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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 28-32, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865412

ABSTRACT

Sharing observational and interventional health data within a common data space enables university hospitals to leverage such data for biomedical discovery and moving towards a learning health system. OBJECTIVE: To describe the AP-HP Health Data Space (AHDS) and the IT services supporting piloting, research, innovation and patient care. METHODS: Built on three pillars - governance and ethics, technology and valorization - the AHDS and its major component, the Clinical Data Warehouse (CDW) have been developed since 2015. RESULTS: The AP-HP CDW has been made available at scale to AP-HP both healthcare professionals and public or private partners in January 2017. Supported by an institutional secured and high-performance cloud and an ecosystem of tools, mostly open source, the AHDS integrates a large amount of massive healthcare data collected during care and research activities. As of December 2021, the AHDS operates the electronic data capture for almost +840 clinical trials sponsored by AP-HP, the CDW is enabling the processing of health data from more than 11 million patients and generated +200 secondary data marts from IRB authorized research projects. During the Covid-19 pandemic, AHDS has had to evolve quickly to support administrative professionals and caregivers heavily involved in the reorganization of both patient care and biomedical research. CONCLUSION: The AP-HP Data Space is a key facilitator for data-driven evidence generation and making the health system more efficient and personalized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Warehousing , Information Dissemination , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Warehousing/methods , Health Personnel , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0260367, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793557

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The world is awash with claims about the effects of health interventions. Many of these claims are untrustworthy because the bases are unreliable. Acting on unreliable claims can lead to waste of resources and poor health outcomes. Yet, most people lack the necessary skills to appraise the reliability of health claims. The Informed Health Choices (IHC) project aims to equip young people in Ugandan lower secondary schools with skills to think critically about health claims and to make good health choices by developing and evaluating digital learning resources. To ensure that we create resources that are suitable for use in Uganda's secondary schools and can be scaled up if found effective, we conducted a context analysis. We aimed to better understand opportunities and barriers related to demand for the resources, how the learning content overlaps with existing curriculum and conditions in secondary schools for accessing and using digital resources, in order to inform resource development. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach and collected both qualitative and quantitative data. We conducted document analyses, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, school visits, and a telephone survey regarding information communication and technology (ICT). We used a nominal group technique to obtain consensus on the appropriate number and length of IHC lessons that should be planned in a school term. We developed and used a framework from the objectives to code the transcripts and generated summaries of query reports in Atlas.ti version 7. FINDINGS: Critical thinking is a key competency in the lower secondary school curriculum. However, the curriculum does not explicitly make provision to teach critical thinking about health, despite a need acknowledged by curriculum developers, teachers and students. Exam oriented teaching and a lack of learning resources are additional important barriers to teaching critical thinking about health. School closures and the subsequent introduction of online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated teachers' use of digital equipment and learning resources for teaching. Although the government is committed to improving access to ICT in schools and teachers are open to using ICT, access to digital equipment, unreliable power and internet connections remain important hinderances to use of digital learning resources. CONCLUSIONS: There is a recognized need for learning resources to teach critical thinking about health in Ugandan lower secondary schools. Digital learning resources should be designed to be usable even in schools with limited access and equipment. Teacher training on use of ICT for teaching is needed.


Subject(s)
Health Behavior/physiology , Health Education/methods , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Adolescent , Choice Behavior/physiology , Curriculum , Digital Technology , Female , Focus Groups , Humans , Information Dissemination/ethics , Information Dissemination/methods , Learning , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Schools/trends , Students , Thinking , Uganda/ethnology
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 748236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785431

ABSTRACT

Information disclosure is crucial in China's official response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the early phase of the pandemic, the government's method of communication has relied heavily upon its analysis of information disclosed during past public health emergencies. This approach was proposed to better inform and prepare citizens during the crisis. This study aimed to study the effectiveness of China's information disclosure by examining themes, interconnection, and timeliness of information as posted on the Weibo microblogging platform between January and April 2020. The Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model analysis for social networks revealed six main characteristics including a shift from 'scattered' to 'focused' communication. Three main themes surrounding experience were highlighted, namely social governance, medical expertise, and encouragement, although experiential knowledge disclosure was timelier than other topics. This study broadens the dimension and scope of empirical theory by examining government information disclosure practices and provides a reference for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Emergencies , Government , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 641424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760277

ABSTRACT

Using digital technology to share patient-generated health data has the potential to improve the self-management of multiple long-term health conditions. Sharing these data can allow patients to receive additional support from healthcare professionals and peer communities, as well as enhance their understanding of their own health. A deeper understanding of the concerns raised by those living with long-term health conditions when considering whether to share health data via digital technology may help to facilitate effective data sharing practices in the future. The aim of this review is to identify whether trust, identity, privacy and security concerns present barriers to the successful sharing of patient-generated data using digital technology by those living with long-term health conditions. We also address the impact of stigma on concerns surrounding sharing health data with others. Searches of CINAHL, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge were conducted in December 2019 and again in October 2020 producing 2,581 results. An iterative review process resulted in a final dataset of 23 peer-reviewed articles. A thorough analysis of the selected articles found that issues surrounding trust, identity, privacy and security clearly present barriers to the sharing of patient-generated data across multiple sharing contexts. The presence of enacted stigma also acts as a barrier to sharing across multiple settings. We found that the majority of literature focuses on clinical settings with relatively little attention being given to sharing with third parties. Finally, we suggest the need for more solution-based research to overcome the discussed barriers to sharing.


