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2.
Vaccine ; 40(3): 503-511, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how influenza vaccine uptake changed during the 2020/2021 influenza season compared to previous pre-pandemic seasons is a key priority, as is identifying the relationship between prior influenza vaccination and COVID-19 vaccine willingness. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large, nationally representative cohort of Canadian residents aged 50 and older to assess influenza vaccination status three times between 2015 and 2020. We investigated: 1) changes in self-reported influenza vaccine uptake, 2) predictors of influenza vaccine uptake in 2020/2021, and 3) the association between influenza vaccination history and self-reported COVID-19 vaccine willingness using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 23,385 participants analyzed for aims 1-2, influenza vaccination increased over time: 14,114 (60.4%) in 2015-2018, 15,692 (67.1%) in 2019/2020, and 19,186 (82.0%; combining those already vaccinated and those planning to get a vaccine) in 2020/2021. After controlling for socio-demographics, history of influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with influenza vaccination in 2020/2021 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 147.9 [95% CI: 120.9-180.9]); this association remained after accounting for multiple health and pandemic-related factors (aOR 140.3 [95% CI: 114.5-171.8]). To a lesser degree, those more concerned about COVID-19 were also more likely to report influenza vaccination in fall 2020, whereas those reporting a very negative impact of the pandemic were less likely to get vaccinated. Among 23,819 participants with information on COVID-19 vaccine willingness during the last quarter of 2020 (aim 3), prior influenza vaccination was most strongly associated with willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine (aOR 15.1 [95% CI: 13.5-16.8] for those who had received influenza vaccine at all previous timepoints versus none). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the importance of previous vaccination in driving vaccination uptake and willingness. Efforts to increase vaccination coverage for influenza and COVID-19 should target individuals who do not routinely engage with immunization services regardless of demographic factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 37(1_suppl): 15S-23S, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582808

ABSTRACT

School-located vaccination clinics (SLVs) are an established strategy to offer influenza and routine vaccinations and improve student and community health. The COVID-19 pandemic has led many communities to expand SLVs to include COVID-19 vaccines. However, these SLVs are less documented than in the past due to the fast-paced nature of the pandemic and the additional pressures put on schools and public health organizations. We conducted five virtual roundtables with 30 school nurses and state immunization program managers from across the United States to gain insight into SLVs occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Roundtables explored participants' experiences planning and implementing SLVs, including factors influencing success and available resources. Findings highlighted SLVs as an opportunity to increase access and equity for vaccines. Participants shared strategies for School-located vaccination (SLV) funding, partnership building, vaccine storage and management, consent, data sharing, messaging, and promotion. These shared experiences offer useful insights for those interested in future and sustained SLV implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , School Nursing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization Programs , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services , Schools , United States , Vaccination
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2317, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The willingness to get COVID-19 or seasonal influenza vaccines has not yet been thoroughly investigated together, thus, this study aims to explore this notion within the general adult population. METHODS: The responses of 840 Hungarian participants were analysed who took part in a nationwide computer-assisted telephone interviewing. During the survey questions concerning various demographic characteristics, perceived financial status, and willingness to get the two types of vaccines were asked. Descriptive statistics, comparative statistics and word co-occurrence network analysis were conducted. RESULTS: 48.2% of participants were willing to get a COVID-19 vaccine, while this ratio for the seasonal influenza was only 25.7%. The difference was significant. Regardless of how the participants were grouped, based on demographic data or perceived financial status, the significant difference always persisted. Being older than 59 years significantly increased the willingness to get both vaccines when compared to the middle-aged groups, but not when compared to the younger ones. Having higher education significantly elevated the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination in comparison to secondary education. The willingness of getting any type of COVID-19 vaccine correlated with the willingness to get both influenza and COVID-19. Finally, those who were willing to get either vaccine coupled similar words together to describe their thoughts about a COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSION: The overall results show a clear preference for a COVID-19 vaccine and there are several similarities between the nature of willingness to get either type of vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hungary , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3337-3346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581602

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 tends to cause more severe disease in patients with COPD once they are infected. We aimed to investigate the rates of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination uptake in patients with COPD and to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread vaccination against COVID-19 had any impact on the intention to accept influenza vaccines in these patients. Methods: We conducted a multi-center and cross-sectional survey in seven tertiary hospitals in Beijing and consecutively recruited outpatients with COPD from June 1st to July 30th, 2021. The survey included patient's clinical characteristics, uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine knowledge, attitude towards vaccines, and the change of intention to receive influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 vaccination in Beijing. Results: A total of 264 patients were enrolled. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination during the study period was 39.0%. The rates of influenza vaccination in the past season and pneumococcal vaccination in the past year were 22.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Of the patients who had not received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 161), only 16.2% reported that COVID-19 vaccination was recommended by clinicians, while 23.5% had no knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination. About 51.1% of the patients reported that their intention to receive influenza vaccination was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination was independently associated with a positive change in intention to receive influenza vaccination. Conclusion: The coverage rate of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with COPD in Beijing was 39.0%, and that of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination was very low. The COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccination campaign showed a significant, positive impact on patients with COPD in terms of influenza vaccination. Improving awareness of the effectiveness and safety of vaccines among both healthcare professionals and patients could increase vaccination coverage in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Antiviral Res ; 197: 105227, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588315

