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1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(6): 366-374, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198263

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the stability of improvements in global respiratory virus surveillance in countries supported by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after reductions in CDC funding and with the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We assessed whether national influenza surveillance systems of CDC-funded countries: (i) continued to analyse as many specimens between 2013 and 2021; (ii) participated in activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System; (iii) tested enough specimens to detect rare events or signals of unusual activity; and (iv) demonstrated stability before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used CDC budget records and data from the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Findings: While CDC reduced per-country influenza funding by about 75% over 10 years, the number of specimens tested annually remained stable (mean 2261). Reporting varied substantially by country and transmission zone. Countries funded by CDC accounted for 71% (range 61-75%) of specimens included in WHO consultations on the composition of influenza virus vaccines. In 2019, only eight of the 17 transmission zones sent enough specimens to WHO collaborating centres before the vaccine composition meeting to reliably identify antigenic variants. Conclusion: Great progress has been made in the global understanding of influenza trends and seasonality. To optimize surveillance to identify atypical influenza viruses, and to integrate molecular testing, sequencing and reporting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into existing systems, funding must continue to support these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
3.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4291-4295, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years. To explore the impact of COVID-19 on vaccination, we fit a model with a logit link (estimated via generalized estimating equations to account for clustering by patient over time) on calendar year, adjusted for race, ethnicity, age, and insurance type. We examined interaction effects of demographic covariates with calendar year. RESULTS: Early vaccination rates were lower in 2020 (29.7%) compared with 2018 and 2019 (34.2% and 33.3%). After adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering over time, the odds of early vaccination in 2020 were 19% lower compared to 2018 (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.78-0.85). In 2020, children with private insurance were more likely to receive early vaccination than in 2018 (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15), whereas children with public insurance were less likely to receive early vaccination in 2020 than in 2018 (OR 0.62, 95% CI: 1.38-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Early influenza vaccination rates declined in a year with a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. Modeling that accounts for individual trends and demographic variables identified specific populations with lower odds of early vaccination in 2020. Additional research is needed to investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacted parental intent to obtain the influenza vaccine, or introduced barriers to healthcare access.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 779, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maternal vaccinations for influenza and pertussis are recommended in New Zealand to protect mothers and their infant from infection. However, maternal immunisation coverage in New Zealand is suboptimal. Furthermore, there is unacceptable inequitable maternal immunisation rates across the country with Maori and Pacific women having significantly lower maternal immunisation rates than those of other New Zealanders. METHODS: This research set out to explore what pregnant/recently pregnant Maori and Pacific women knew about immunisation during pregnancy and what factors influenced their decision to be vaccinated. A semi-structured interview guide was developed with questions focusing on knowledge of pertussis and influenza vaccination during pregnancy and decision-making. Maori and Pacific women aged over 16 years were purposively sampled and interviewed in Dunedin and Gisborne, New Zealand between May and August 2021. Interviews were analysed following a directed qualitative content approach. Data were arranged into coding nodes based on the study aims (deductive analysis) informed by previous literature and within these participant experiences were inductively coded into themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Not all women were aware of maternal vaccine recommendations or they diseases they protected against. Many underestimated how dangerous influenza and pertussis could be and some were more concerned about potential harms of the vaccine. Furthermore, understanding potential harms of infection and protection provided by vaccination did not necessarily mean women would choose to be vaccinated. Those who decided to vaccinate felt well-informed, had vaccination recommended by their healthcare provider, and did so to protect their and their infant's health. Those who decided against vaccination were concerned about safety of the vaccines, lacked the information they needed, were not offered the vaccine, or did not consider vaccination a priority. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of understanding about vaccine benefits and risks of vaccine-preventable diseases which can result in the reinforcement of negative influences such as the fear of side effects. Furthermore, if vaccine benefits are not understood, inaccessibility of vaccines and the precedence of other life priorities may prevent uptake. Being well-informed and supported to make positive decisions to vaccinate in pregnancy is likely to improve vaccine coverage in Maori and Pacific Island New Zealanders.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Whooping Cough , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mothers , New Zealand , Pertussis Vaccine/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnant Women , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
8.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(5-6): In press, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses share a common respiratory symptomatology and transmission mode. COVID-19 and influenza R0 overlapped in the first epidemic wave. In autumn 2021-winter 2022, the influenza epidemic had a delayed onset compared to pre-COVID-19 years and lower incidence rates than in the pre-pandemic period. The SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccination campaign overlapped in 2021-2022. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated cohort the effect of different timing of influenza vaccination on hospitalisations for COVID-19 and overall mortality. DESIGN: prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: subjects aged 65 years or older who were administered the first booster dose of SARS-COV-2 vaccine between 01.10.2021 and 01.03.2022. Based on the date of influenza vaccination, subjects were divided into the following 4 different mutually exclusive groups: 1. two vaccinations in the same vaccination session; 2. influenza vaccination following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; 3. influenza vaccination preceding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; 4. no influenza vaccination. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of hospitalisation and death were estimated for the influenza-vaccinated subjects compared to influenza-unvaccinated subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ordinary hospital admissions for COVID-19 and general mortality. RESULTS: the cohort included 618,964 subjects: 16.3% received two vaccinations in the same vaccination session, 8.5% received the influenza vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, 33.9% received it before and 41.1% did not receive an influenza vaccination. Those vaccinated against both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza had a combined HR of 0.73 (0.62-0.86) of hospitalisation for COVID-19 and 0.55 (0.49-0.62) of overall mortality compared to those vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 only. CONCLUSIONS: influenza vaccination combined with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination increases the protective effect against hospitalisations and overall mortality compared to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination alone. Both organisational and communication actions aimed to promote and encourage vaccination are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Italy/epidemiology , Vaccination , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Risk Assessment
9.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(3): E405-E414, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145537