Subject(s)
Digital Technology , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Privacy , Trust
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736061

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been accessible to the public since December 2020. However, only 58.3% of Americans are fully vaccinated as of 5 November 2021. Numerous studies have supported YouTube as a source of both reliable and misleading information during the COVID-19 pandemic. Misinformation regarding the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines has negatively impacted vaccination intent. To date, the literature lacks a systematic evaluation of YouTube's content on COVID-19 vaccination using validated scoring tools. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, usability and quality of the most widely viewed YouTube videos on COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A search on YouTube was performed on 21 July 2021, using keywords 'COVID-19 vaccine' on a cleared-cache web browser. Search results were sorted by 'views', and the top 150 most-viewed videos were collected and analysed. Duplicate, non-English, non-audiovisual, exceeding 1-hour duration, or videos unrelated to COVID-19 vaccine were excluded. The primary outcome was usability and reliability of videos, analysed using the modified DISCERN (mDISCERN) score, the modified Journal of the American Medical Association (mJAMA) score and the COVID-19 Vaccine Score (CVS). RESULTS: CONCLUSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, widespread adoption of vaccination is essential in reducing morbidity, mortality, and returning to some semblance of normalcy. Providing high-quality and engaging health information from reputable sources is essential in addressing vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Video Recording
9.
PLoS Biol ; 20(2): e3001285, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662437

ABSTRACT

Amid the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, preprints in the biomedical sciences are being posted and accessed at unprecedented rates, drawing widespread attention from the general public, press, and policymakers for the first time. This phenomenon has sharpened long-standing questions about the reliability of information shared prior to journal peer review. Does the information shared in preprints typically withstand the scrutiny of peer review, or are conclusions likely to change in the version of record? We assessed preprints from bioRxiv and medRxiv that had been posted and subsequently published in a journal through April 30, 2020, representing the initial phase of the pandemic response. We utilised a combination of automatic and manual annotations to quantify how an article changed between the preprinted and published version. We found that the total number of figure panels and tables changed little between preprint and published articles. Moreover, the conclusions of 7.2% of non-COVID-19-related and 17.2% of COVID-19-related abstracts undergo a discrete change by the time of publication, but the majority of these changes do not qualitatively change the conclusions of the paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Information Dissemination/methods , Peer Review, Research/trends , Periodicals as Topic/trends , Publications/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peer Review, Research/methods , Peer Review, Research/standards , Periodicals as Topic/standards , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Publications/standards , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Publishing/standards , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , Publishing/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0260750, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607086

ABSTRACT

Today, collaborative playlists (CPs) translate long-standing social practices around music consumption to enable people to curate and listen to music together over streaming platforms. Yet despite the critical role of CPs in digitally connecting people through music, we still understand very little about the needs and desires of real-world users, and how CPs might be designed to best serve them. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we conducted a survey with CP users, collecting open-ended text responses on what aspects of CPs they consider most important and useful, and what they viewed as missing or desired. Using thematic analysis, we derived from these responses the Codebook of Critical CP Factors, which comprises eight categories. We gained insights into which aspects of CPs are particularly useful-for instance, the ability for multiple collaborators to edit a single playlist-and which are absent and desired-such as the ability for collaborators to communicate about a CP or the music contained therein. From these findings we propose design implications to inform further design of CP functionalities and platforms, and highlight potential benefits and challenges related to their adoption in current music services.


Subject(s)
Information Dissemination/methods , Music/psychology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 197-202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582752

ABSTRACT

The public health crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic has spurred a deluge of scientific research aimed at informing the public health and medical response to the pandemic. However, early in the pandemic, those working in frontline public health and clinical care had insufficient time to parse the rapidly evolving evidence and use it for decision-making. Academics in public health and medicine were well-placed to translate the evidence for use by frontline clinicians and public health practitioners. The Novel Coronavirus Research Compendium (NCRC), a group of >60 faculty and trainees across the United States, formed in March 2020 with the goal to quickly triage and review the large volume of preprints and peer-reviewed publications on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 and summarize the most important, novel evidence to inform pandemic response. From April 6 through December 31, 2020, NCRC teams screened 54 192 peer-reviewed articles and preprints, of which 527 were selected for review and uploaded to the NCRC website for public consumption. Most articles were peer-reviewed publications (n = 395, 75.0%), published in 102 journals; 25.1% (n = 132) of articles reviewed were preprints. The NCRC is a successful model of how academics translate scientific knowledge for practitioners and help build capacity for this work among students. This approach could be used for health problems beyond COVID-19, but the effort is resource intensive and may not be sustainable in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Curation/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Interdisciplinary Research/organization & administration , Peer Review, Research , Preprints as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Public Health , United States
13.
Cell ; 184(25): 6010-6014, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553721

