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1.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270814, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919122

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Influenza A virus infection is a contagious acute respiratory infection which mostly evolves in an epidemic form, less frequently as pandemic outbreaks. It can take a severe clinical form that needs to be managed in intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of influenza A, then to determine independent predictive factors of ICU mortality in Abderrahmen Mami hospital, Ariana, Tunisia. METHODS: It was a single-center study, including all hospitalized patients in intensive care, between November 1st, 2009 and October 31st, 2019, with influenza A virus infection. We recorded demographic, clinical and biological data, evolving features; then multivariate analysis of the predictive factors of ICU mortality was realized. RESULTS: During the study period (10 consecutive seasons), 120 patients having severe Influenza A were admitted (Proportion = 2.5%) from all hospitalized patients, with a median age of 48 years and a gender-ratio of 1.14. Among women, 14 were pregnant. Only 7 patients (5.8%) have had seasonal flu vaccine during the year before ICU admission. The median values of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment were respectively 26, 10 and 3. Virus strains identified with polymerase chain reaction were H1N1 pdm09 (84.2%) and H3N2 (15.8%). Antiviral therapy was prescribed in 88 (73.3%) patients. A co-infection was recorded in 19 cases: bacterial (n = 17) and aspergillaire (n = 2). An acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed in 82 patients. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was conducted for 72 (60%) patients with success in 34 cases. Endotracheal intubation was performed in 59 patients with median duration of invasive mechanical ventilation 8 [3.25-13] days. The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (n = 50, 41.7%), shock (n = 48, 40%), hospital-acquired infections (n = 46, 38.8%) and thromboembolic events (n = 19, 15.8%). The overall ICU mortality rate was of 31.7% (deceased n = 38). Independent predictive factors of ICU mortality identified were: age above 56 years (OR = 7.417; IC95% [1.474-37.317]; p = 0.015), PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 95 mmHg (OR = 9.078; IC95% [1.636-50.363]; p = 0.012) and lymphocytes count ≤ 1.325 109/L (OR = 10.199; IC95% [1.550-67.101]; p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Influenza A in ICU is not uncommon, even in A(H1N1) dominant seasons; its management is highly demanding. It is responsible for considerable morbi-mortality especially in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/therapy , Influenza, Human/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Patient Acuity , Pregnancy , Risk Factors , Tunisia/epidemiology
3.
Pharmacol Res ; 176: 106053, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Administration of glucocorticoids might reduce mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 but have adverse cardiometabolic effects. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the effect of systemic administration of glucocorticoids on cardiovascular complications and all-cause mortality in patients hospitalised with respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19, SARS, MERS and influenza. METHODS: We identified randomised trials published prior to July 28th, 2021. The Mantel-Haenszel random effects method and the Hartung and Knapp adjustment were used to obtain pooled estimates of treatment effect with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: No randomised trials of glucocorticoids for SARS, MERS or influenza reported relevant outcomes. We included eleven COVID-19 randomised trials (8109 patients). Overall, compared to placebo or standard care, glucocorticoids were not associated with a reduction of in-hospital mortality (p = 0.09). In a pre-specified sub-analysis, in-hospital mortality was reduced by 19% when follow-up was restricted to 14 days from randomisation (5/11 trials, 1329 patients, p = 0.02). With longer follow-up (9/11 trials, 7874 patients), administration of glucocorticoids was associated with a trend to benefit for those requiring mechanical ventilation (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.57-1.27) but possible harm for those not receiving oxygen at randomisation (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.61), an effect that was significantly different amongst subgroups (p = 0.0359). Glucocorticoids reduced the risk of worsening renal function by 37% (4/11 trials); reported rate of other cardiovascular complications was low. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of systemic glucocorticoids to patients hospitalised with COVID-19 does not lower mortality overall but may reduce it in those requiring respiratory support and increase it in those who do not.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 108-113, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547589