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are one of the highest priority groups recommended for seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV). Greater awareness of the importance of influenza vaccination was observed among HCWs after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to analyze SIV coverage rates in the 2019-2020, 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 seasons among HCWs employed at the IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino in Genoa, in order to observe how coverage has changed since the COVID-19 pandemic began. Methods: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted among HCWs working at the IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino in Genoa. The vaccinated population was stratified by gender, age, qualification and area of activity, and the characteristics of vaccinated HCWs were analyzed. Results: While SIV coverage was below the recommended target in all seasons, a sharp increase was observed in 2020/2021 (12.8%; 40.9% and 23% in 2019/2020, 2020/2021 and 2021/2022, respectively). The mean and median age of vaccinees also increased during the 2020/2021 vaccination campaign (46.7 and 49 years, respectively) in comparison with the 2019/2020 season (43.5 and 45, respectively). In the 2019/2020 and 2021/2022 seasons, a higher proportion of vaccinees were physicians. Vaccinated females outnumbered males, but the coverage rate resulted greater in males than females in all three seasons. While a higher proportion of vaccinated subjects worked in medical areas, the most evident increase over the three years was seen among subjects working in the services area. Conclusions: This survey highlights the importance of studying the determinants that influence vaccination adherence and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected SIV coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccination Coverage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Italy/epidemiology
10.
Orv Hetil ; 163(40): 1585-1596, 2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140901

ABSTRACT

The different types of cardiovascular diseases, including coronary heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure are highly prevalent in the society. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality. Although the influenza is forced out from the mainstream of thinking nowadays because of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it still has its serious epidemiological significance. The seasonal influenza epidemic often contributes to mortality mainly, but not exclusively among old, multi-morbid patients. There are a vast number of scientific publications and evidence which prove and emphasize the synergic health-destroying and mortality-increasing effect of co-existing cardiovascular disease and influenza. Moreover, the beneficial effect of vaccination against influenza infection and its major role in prevention is also well documented. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic enforces the importance of influenza vaccination because both viruses can lead to severe or often fatal disease, especially among old and frail patients. In addition, the younger population can be far more vulnerable against the novel coronavirus in the case of a co-existing influenza infection. International guidelines recommend influenza vaccination for patients having heart disease, like for other high-risk populations. Despite the nationally reimbursed, cost-free vaccines, the influenza vaccination rate of the society is still low not just in Hungary but also internationally. The authors review the effect of influenza infection on heart diseases, and draw attention to the role of influenza vaccination in decreasing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(40): 1585-1596.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Mentha , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Science ; 378(6622): 827-828, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137364

ABSTRACT

An mRNA-lipid nanoparticle vaccine protects animals from 20 influenza lineages.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza B virus , Influenza Vaccines/genetics
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2213313119, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133967