ABSTRACT

The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) and the WHO held a joint virtual conference from 19th-21st October 2021. While there was a major focus on the global response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, including antivirals, vaccines and surveillance strategies, papers were also presented on treatment and prevention of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Potential therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 included host-targeted therapies baricitinib, a JAK inhibitor, tocilizumab, an IL-6R inhibitor, verdinexor and direct acting antivirals ensovibep, S-217622, AT-527, and monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, directed against the spike protein. Data from trials of nirsevimab, a monoclonal antibody with a prolonged half-life which binds to the RSV F-protein, and an Ad26.RSV pre-F vaccine were also presented. The expanded role of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System to address the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was also discussed. This report summarizes the oral presentations given at this meeting for the benefit of the broader medical and scientific community involved in surveillance, treatment and prevention of respiratory virus diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Influenza, Human/therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , World Health Organization
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E613-E620, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575621

ABSTRACT

The intrusion of infectious diseases in everyday life forces humans to reassess their attitudes. Indeed, pandemics are able catalyze rapid transitions in scientific knowledge, politics, social behaviors, culture and arts. The current Coronavirus diesease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak has driven an unprecedented interest toward the influenza pandemic of 1918. The issue is whether history can shed light on the best preventive response and future scenarios. The aim of this review is to highlight the parallelism between the two pandemics. Starting from epidemiology and clinical features, but further focusing on social and cultural issues, it is possible to unreveal great similarities. Their outbreak pattern lead to hypothesize a similar duration and death burden in absence of effective vaccines or innovative treatments for COVID-19. Thus, then as now, preventive medicine represents the first and most effective tool to contain the course of the pandemic; being treatments available only supportive. At the same time,both pandemics shared the same pattern of narration (e.g. scapegoating) and the same impact on minorities in high-income countries. Furthermore, visual art responded to pandemic issues in 2020 in the form of Graffiti art, while similar role was ruled by Expressionism movement during the Spanish flu. Photography also was capable to document both catastrophic scenarios. Thus, it is possible to find a lot of clinical and social similarities between the two pandemics. Nevertheless, if the Spanish flu was not unforseen, COVID-19 spillover was partially predictable and its global impact will hopefully not be overshadowed by a major crisis such as World War I.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(46): 3771-3774, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572699

ABSTRACT

The lower temperature in autumn-winter provides favorable conditions for the survival and spread of respiratory infectious diseases such as the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza. It is likely that there will be a co-circulation of respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. In order to promote the prevention and control of influenza and the application of influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic in China, we separately discussed the risk of influenza epidemic in the 2021-2022 season, the influenza vaccination policies, and advocate influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of population medicine. We appeal that COVID-19 vaccination cannot delay the normal delivery of other vaccines in the national immunization programs and non-Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines. Promoting influenza vaccination policies and improving immunization service convenience are necessary for increasing influenza vaccine coverage, protecting public health and assisting COVID-19 response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(45): 1575-1578, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559837

ABSTRACT

Influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Between 2010 and 2020, an estimated 9-41 million cases resulted in 140,000-710,000 hospitalizations and 12,000-52,000 deaths annually (1). As the United States enters the 2021-22 influenza season, the potential impact of influenza illnesses is of concern given that influenza season will again coincide with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which could further strain overburdened health care systems. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine annual influenza vaccination for the 2021-22 influenza season for all persons aged ≥6 months who have no contraindications (2). To assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on influenza vaccination coverage, the percentage change between administration of at least 1 dose of influenza vaccine during September-December 2020 was compared with the average administered in the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. The data analyzed were reported from 11 U.S. jurisdictions with high-performing state immunization information systems.* Overall, influenza vaccine administration was 9.0% higher in 2020 compared with the average in 2018 and 2019, combined. However, in 2020, the number of influenza vaccine doses administered to children aged 6-23 months and children aged 2-4 years, was 13.9% and 11.9% lower, respectively than the average for each age group in 2018 and 2019. Strategic efforts are needed to ensure high influenza vaccination coverage among all age groups, especially children aged 6 months-4 years who are not yet eligible to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Administration of influenza vaccine and a COVID-19 vaccine among eligible populations is especially important to reduce the potential strain that influenza and COVID-19 cases could place on health care systems already overburdened by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , Aged , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization/standards , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Vaccine ; 40(4): 562-567, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560814