ABSTRACT

The objective was to compare the profile and outcomes of older adults admitted to a geriatric short-stay unit for COVID-19, to those of older adults admitted to the same unit for seasonal influenza infection. This was an observational study performed in a General Hospital in France. Patients ≥ 70 years admitted to a geriatric short-stay unit for COVID-19 between March 18 and November 15, 2020 were included. They were compared with patients of the same age group, admitted to the same geriatric short-stay unit for seasonal influenza infection over the periods January to March 2019 and January to March 2020. Data collection included demographic information, medical history, clinical signs and symptoms, outcomes, and hospital discharge patterns. Descriptive and intergroup comparison analyses were performed. In total, 153 patients were included in the study, 82 in the seasonal influenza group, and 71 in the COVID-19 group. The average age was 87.6 ± 4.8 and 87.6 ± 6.5 years in the COVID-19 and seasonal influenza groups, respectively. There was no difference between groups regarding the Charlson comorbidity index (3.4 ± 3.0 versus 3.4 ± 2.8). The seasonal influenza group more often had fever, cough, sputum, and renal failure, whereas the COVID-19 group more often experienced diarrhea, and death. The COVID-19 group was frequently living in collective housing. The profile at admission of older adults hospitalized for COVID-19 or seasonal influenza infection was similar. Although fever and respiratory signs were less common in the COVID-19 group, these patients experienced more complications (such as renal failure or oxygen therapy requirement) and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , France , Geriatrics , Hospital Units , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 433-439, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate absolute and relative risks for seasonal influenza outcomes in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). To contextualise recent findings on corresponding COVID-19 risks. METHODS: Using Swedish nationwide registers for this cohort study, we followed 116 989 patients with IJD and matched population comparators across four influenza seasons (2015-2019). We quantified absolute risks of hospitalisation and death due to influenza, and compared IJD to comparators via Cox regression. We identified 71 556 patients with IJD on active treatment with conventional synthetic DMARDs and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (tsDMARDs) at the start of each influenza season, estimated risks for the same outcomes and compared these risks across DMARDs via Cox regression. RESULTS: Per season, average risks for hospitalisation listing influenza were 0.25% in IJD and 0.1% in the general population, corresponding to a crude HR of 2.38 (95% CI 2.21 to 2.56) that decreased to 1.44 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.56) following adjustments for comorbidities. For death listing influenza, the corresponding numbers were 0.015% and 0.006% (HR=2.63, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.58, and HR=1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01). Absolute risks for influenza outcomes were half (hospitalisation) and one-tenth (death) of those for COVID-19, but relative estimates comparing IJD to the general population were similar. CONCLUSIONS: In absolute terms, COVID-19 in IJD outnumbers that of average seasonal influenza, but IJD entails a 50%-100% increase in risk for hospitalisation and death for both types of infections, which is largely dependent on associated comorbidities. Overall, bDMARDs/tsDMARDs do not seem to confer additional risk for hospitalisation or death related to seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Sweden/epidemiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13587, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500741

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an important cause of severe illness and death among patients with underlying medical conditions and in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with ICU admission and death in patients hospitalized with severe laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2017-2018 season in Catalonia. An observational epidemiological case-to-case study was carried out. Reported cases of severe laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in 2017-2018 influenza season were included. Mixed-effects regression analysis was used to estimate the factors associated with ICU admission and death. A total of 1306 cases of hospitalized severe influenza cases were included, of whom 175 (13.4%) died and 217 (16.6%) were ICU admitted. Age 65-74 years and ≥ 75 years and having ≥ 2 comorbidities were positively associated with death (aOR 3.19; 95%CI 1.19-8.50, aOR 6.95, 95%CI 2.76-1.80 and aOR 1.99; 95%CI 1.12-3.52, respectively). Neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and pneumonia were negatively associated with death. The 65-74 years and ≥ 75 years age groups were negatively associated with ICU admission (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.23-0.74 and aOR 0.30; 95%CI 0.17-0.53, respectively). A factor positively associated with ICU admission was neuraminidase inhibitor treatment. Our results support the need to investigate the worst outcomes of hospitalized severe cases, distinguishing between death and ICU admission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human , Intensive Care Units , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neuraminidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398985

ABSTRACT

This technical report accompanies the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics for the routine use of the influenza vaccine and antiviral medications in the prevention and treatment of influenza in children during the 2021-2022 season. Influenza vaccination is an important intervention to protect vulnerable populations and reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses during circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is expected to continue during this influenza season. In this technical report, we summarize recent influenza seasons, morbidity and mortality in children, vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, and detailed guidance on storage, administration, and implementation. We also provide background on inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccine recommendations, vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding, diagnostic testing, and antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , Child , Contraindications, Drug , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Storage , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Mass Vaccination , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
11.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 388-398, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380064

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory virus infections may cause serious respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to viral infections comparing etiological agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARF patients with positive viral serology were retrospectively recruited. Cohort was evaluated with regard to subgroups as influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV), as well as survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULT: Out of 938 admitted patients, 319 were followed as ARF and only 149 patients had viral respiratory panel results. In 49 patients with ARF, 52 positive viral results were detected and 47 patients with single positive viral isolates of either influenza or ORV were included. Among them, 62% had ORV with quite similar characteristics with influenza group apart from diabetes mellitus which was encountered more in influenza group (p= 0.02). Overall ICU mortality was 32% and there was no difference between the two groups (p= 0.42). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was independently associated with ICU mortality (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.51; p= 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes to consider the possibility of other respiratory viruses for the cause of ARF with similar characteristics and mortality as influenza species.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Influenza, Human/mortality , Patient Admission , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Turkey , Young Adult
13.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 64(9): 1125-1135, 2021 Sep.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358094

