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1.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(9): 1853-1863, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of COVID-19, many Iranians were poisoned by ingesting hand sanitizers and/or alcoholic beverages to avoid viral infection. To assess whether the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increased prevalence of accidental hand sanitizer/alcoholic beverage exposure in children and adolescents, we compared pediatric hospitalization rates during COVID-19 and the previous year. For poisoning admissions during COVID-19, we also evaluated the cause by age and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective data linkage study evaluated data from the Legal Medicine Organization (reporting mortalities) and hospitalization data from nine toxicology referral centers for alcohol-poisoned patients (age 0 to 18 years) for the study period (February 23 to June 22, 2020) and the pre-COVID-19 reference period (same dates in 2019). RESULTS: Hospitalization rates due to ethanol and methanol exposure were significantly higher in 2020 (n = 375) than 2019 (n = 202; OR [95% CI] 1.9 [1.6, 2.2], p < 0.001). During COVID-19, in patients ≤15 years, the odds of intoxication from hand sanitizers were significantly higher than from alcoholic beverages, while in 15- to 18-year-olds, alcoholic beverage exposure was 6.7 times more common (95% CI 2.8, 16.1, p < 0.001). Of 375 children/adolescents hospitalized for alcoholic beverage and hand sanitizer exposure in 2020, six did not survive. The odds of fatal outcome were seven times higher in 15- to 18-year-olds (OR (95% CI) 7.0 (2.4, 20.1); p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Iranian methanol poisoning outbreak during the first wave of COVID-19 was associated with significantly increased hospitalization rates among children and adolescents-including at least six pediatric in-hospital deaths from poisoning. Public awareness needs to be raised of the risks associated with ingesting alcoholic hand sanitizers.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages/poisoning , Alcoholic Intoxication/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Sanitizers/poisoning , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Methanol/poisoning , Adolescent , Alcoholic Intoxication/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256874, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398937

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a rapidly growing 'infodemic' of health information online. This has motivated the need for accurate semantic search and retrieval of reliable COVID-19 information across millions of documents, in multiple languages. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a novel high precision and high recall neural Multistage BiCross encoder approach. It is a sequential three-stage ranking pipeline which uses the Okapi BM25 retrieval algorithm and transformer-based bi-encoder and cross-encoder to effectively rank the documents with respect to the given query. We present experimental results from our participation in the Multilingual Information Access (MLIA) shared task on COVID-19 multilingual semantic search. The independently evaluated MLIA results validate our approach and demonstrate that it outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches according to nearly all evaluation metrics in cases of both monolingual and bilingual runs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Algorithms , Humans , Language , Multilingualism , Semantics
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D92-D96, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387961

ABSTRACT

GenBank® (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive, public database that contains 9.9 trillion base pairs from over 2.1 billion nucleotide sequences for 478 000 formally described species. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. Recent updates include new resources for data from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, updates to the NCBI Submission Portal and associated submission wizards for dengue and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, new taxonomy queries for viruses and prokaryotes, and simplified submission processes for EST and GSS sequences.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Molecular Sequence Annotation/methods , Pandemics
5.
J Biomed Semantics ; 12(1): 15, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ontology authoring step in ontology development involves having to make choices about what subject domain knowledge to include. This may concern sorting out ontological differences and making choices between conflicting axioms due to limitations in the logic or the subject domain semantics. Examples are dealing with different foundational ontologies in ontology alignment and OWL 2 DL's transitive object property versus a qualified cardinality constraint. Such conflicts have to be resolved somehow. However, only isolated and fragmented guidance for doing so is available, which therefore results in ad hoc decision-making that may not be the best choice or forgotten about later. RESULTS: This work aims to address this by taking steps towards a framework to deal with the various types of modeling conflicts through meaning negotiation and conflict resolution in a systematic way. It proposes an initial library of common conflicts, a conflict set, typical steps toward resolution, and the software availability and requirements needed for it. The approach was evaluated with an actual case of domain knowledge usage in the context of epizootic disease outbreak, being avian influenza, and running examples with COVID-19 ontologies. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation demonstrated the potential and feasibility of a conflict resolution framework for ontologies.


Subject(s)
Biological Ontologies/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology/statistics & numerical data , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , Semantic Web , Semantics , Vocabulary, Controlled , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Logic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci ; 4: 313-339, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346098