ABSTRACT

Recent data indicates increasing hesitancy towards both COVID-19 and influenza vaccination. We studied attitudes towards COVID-19 booster, influenza, and combination influenza-COVID-19 booster vaccines in a nationally representative sample of US adults between May and June 2021 (n = 12,887). We used pre-qualification quotes to ensure adequate sample sizes for minority populations. Overall vaccine acceptance was 45% for a COVID-19 booster alone, 58% for an influenza vaccine alone, and 50% for a combination vaccine. Logistic regression showed lower acceptance among female, Black/African American, Native American/American Indian, and rural respondents. Higher acceptance was found among those with college and post-graduate degrees. Despite these differences, our results suggest that a combination vaccine may provide a convenient method of dual vaccination that may increase COVID-19 vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 325-333, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559098

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine factors affecting the intent to vaccinate during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and to leverage the results to inform public health policy decisions aimed at increasing vaccine uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey data and state-level administrative data, we employ logistic regression and mediation models to estimate the association between vaccine uptake and state level public health spending, political ideology, and H1N1 case and death rates as well as a set of individual and household characteristics. We find that higher public health spending can significantly increase the intent to vaccinate, mainly through raising concerns about the pandemic and promoting vaccine relevant doctor patient interactions. We conclude that physicians, especially primary care physicians, should play more important roles in the ongoing vaccination efforts against the COVID-19 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
16.
J Clin Invest ; 131(13)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556620

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza vaccination elicits a diminished adaptive immune response in the elderly, and the mechanisms of immunosenescence are not fully understood. Using Ig-Seq, we found a marked increase with age in the prevalence of cross-reactive (CR) serum antibodies that recognize both the H1N1 (vaccine-H1) and H3N2 (vaccine-H3) components of an egg-produced split influenza vaccine. CR antibodies accounted for 73% ± 18% of the serum vaccine responses in a cohort of elderly donors, 65% ± 15% in late middle-aged donors, and only 13% ± 5% in persons under 35 years of age. The antibody response to non-HA antigens was boosted by vaccination. Recombinant expression of 19 vaccine-H1+H3 CR serum monoclonal antibodies (s-mAbs) revealed that they predominantly bound to non-HA influenza proteins. A sizable fraction of vaccine-H1+H3 CR s-mAbs recognized with high affinity the sulfated glycans, in particular sulfated type 2 N-acetyllactosamine (Galß1-4GalNAcß), which is found on egg-produced proteins and thus unlikely to contribute to protection against influenza infection in humans. Antibodies against sulfated glycans in egg-produced vaccine had been identified in animals but were not previously characterized in humans. Collectively, our results provide a quantitative basis for how repeated exposure to split influenza vaccine correlates with unintended focusing of serum antibody responses to non-HA antigens that may result in suboptimal immunity against influenza.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Eggs/analysis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Middle Aged , Polysaccharides/immunology , Vaccination
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1722-1749, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534280