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the idea arose to conduct a study to comparatively evaluate deaths from two respiratory transmissible infectious diseases (pandemic COVID-19 and seasonal influenza) by means of death certificates received by the health department. METHODS: Death certificates of all deaths in Munich in the death period from 1 March-31 December 2020 were analyzed. The predefined inclusion criteria were the indication of "Corona, COVID-19, SARS-CoV­2, Influenza (A/B)" on the death certificates. Standardized data entry was performed. The collected data were analyzed descriptively in aggregated form. RESULTS: A total of 12,441 persons died during the study period, 1029 (8.3%) from confirmed COVID-19 and 22 (0.1%) from influenza. The two collectives matched well in the parameters studied. The mean age at death was approximately 80 years and the most common site of death was in hospital. Infectious disease was the cause of death in more than 90% of cases. The most common causes of death were acute respiratory distress syndrome/respiratory failure and multiorgan failure. An average of two previous illnesses were reported, most commonly diseases of the circulatory system and nervous system. There was no influenza death in the second pandemic wave. DISCUSSION: In this study, COVID-19- and influenza-associated deaths were compared for the first time. The deaths of both collectives matched well in the parameters studied, but still require verification in a larger study given the small numbers of influenza cases. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as Supplementary Information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Death Certificates , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/mortality , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 129-137, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347476

ABSTRACT

During the clinical care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diminished QRS amplitude on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was observed to precede clinical decompensation, culminating in death. This prompted investigation into the prognostic utility and specificity of low QRS complex amplitude (LoQRS) in COVID-19. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive adults admitted to a telemetry service with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 140) or influenza (n = 281) infection with a final disposition-death or discharge. LoQRS was defined as a composite of QRS amplitude <5 mm or <10 mm in the limb or precordial leads, respectively, or a ≥50% decrease in QRS amplitude on follow-up ECG during hospitalization. LoQRS was more prevalent in patients with COVID-19 than influenza (24.3% vs 11.7%, p = 0.001), and in patients who died than survived with either COVID-19 (48.1% vs 10.2%, p <0.001) or influenza (38.9% vs 9.9%, p <0.001). LoQRS was independently associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 when adjusted for baseline clinical variables (odds ratio [OR] 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 33.8, p <0.001), presenting and peak troponin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, albumin, intubation, and vasopressor requirement (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 145.5, p = 0.029). The median time to death in COVID-19 from the first ECG with LoQRS was 52 hours (interquartile range 18 to 130). Dynamic QRS amplitude diminution is a strong independent predictor of death over not only the course of COVID-19 infection, but also influenza infection. In conclusion, this finding may serve as a pragmatic prognostication tool reflecting evolving clinical changes during hospitalization, over a potentially actionable time interval for clinical reassessment.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Influenza, Human/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1518-1522, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286893

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To examine the disease-specific excess deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Methods. We used weekly death data from the National Center for Health Statistics to analyze the trajectories of excess deaths from specific diseases in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic, at the national level and in 4 states, from the first to 52nd week of 2020. We used the average weekly number of deaths in the previous 6 years (2014-2019) as baseline. Results. Compared with the same week at baseline, the trajectory of number of excess deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD) was highly parallel to the trajectory of the number of excess deaths related to COVID-19. The number of excess deaths from diabetes mellitus, influenza and respiratory diseases, and malignant neoplasms remained relatively stable over time. Conclusions. The parallel trajectory of excess mortality from CVD and COVID-19 over time reflects the fact that essential health services for noncommunicable diseases were reduced or disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the severer the pandemic, the heavier the impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Mortality/trends , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(6): e1008994, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278164

ABSTRACT

Effectively designing and evaluating public health responses to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic requires accurate estimation of the prevalence of COVID-19 across the United States (US). Equipment shortages and varying testing capabilities have however hindered the usefulness of the official reported positive COVID-19 case counts. We introduce four complementary approaches to estimate the cumulative incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 in each state in the US as well as Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia, using a combination of excess influenza-like illness reports, COVID-19 test statistics, COVID-19 mortality reports, and a spatially structured epidemic model. Instead of relying on the estimate from a single data source or method that may be biased, we provide multiple estimates, each relying on different assumptions and data sources. Across our four approaches emerges the consistent conclusion that on April 4, 2020, the estimated case count was 5 to 50 times higher than the official positive test counts across the different states. Nationally, our estimates of COVID-19 symptomatic cases as of April 4 have a likely range of 2.3 to 4.8 million, with possibly as many as 7.6 million cases, up to 25 times greater than the cumulative confirmed cases of about 311,000. Extending our methods to May 16, 2020, we estimate that cumulative symptomatic incidence ranges from 4.9 to 10.1 million, as opposed to 1.5 million positive test counts. The proposed combination of approaches may prove useful in assessing the burden of COVID-19 during resurgences in the US and other countries with comparable surveillance systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human , Models, Statistical , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics , United States , Virology
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12703, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275958

