III responsive, in addition to an in vivo golden hamster model. We find that SARS-CoV-2 infection does not interfere with IAV biology in vivo, regardless of timing between the infections. In contrast, we observe a significant loss of SARS-CoV-2 replication following IAV infection. The latter phenotype correlates with increased levels of IFN-I/-III and immune priming that interferes with the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 replication. Together, these data suggest that cocirculation of SARS-CoV-2 and IAV is unlikely to result in increased severity of disease. IMPORTANCE The human population now has two circulating respiratory RNA viruses with high pandemic potential, namely, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus. As both viruses infect the airways and can result in significant morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that we also understand the consequences of getting coinfected. Here, we demonstrate that the host response to influenza A virus uniquely interferes with SARS-CoV-2 biology although the inverse relationship is not evident. Overall, we find that the host response to both viruses is comparable to that to SARS-CoV-2 infection alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Cross-Priming , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , Cross-Priming/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferons/immunology , Mesocricetus/immunology , Mesocricetus/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
10.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0068922, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949995

ABSTRACT

Vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 have been shown to be highly effective; however, the breadth against emerging variants and the longevity of protection remains unclear. Postimmunization boosting has been shown to be beneficial for disease protection, and as new variants continue to emerge, periodic (and perhaps annual) vaccination will likely be recommended. New seasonal influenza virus vaccines currently need to be developed every year due to continual antigenic drift, an undertaking made possible by a robust global vaccine production and distribution infrastructure. To create a seasonal combination vaccine targeting both influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 that is also amenable to frequent reformulation, we have developed an influenza A virus (IAV) genetic platform that allows the incorporation of an immunogenic domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein onto IAV particles. Vaccination with this combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies and provided protection from lethal challenge with both pathogens in mice. This approach may allow the leveraging of established influenza vaccine infrastructure to generate a cost-effective and scalable seasonal vaccine solution for both influenza and coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants since the onset of the pandemic has highlighted the need for both periodic vaccination "boosts" and a platform that can be rapidly reformulated to manufacture new vaccines. In this work, we report an approach that can utilize current influenza vaccine manufacturing infrastructure to generate combination vaccines capable of protecting from both influenza virus- and SARS-CoV-2-induced disease. The production of a combined influenza/SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may represent a practical solution to boost immunity to these important respiratory viruses without the increased cost and administration burden of multiple independent vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Virion , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/immunology
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 511, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the World Health Organization and health authorities in most countries recommend that pregnant women receive inactivated influenza virus vaccines, coverage remains low. This study aimed to investigate (1) the proportion of pregnant women who received an influenza vaccination and influencing factors and (2) the proportion of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) doctors who routinely recommend influenza vaccination to pregnant women and influencing factors. METHODS: Two separate, anonymized questionnaires were developed for physicians and pregnant and postpartum women and were distributed to multicenters and clinics in South Korea. The proportions of women who received influenza vaccination during pregnancy and OBGYN doctors who routinely recommend the influenza vaccine to pregnant women were analyzed. Independent influencing factors for both maternal influenza vaccination and OBGYN doctors' routine recommendations to pregnant women were analyzed using log-binomial regression analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of self-reported influenza vaccination during pregnancy among 522 women was 63.2%. Pregnancy-related independent factors influencing maternal influenza vaccination were "(ever) received information about influenza vaccination during pregnancy" (OR 8.9, 95% CI 4.17-19.01), "received vaccine information about from OBGYN doctors" (OR 11.44, 95% CI 5.46-24.00), "information obtained from other sources" (OR 4.38, 95% CI 2.01-9.55), and "second/third trimester" (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.21-4.82).. Among 372 OBGYN doctors, 76.9% routinely recommended vaccination for pregnant women. Independent factors effecting routine recommendation were "working at a private clinic or hospital" (OR 5.33, 95% CI 2.44-11.65), "awareness of KCDC guidelines" (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.11-8.73), and "awareness of the 2019 national free influenza vaccination program for pregnant women" (OR 4.88, 95% CI 2.34-10.17). OBGYN doctors most commonly chose 'guidelines proposed by the government or public health (108, 46%) and academic committees (59, 25%), as a factor which expect to affect the future recommendation CONCLUSION: This study showed that providing information about maternal influenza vaccination, especially by OBGYN doctors, is crucial for increasing vaccination coverage in pregnant women. Closer cooperation between the government and OBGYN academic societies to educate OBGYN doctors might enhance routine recommendations.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Gynecology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Obstetrics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 236, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854835