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 information epidemic, or "infodemic," demonstrates how unlimited access to information may confuse and influence behaviors during a health emergency. However, the study of infodemics is relatively new, and little is known about their relationship with epidemics management. Here, we discuss unresolved issues and propose research directions to enhance preparedness for future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Information Dissemination/ethics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemics/psychology , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health , Research/trends , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e161, 2020 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531968

ABSTRACT

After the 2003 SARS epidemic, China started constructing a primary-level emergency response system and focused on strengthening and implementation of policies, resource allocation. After 17 years of restructuring, China's primary-level response capabilities towards public health emergencies have greatly improved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, primary-level administrative and medical personnel, social organisations, volunteers, etc. have played a significant role in providing professional services utilising the primary-level emergency response system of 17 years. However, China's organisations did not learn their lesson from the SARS epidemic, and certain problems are exposed in the system. By analysing the experience and shortcomings of China's disease prevention and control system at the primary level, we can focus on the development of disease control systems for major epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Epidemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/standards , COVID-19 , China , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Information Technology/trends , Vulnerable Populations
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21700, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504478

ABSTRACT

With recurring waves of the Covid-19 pandemic, a dilemma facing public health leadership is whether to provide public advice that is medically optimal (e.g., most protective against infection if followed), but unlikely to be adhered to, or advice that is less protective but is more likely to be followed. To provide insight about this dilemma, we examined and quantified public perceptions about the tradeoff between (a) the stand-alone value of health behavior advice, and (b) the advice's adherence likelihood. In a series of studies about preference for public health leadership advice, we asked 1061 participants to choose between (5) strict advice that is medically optimal if adhered to but which is less likely to be broadly followed, and (2) relaxed advice, which is less medically effective but more likely to gain adherence-given varying infection expectancies. Participants' preference was consistent with risk aversion. Offering an informed choice alternative that shifts volition to advice recipients only strengthened risk aversion, but also demonstrated that informed choice was preferred as much or more than the risk-averse strict advice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Information Dissemination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , Public Policy/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
J Biomed Semantics ; 12(1): 13, 2021 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective response to public health emergencies, such as we are now experiencing with COVID-19, requires data sharing across multiple disciplines and data systems. Ontologies offer a powerful data sharing tool, and this holds especially for those ontologies built on the design principles of the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. These principles are exemplified by the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), a suite of interoperable ontology modules aiming to provide coverage of all aspects of the infectious disease domain. At its center is IDO Core, a disease- and pathogen-neutral ontology covering just those types of entities and relations that are relevant to infectious diseases generally. IDO Core is extended by disease and pathogen-specific ontology modules. RESULTS: To assist the integration and analysis of COVID-19 data, and viral infectious disease data more generally, we have recently developed three new IDO extensions: IDO Virus (VIDO); the Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO); and an extension of CIDO focusing on COVID-19 (IDO-COVID-19). Reflecting the fact that viruses lack cellular parts, we have introduced into IDO Core the term acellular structure to cover viruses and other acellular entities studied by virologists. We now distinguish between infectious agents - organisms with an infectious disposition - and infectious structures - acellular structures with an infectious disposition. This in turn has led to various updates and refinements of IDO Core's content. We believe that our work on VIDO, CIDO, and IDO-COVID-19 can serve as a model for yielding greater conformance with ontology building best practices. CONCLUSIONS: IDO provides a simple recipe for building new pathogen-specific ontologies in a way that allows data about novel diseases to be easily compared, along multiple dimensions, with data represented by existing disease ontologies. The IDO strategy, moreover, supports ontology coordination, providing a powerful method of data integration and sharing that allows physicians, researchers, and public health organizations to respond rapidly and efficiently to current and future public health crises.


Subject(s)
Biological Ontologies/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Computational Biology/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Computational Biology/methods , Data Mining/methods , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Semantics
19.
Drug Saf ; 43(8): 699-709, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482336

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that hit the world in 2020 triggered a massive dissemination of information (an "infodemic") about the disease that was channeled through the print, broadcast, web, and social media. This infodemic also included sensational and distorted information about drugs that likely first influenced opinion leaders and people particularly active on social media and then other people, thus affecting choices by individual patients everywhere. In particular, information has spread about some drugs approved for other indications (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, favipiravir, and umifenovir) that could have led to inappropriate and therefore hazardous use. In this article, we analyze the rationale behind the claims for use of these drugs in COVID-19, the communication about their effects on the disease, the consequences of this communication on people's behavior, and the responses of some influential regulatory authorities in an attempt to minimize the actual or potential risks arising from this behavior. Finally, we discuss the role of pharmacovigilance stakeholders in emergency management and possible strategies to deal with other similar crises in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Drug Utilization/trends , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Attitude to Health , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Information Dissemination/ethics , Information Dissemination/methods , Medication Therapy Management/ethics , Medication Therapy Management/standards , Pharmacovigilance , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Public Health/methods , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media/ethics , Social Media/standards , Social Medicine/ethics , Social Medicine/standards
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