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections are a potentially fatal complication of influenza infection. We aimed to define the impact of secondary bacterial infections on the clinical course and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by comparison with influenza patients. COVID-19 (n = 642) and influenza (n = 742) patients, admitted to a large tertiary center in Israel and for whom blood or sputum culture had been taken were selected for this study. Bacterial culture results, clinical parameters, and death rates were compared. COVID-19 patients had higher rates of bacterial infections than influenza patients (12.6% vs. 8.7%). Notably, the time from admission to bacterial growth was longer in COVID-19 compared to influenza patients (4 (1-8) vs. 1 (1-3) days). Late infections (> 48 h after admission) with gram-positive bacteria were more common in COVID-19 patients (28% vs. 9.5%). Secondary infection was associated with a higher risk of death in both patient groups 2.7-fold (1.22-5.83) for COVID-19, and 3.09-fold (1.11-7.38) for Influenza). The association with death remained significant upon adjustment to age and clinical parameters in COVID-19 but not in influenza infection. Secondary bacterial infection is a notable complication associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 than influenza patients. Careful surveillance and prompt antibiotic treatment may benefit selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies
18.
Virol J ; 18(1): 127, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implications of viral and bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 48 COVID-19 patients (29% ICU and 71% non-ICU) and screened for the presence of 24 respiratory pathogens using six multiplex PCR panels. RESULTS: We found evidence of co-infection in 34 COVID-19 patients (71%). Influenza A H1N1 (n = 17), Chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 13) and human adenovirus (n = 10) were the most commonly detected pathogens. Viral co-infection was associated with increased ICU admission (r = 0.1) and higher mortality (OR 1.78, CI = 0.38-8.28) compared to bacterial co-infections (OR 0.44, CI = 0.08-2.45). Two thirds of COVID-19 critically ill patients who died, had a co-infection; and Influenza A H1N1 was the only pathogen for which a direct relationship with mortality was seen (r = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of screening for co-infecting viruses in COVID-19 patients, that could be the leading cause of disease severity and death. Given the high prevalence of Influenza co-infection in our study, increased coverage of flu vaccination is encouraged to mitigate the transmission of influenza virus during the on-going COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the risk of severe outcome and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1191-1199, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246663

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to more than 159 million confirmed cases with over 3.3 million deaths worldwide, but it remains mystery why most infected individuals (∼98%) were asymptomatic or only experienced mild illness. The same mystery applies to the deadly 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which has puzzled the field for a century. Here we discuss dual potential properties of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic viruses that led to the high fatality rate in the small portion of severe cases, while about 98% infected persons in the United States were self-limited with mild symptoms, or even asymptomatic. These variations now have been postulated to be impacted by polymorphisms of the sialic acid receptors in the general population. Since coronaviruses (CoVs) also recognize sialic acid receptors and cause severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemics and pandemics, similar principles of influenza virus evolution and pandemicity may also apply to CoVs. A potential common principle of pathogen/host co-evolution of influenza and CoVs under selection of host sialic acids in parallel with different epidemic and pandemic influenza and coronaviruses is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Asymptomatic Diseases , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/mortality , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/metabolism , Saliva/virology
20.
Cytokine ; 144: 155593, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242912

ABSTRACT

An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Inflammasome activation and release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is common to COVID-19, H1N1, and MAS but does not appear to be a feature of CRS. Elevated levels of IL-18 are detected in patients with COVID-19 and MAS but have not been reported in patients with H1N1 influenza and CRS. Elevated interferon-γ is common to H1N1, MAS, and CRS but levels of this molecule appear to be depressed in patients with COVID-19. CD4+ T, CD8+ and NK lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of CRS, MAS, and possibly H1N1 but are reduced in number and dysfunctional in COVID-19. Additional elements underpinning the pathophysiology of cytokine storms include Inflammasome activity and DAMPs. Treatment with anakinra may theoretically offer an avenue to positively manipulate the range of biochemical and immune abnormalities reported in COVID-19 and thought to underpin the pathophysiology of cytokine storms beyond those manipulated via the use of, canakinumab, Jak inhibitors or tocilizumab. Thus, despite the relative success of tocilizumab in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients already on dexamethasone and promising results with Baricitinib, the combination of anakinra in combination with dexamethasone offers the theoretical prospect of further improvements in patient survival. However, there is currently an absence of trial of evidence in favour or contravening this proposition. Accordingly, a large well powered blinded prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test this hypothesis is recommended.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/pathology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Survival Rate
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