ABSTRACT

Hong Kong has implemented stringent public health and social measures (PHSMs) to curb each of the four COVID-19 epidemic waves since January 2020. The third wave between July and September 2020 was brought under control within 2 m, while the fourth wave starting from the end of October 2020 has taken longer to bring under control and lasted at least 5 mo. Here, we report the pandemic fatigue as one of the potential reasons for the reduced impact of PHSMs on transmission in the fourth wave. We contacted either 500 or 1,000 local residents through weekly random-digit dialing of landlines and mobile telephones from May 2020 to February 2021. We analyze the epidemiological impact of pandemic fatigue by using the large and detailed cross-sectional telephone surveys to quantify risk perception and self-reported protective behaviors and mathematical models to incorporate population protective behaviors. Our retrospective prediction suggests that an increase of 100 daily new reported cases would lead to 6.60% (95% CI: 4.03, 9.17) more people worrying about being infected, increase 3.77% (95% CI: 2.46, 5.09) more people to avoid social gatherings, and reduce the weekly mean reproduction number by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.44). Accordingly, the fourth wave would have been 14% (95% CI%: -53%, 81%) smaller if not for pandemic fatigue. This indicates the important role of mitigating pandemic fatigue in maintaining population protective behaviors for controlling COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/prevention & control
13.
J Law Med Ethics ; 50(3): 613-618, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133020

ABSTRACT

Vaccine mandates played a critical role in the success of New York City's COVID-19 response. By relying on evidence as a substantive basis for the mandates and adhering to procedural requirements and precedent, New York City leveraged its position and expertise as a local governmental authority to devise mandatory vaccine policies that withstood numerous legal challenges. New York City's experience highlights the role of municipal government in mounting a meaningful public health response, and the strategies adopted by NYC may provide a blueprint for municipalities around the world facing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the threat of future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination
14.
Vaccine ; 40(50): 7238-7246, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended every year for aged care staff to protect themselves and minimise risk of transmission to residents. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with repeated annual influenza vaccine uptake among Australian aged care staff from 2017 to 2019. METHODS: Demographic, medical and vaccination data collected from the staff, who participated in an observational study from nine aged care facilities under a single provider in Sydney Australia, were analysed retrospectively. Based on the pattern of repeated influenza vaccination from 2017 to 2019, three groups were identified: (1) unvaccinated all three years; (2) vaccinated occasionally(once or twice) over three years; and (3)vaccinated all threeyears. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to better understand the factors associated with the pattern of repeated influenza vaccination. RESULTS: From a total of 138 staff, between 2017 and 2019, 28.9 % (n = 40) never had a vaccination, while 44.2 % (n = 61) had vaccination occasionally and 26.8 % (n = 37) had vaccination all three years. In the multinomial logistic regression model, those who were<40 years old (OR = 0.57, 95 % CI: 0.19-0.90, p < 0.05) and those who were current smokers (OR = 0.20; 95 % CI: 0.03-0.76, p < 0.05) were less likely to have repeated vaccination for all three years compared to the unvaccinated group. Those who were<40 years old (OR = 0.61; 95 % CI: 0.22-0.68, p < 0.05) and those who were born overseas (OR = 0.50; 95 % CI:0.27-0.69, p < 0.05) were more likely to be vaccinated occasionally compared to the unvaccinated group. CONCLUSION: The significant predictors of repeated vaccine uptake across the three-year study period among aged care staff were age, smoking status and country of birth (Other vs Australia). Targeted interventions towards the younger age group (<40 years old), smokers and those who were born overseas could improve repeated influenza vaccination uptake in the aged care workforce.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Aged , Adult , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Australia , Vaccination
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(11): e1543-e1544, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114588
16.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113143

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of the influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Myanmar from 2015 to 2019. Whole genomes from 79 virus isolates were amplified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and successfully sequenced using the Illumina iSeq100 platforms. Eight individual phylogenetic trees were retrieved for each segment along with those of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains for the respective years. Based on the WHO clades classification, the A/H3N2 strains in Myanmar from 2015 to 2019 collectively belonged to clade 3c.2. These strains were further defined based on hemagglutinin substitutions as follows: clade 3C.2a (n = 39), 3C.2a1 (n = 2), and 3C.2a1b (n = 38). Genetic analysis revealed that the Myanmar strains differed from the Southern Hemisphere vaccine strains each year, indicating that the vaccine strains did not match the circulating strains. The highest rates of nucleotide substitution were estimated for hemagglutinin (3.37 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year) and neuraminidase (2.89 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year). The lowest rate was for non-structural protein segments (4.19 × 10-5 substitutions/site/year). The substantial genetic diversity that was revealed improved phylogenetic classification. This information will be particularly relevant for improving vaccine strain selection.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Hemagglutinins , Phylogeny , Myanmar/epidemiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seasons
17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 40(11): 2044-2051, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111742