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases may affect brain function and cause encephalopathy even when the pathogen does not directly infect the central nervous system, known as infectious disease-associated encephalopathy. The systemic inflammatory process may result in neuroinflammation, with glial cell activation and increased levels of cytokines, reduced neurotrophic factors, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, neurotransmitter metabolism imbalances, and neurotoxicity, and behavioral and cognitive impairments often occur in the late course. Even though infectious disease-associated encephalopathies may cause devastating neurologic and cognitive deficits, the concept of infectious disease-associated encephalopathies is still under-investigated; knowledge of the underlying mechanisms, which may be distinct from those of encephalopathies of non-infectious cause, is still limited. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiology of encephalopathies associated with peripheral (sepsis, malaria, influenza, and COVID-19), emerging therapeutic strategies, and the role of neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/immunology , Influenza, Human/complications , Malaria/complications , Sepsis/complications , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Brain Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Malaria/immunology , Sepsis/immunology
13.
J Exp Med ; 219(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830916

ABSTRACT

In this issue of JEM, Bastard et al. (2022. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20220028) show that a loss-of-function IFNAR1 allele is common in western Polynesians, while Duncan et al. (2022. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20212427) report that a loss-of-function IFNAR2 allele is common in Inuits. Homozygotes lack type I IFN immunity but are selectively vulnerable to influenza, COVID-19 pneumonia, and complications of live-attenuated viral vaccines.


Subject(s)
Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Inuit , Polynesia , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics
14.
Science ; 374(6571): 1127-1133, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723460

ABSTRACT

Humans differ in their susceptibility to infectious disease, partly owing to variation in the immune response after infection. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to quantify variation in the response to influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from European- and African-ancestry males. Genetic ancestry effects are common but highly cell type specific. Higher levels of European ancestry are associated with increased type I interferon pathway activity in early infection, which predicts reduced viral titers at later time points. Substantial population-associated variation is explained by cis-expression quantitative trait loci that are differentiated by genetic ancestry. Furthermore, genetic ancestry­associated genes are enriched among genes correlated with COVID-19 disease severity, suggesting that the early immune response contributes to ancestry-associated differences for multiple viral infection outcomes.


Subject(s)
Black or African American/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , White People/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Regulation , Genetic Variation , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Quantitative Trait Loci , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Load , Young Adult
16.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1467-1482, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690085

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic disease of childhood, but for unknown reasons, disease activity sometimes subsides as children mature. In this study, we present clinical and animal model evidence suggesting that the age dependency of childhood asthma stems from an evolving host response to respiratory viral infection. Using clinical data, we show that societal suppression of respiratory virus transmission during coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown disrupted the traditional age gradient in pediatric asthma exacerbations, connecting the phenomenon of asthma remission to virus exposure. In mice, we show that asthmatic lung pathology triggered by Sendai virus (SeV) or influenza A virus is highly age-sensitive: robust in juvenile mice (4-6 wk old) but attenuated in mature mice (>3 mo old). Interestingly, allergen induction of the same asthmatic traits was less dependent on chronological age than viruses. Age-specific responses to SeV included a juvenile bias toward type 2 airway inflammation that emerged early in infection, whereas mature mice exhibited a more restricted bronchiolar distribution of infection that produced a distinct type 2 low inflammatory cytokine profile. In the basal state, aging produced changes to lung leukocyte burden, including the number and transcriptional landscape of alveolar macrophages (AMs). Importantly, depleting AMs in mature mice restored post-SeV pathology to juvenile levels. Thus, aging influences chronic outcomes of respiratory viral infection through regulation of the AM compartment and type 2 inflammatory responses to viruses. Our data provide insight into how asthma remission might develop in children.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aging/physiology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Respirovirus Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sendai virus/physiology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Animals , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , United States/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674014