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a respiratory infectious disease that can seriously affect human health. Influenza virus has frequent antigenic drifts that can facilitate escape from pre-existing population immunity and lead to rapid and widespread transmission. Seasonal influenza is characterized by annual epidemics and outbreaks in places of public gathering such as schools, kindergartens, and nursing homes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), seasonal influenza causes 3 to 5 million severe cases and 290 000 to 650 000 deaths globally each year. Pregnant women, young children, the elderly, and persons with chronic medical conditions are at highest risk for severe illness and death from influenza virus infection. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 may co-circulate with influenza and other respiratory viruses in the upcoming winter-spring influenza season. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and complications from influenza. China has several licensed influenza vaccines - trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3), which include split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine; quadrivalent split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4); and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3). With the exception of a few major cities, influenza vaccine is a non-program vaccine, which means that influenza vaccination is not included in China's Expanded Program on Immunization, and recipients must pay for influenza vaccine and its administration. China CDC has issued "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China" every year from 2018 to 2020. This past year, there have been scientific and programmatic advances in prevention and control of seasonal influenza. To strengthen technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and facilitate operational research on influenza vaccination, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC) Influenza Vaccination Technical Working Group (TWG) updated the 2020-2021 technical guidelines into the "Technical Guidelines for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in China (2021-2022)." The new version has updates in five key areas: (1) new research evidence, especially from studies in China, on disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, vaccine-avoidable disease burden, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses, (2) policies and measures for influenza prevention and control that were issued by National Health Commission (NHC) in the past year, (3) licensure of a new seasonal influenza vaccine in time for the 2021-2022 season, (4) composition of the northern hemisphere trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccines for the 2021-2022 season, and (5) recommendations for influenza vaccination during the 2021-2022 influenza season. The recommendations specify that immunization clinics should provide influenza vaccine to all persons aged 6 months and above who are willing to be vaccinated and do not have contraindications; the interval between receipt of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine should at least 14 days; and there is no preference for one influenza vaccine over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended, and appropriate vaccine is available. Considering the global COVID-19 pandemic and the need to decrease risk of influenza virus infection and minimize potential impact on COVID-19 prevention and control, we recommend the following target population priorities in preparation for the 2021-2022 influenza season: (1) healthcare workers, including clinical doctors and nurses, public health professionals, and quarantine professionals, (2) volunteers and staff who provide service and support for large events, (3) people living in nursing homes or welfare homes and staff who take care of vulnerable, at-risk individuals, (4) people who work in high population density settings, including teachers and students in kindergartens, primary, and secondary schools and prisoners and prison staff, and (5) people with high risk of complications from influenza, including adults ≥60 years of age, children 6-59 months of age, persons with certain chronic conditions, family members and caregivers of infants <6 months of age, and pregnant women and women who plan to become pregnant during the influenza season. Children 6 months through 8 years of age who have never received influenza vaccine or who have received only one lifetime dose require 2 doses of influenza vaccine that are administered at least 4 weeks apart. This recommendation applies to both IIV and LAIV. If children received 2 doses of influenza vaccine in the 2020-2021 influenza season or received more than 2 doses of influenza vaccine in prior influenza seasons, 1 dose of influenza vaccine is recommended. People more than 9 years old require only 1 dose of influenza vaccine. People should receive influenza vaccination by the end of October, and influenza vaccine should be offered as soon as it is available. For people unable to be vaccinated before the end of October, influenza vaccine will continue to be offered throughout the season. Influenza vaccine is recommended for pregnant women during any trimester of pregnancy. These guidelines are intended for use by staff of CDCs at all levels who work on influenza control and prevention; immunization clinic staff members; healthcare workers from departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, and infectious diseases; and staff of maternity and child care institutions at all levels. The guidelines will be periodically updated as new evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
19.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7058-7065, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although influenza vaccines provide protection against influenza viruses, concern has been raised that they may increase susceptibility to non-influenza respiratory viruses. As pandemic lockdowns end, temporal overlap of circulation of seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is expected. Understanding the impact of influenza vaccination on risk of coronavirus infection is therefore of considerable public health importance. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized trial where children and adolescents in Canadian Hutterite colonies were randomly assigned by colony to receive the 2008-2009 seasonal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or a control hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine. All 3273 colony members (vaccinated children and nonvaccine recipients) were followed for the primary outcome of RT-PCR confirmed seasonal coronavirus infection. Serum collected pre- and post-vaccination was analyzed for titers of IgG antibodies towards human coronaviruses (HCoV). RESULTS: The incidence of coronavirus infection was 0·18/1000 person-days in the colonies that received TIV vs 0.36/1000 person-days in the control group, hazard ratio (HR) 0.49 [0.21-1.17]. The risk reduction among non-vaccine recipients in the TIV group compared to the control group was HR 0.55 [0.24-1.23]. There was an increase in the geometric mean fold change of HCoV-OC43 antibody titers following TIV compared to HepA vaccine (mean difference 1.2 [0.38-2.06], p = 0.007), and an increase in geometric mean HCoV-NL63 antibody titers post-TIV (262.9 vs 342.9, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The influenza vaccine does not increase the risk of a coronavirus infection. Instead, the influenza vaccine may reduce the rate of coronavirus infections by inducing cross-reactive anti-coronavirus IgG antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , Canada , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22164, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514425

ABSTRACT

The influenza A non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is known for its ability to hinder the synthesis of type I interferon (IFN) during viral infection. Influenza viruses lacking NS1 (ΔNS1) are under clinical development as live attenuated human influenza virus vaccines and induce potent influenza virus-specific humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Attenuation of ΔNS1 influenza viruses is due to their high IFN inducing properties, that limit their replication in vivo. This study demonstrates that pre-treatment with a ΔNS1 virus results in an antiviral state which prevents subsequent replication of homologous and heterologous viruses, preventing disease from virus respiratory pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. Our studies suggest that ΔNS1 influenza viruses could be used for the prophylaxis of influenza, SARS-CoV-2 and other human respiratory viral infections, and that an influenza virus vaccine based on ΔNS1 live attenuated viruses would confer broad protection against influenza virus infection from the moment of administration, first by non-specific innate immune induction, followed by specific adaptive immunity.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Interferon Type I/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chickens , Gene Deletion , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/genetics , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
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