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study treatment decisions of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD) at the beginning of the SARS- CoV-2 pandemic in relation to disease characteristics with focus on anxiety. METHODS: A total of 970 CIRD patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), psoriasis arthritis (PsA) and connective tissue diseases (CTD), selected from our records who had presented to our hospital at least twice during last year, were contacted by telephone to be asked about medication changes, health status and therapy satisfaction. Standardised tools were used to assess disease activity, anxiety and depression, the latter by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) with a score ≥8 denoting definite anxiety and/or depression. The cut-off for RADAI was set at ≥3.2 and for BASDAI ≥4. Compliance with prevention rules and vaccination status were assessed. RESULTS: Complete interviews of 557 patients (57.4%) made between April and July 2020 were available for analysis. The median age was 55 (47-63), disease duration 9.0 (4.5-17.0) years, 61.9% females. A recent change in medication was reported by 197 patients (35.4%), 51.2% of which admitted that this decision was mainly made due to the pandemic with more changes occurring with bDMARDs (21.8%) than cDMARDs (6.6%) and corticosteroids (5.4%). There was no major difference between patients who changed because of the pandemic or self-reported inactive disease versus patients who did not change therapy regarding disease activity, depression and anxiety (41%, 17.2%, 31.3% vs. 47.5%, 22.5%, 35.0% vs. 48.9%, 27.7%, 34.1%). More than 90% of patients reported that they rigorously followed Corona prevention rules. The majority of patients were vaccinated against influenza (55.3%) and pneumococci (61.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety, depression and disease activity did not play an important role in decisions favouring change of therapy, even though many patients changed medication due to the pandemic. Patients probably protected themselves by strictly adhering to hygiene recommendations. Vaccination rates against influenza and pneumococci were better than previously reported, but still too low.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Rheumatic Diseases , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Chronic Disease , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology
18.
BMJ ; 379: o2625, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119442
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1540-1542, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119293

ABSTRACT

Since the global pandemic of COVID-19, different countries have implemented various prevention and control measures, which has affected the epidemic characteristics of respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza. From 2020 to 2021, the level of influenza activity was relatively low, but it is necessary to be alert that with the adjustment of national prevention and control measures, influenza may have a relatively strong epidemic rebound. In order to deal with influenza epidemic, experts were organized to publish a series of influenza studies in this issue, suggesting that influenza prevention and control cannot be underestimated during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is suggested to carry out research on the interaction between COVID-19 and influenza to explore the epidemic characteristics of the disease, develop new technologies and tools to improve the efficiency of monitoring and early warning, identify obstacles to vaccination, promote the scientific implementation of intervention measures, and achieve joint prevention and control of multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6961, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119270

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommend a third dose of COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant women, although data regarding effectiveness during pregnancy are lacking. This national, population-based, historical cohort study of pregnant women in Israel, delivering between August 1, 2021 and March 22, 2022, aims to analyze and compare the third and second doses' vaccine effectiveness in preventing COVID-19-related hospitalizations during pregnancy during two COVID-19 waves (Delta variant in the summer of 2021 and Omicron, BA.1, variant in the winter of 2022). Time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards regression models estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for COVID-related outcomes according to vaccine dose, and vaccine effectiveness as 1-HR. Study includes 82,659 and 33,303 pregnant women from the Delta and Omicron waves, respectively. Compared with the second dose, the third dose effectively prevents overall hospitalizations with SARS-CoV-2 infections, with estimated effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 83-96%) during Delta, and enhances protection against significant disease during Omicron, with effectiveness of 92% (95% CI 26-99%), and 48% (95% CI 37-57%) effectiveness against hospitalization overall. A third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine during pregnancy, given at least 5 months after the second vaccine dose, enhances protection against adverse COVID-19-related outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Israel/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
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