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immunity plays a crucial role in controlling upper respiratory infections, including influenza. We established a quantitative ELISA to measure the amount of influenza virus-specific salivery IgA (sIgA) and salivary IgG (sIgG) antibodies using a standard antibody broadly reactive to the influenza A virus. We then analyzed saliva and serum samples from seven individuals infected with the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus during the 2019-2020 flu seasons. We detected an early (6-10 days post-infection) increase of sIgA in five of the seven samples and a later (3-5 weeks) increase of sIgG in six of the seven saliva samples. Although the conventional parenteral influenza vaccine did not induce IgA production in saliva, vaccinated individuals with a history of influenza infection had higher basal levels of sIgA than those without a history. Interestingly, we observed sIgA and sIgG in an asymptomatic individual who had close contact with two influenza cases. Both early mucosal sIgA secretion and late systemically induced sIgG in the mucosal surface may protect against virus infection. Despite the small sample size, our results indicate that the saliva test system can be useful for analyzing upper mucosal immunity in influenza.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Japan , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/metabolism , Young Adult
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(5)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671755
19.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667057

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still ongoing, as is research on the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular infection by coronaviruses, with the hope of developing therapeutic agents against this pandemic. Other important respiratory viruses such as 2009 pandemic H1N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV), influenza A viruses, are also responsible for a possible outbreak due to their respiratory susceptibility. However, the interaction of these viruses with host cells and the regulation of post-transcriptional genes remains unclear. In this study, we detected and analyzed the comparative transcriptome profiling of SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1 (A/California/07/2009), and H7N9 (A/Shanghai/1/2013) infected cells. The results showed that the commonly upregulated genes among the three groups were mainly involved in autophagy, pertussis, and tuberculosis, which indicated that autophagy plays an important role in viral pathogenicity. There are three groups of commonly downregulated genes involved in metabolic pathways. Notably, unlike panH1N1 and H7N9, SARS-CoV-2 infection can inhibit the m-TOR pathway and activate the p53 signaling pathway, which may be responsible for unique autophagy induction and cell apoptosis. Particularly, upregulated expression of IRF1 was found in SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection. Further analysis showed SARS-CoV-2, panH1N1, and H7N9 infection-induced upregulation of lncRNA-34087.27 could serve as a competitive endogenous RNA to stabilize IRF1 mRNA by competitively binding with miR-302b-3p. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , RNA/immunology , Transcriptome/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/immunology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA-Seq/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Transcriptome/genetics
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 18, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639142

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are the most serious problem for COVID-19 prophylaxis and treatment. To determine whether the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strain should be updated following variant emergence like seasonal flu vaccine, the changed degree on antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants and H3N2 flu vaccine strains was compared. The neutralization activities of Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants' spike protein-immunized sera were analysed against the eight current epidemic variants and 20 possible variants combining the top 10 prevalent RBD mutations based on the Delta variant, which were constructed using pseudotyped viruses. Meanwhile, the neutralization activities of convalescent sera and current inactivated and recombinant protein vaccine-elicited sera were also examined against all possible Delta variants. Eight HA protein-expressing DNAs elicited-animal sera were also tested against eight pseudotyped viruses of H3N2 flu vaccine strains from 2011-2019. Our results indicate that the antigenicity changes of possible Delta variants were mostly within four folds, whereas the antigenicity changes among different H3N2 vaccine strains were approximately 10-100-fold. Structural analysis of the antigenic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 and H3N2 mutations supports the neutralization results. This study indicates that the antigenicity changes of the current SARS-CoV-2 may not be sufficient to require replacement of the current vaccine strain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/chemistry , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/metabolism , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Pseudotyping
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