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has had a significant impact on society, both because of the serious health effects of COVID-19 and because of public health measures implemented to slow its spread. Many of these difficulties are fundamentally information needs; attempts to address these needs have caused an information overload for both researchers and the public. Natural language processing (NLP)-the branch of artificial intelligence that interprets human language-can be applied to address many of the information needs made urgent by the COVID-19 pandemic. This review surveys approximately 150 NLP studies and more than 50 systems and datasets addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. We detail work on four core NLP tasks: information retrieval, named entity recognition, literature-based discovery, and question answering. We also describe work that directly addresses aspects of the pandemic through four additional tasks: topic modeling, sentiment and emotion analysis, caseload forecasting, and misinformation detection. We conclude by discussing observable trends and remaining challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Natural Language Processing , Communication , Data Mining/methods , Datasets as Topic , Emotions , Humans , Knowledge Discovery , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , Software
7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(8): 1765-1776, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To utilize, in an individual and institutional privacy-preserving manner, electronic health record (EHR) data from 202 hospitals by analyzing answers to COVID-19-related questions and posting these answers online. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a distributed, federated network of 12 health systems that harmonized their EHRs and submitted aggregate answers to consortia questions posted at https://www.covid19questions.org. Our consortium developed processes and implemented distributed algorithms to produce answers to a variety of questions. We were able to generate counts, descriptive statistics, and build a multivariate, iterative regression model without centralizing individual-level data. RESULTS: Our public website contains answers to various clinical questions, a web form for users to ask questions in natural language, and a list of items that are currently pending responses. The results show, for example, that patients who were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, within the year before admission, had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates. We also showed that, when adjusted for, age, sex, and ethnicity were not significantly associated with mortality. We demonstrated that it is possible to answer questions about COVID-19 using EHR data from systems that have different policies and must follow various regulations, without moving data out of their health systems. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: We present an alternative or a complement to centralized COVID-19 registries of EHR data. We can use multivariate distributed logistic regression on observations recorded in the process of care to generate results without transferring individual-level data outside the health systems.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 , Computer Communication Networks , Confidentiality , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Natural Language Processing , Common Data Elements , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Registries
8.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(8): 1703-1711, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We introduce Medical evidence Dependency (MD)-informed attention, a novel neuro-symbolic model for understanding free-text clinical trial publications with generalizability and interpretability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We trained one head in the multi-head self-attention model to attend to the Medical evidence Ddependency (MD) and to pass linguistic and domain knowledge on to later layers (MD informed). This MD-informed attention model was integrated into BioBERT and tested on 2 public machine reading comprehension benchmarks for clinical trial publications: Evidence Inference 2.0 and PubMedQA. We also curated a small set of recently published articles reporting randomized controlled trials on COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) following the Evidence Inference 2.0 guidelines to evaluate the model's robustness to unseen data. RESULTS: The integration of MD-informed attention head improves BioBERT substantially in both benchmark tasks-as large as an increase of +30% in the F1 score-and achieves the new state-of-the-art performance on the Evidence Inference 2.0. It achieves 84% and 82% in overall accuracy and F1 score, respectively, on the unseen COVID-19 data. CONCLUSIONS: MD-informed attention empowers neural reading comprehension models with interpretability and generalizability via reusable domain knowledge. Its compositionality can benefit any transformer-based architecture for machine reading comprehension of free-text medical evidence.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Clinical Trials as Topic , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Models, Neurological , Natural Language Processing , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Data Mining , Humans , Software
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e24294, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197468

ABSTRACT

Digital technology has been widely used in health care systems and disease management, as well as in controlling the spread of COVID-19. As one of the most successful countries in combating the COVID-19 pandemic, Taiwan has successfully used digital technology to strengthen its efforts in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Taiwan has a well-established National Health Insurance System (NHIS), which provides a great opportunity to develop a nationwide data linkage model in an agile manner. Here we provide an overview of the application of data linkage models for strategies in combating COVID-19 in Taiwan, including NHIS centralized data linkage systems and "from border to community" information-driven data linkage systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, we discuss the dual role of digital technologies in being an "enabler" and a "driver" in early disease prevention. Lastly, Taiwan's experience in applying digital technology to enhance the control of COVID-19 potentially highlights lessons learned and opportunities for other countries to handle the COVID-19 situation better.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Management , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Taiwan/epidemiology
10.
Curr Oncol ; 28(2): 1153-1160, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167436

ABSTRACT

In a prospective study, we sought to determine acceptability of linkage of administrative and clinical trial data among Canadian patients and Research Ethics Boards (REBs). The goal is to develop a more harmonized approach to data, with potential to improve clinical trial conduct through enhanced data quality collected at reduced cost and inconvenience for patients. On completion of the original LY.12 randomized clinical trial in lymphoma (NCT00078949), participants were invited to enrol in the Long-term Innovative Follow-up Extension (LIFE) component. Those consenting to do so provided comprehensive identifying information to facilitate linkage with their administrative data. We prospectively designed a global assessment of this innovative approach to clinical trial follow-up including rates of REB approval and patient consent. The pre-specified benchmark for patient acceptability was 80%. Of 16 REBs who reviewed the research protocol, 14 (89%) provided approval; two in Quebec declined due to small patient numbers. Of 140 patients invited to participate, 115 (82%, 95% CI 76 to 88%) from across 9 Canadian provinces provided consent and their full name, date of birth, health insurance number and postal code to facilitate linkage with their administrative data for long-term follow-up. Linkage of clinical trial and administrative data is feasible and acceptable. Further collaborative work including many stakeholders is required to develop an optimized secure approach to research. A more coordinated national approach to health data could facilitate more rapid testing and identification of new effective treatments across multiple jurisdictions and diseases from diabetes to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Registries , Canada , Ethics Committees, Research , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prospective Studies
11.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 27(2): 23, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155325

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, high hopes were placed on digital contact tracing. Digital contact tracing apps can now be downloaded in many countries, but as further waves of COVID-19 tear through much of the northern hemisphere, these apps are playing a less important role in interrupting chains of infection than anticipated. We argue that one of the reasons for this is that most countries have opted for decentralised apps, which cannot provide a means of rapidly informing users of likely infections while avoiding too many false positive reports. Centralised apps, in contrast, have the potential to do this. But policy making was influenced by public debates about the right app configuration, which have tended to focus heavily on privacy, and are driven by the assumption that decentralised apps are "privacy preserving by design". We show that both types of apps are in fact vulnerable to privacy breaches, and, drawing on principles from safety engineering and risk analysis, compare the risks of centralised and decentralised systems along two dimensions, namely the probability of possible breaches and their severity. We conclude that a centralised app may in fact minimise overall ethical risk, and contend that we must reassess our approach to digital contact tracing, and should, more generally, be cautious about a myopic focus on privacy when conducting ethical assessments of data technologies.


Subject(s)
Confidentiality/ethics , Contact Tracing/ethics , Contact Tracing/methods , Digital Technology , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Mobile Applications , Privacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/ethics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26719, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient travel history can be crucial in evaluating evolving infectious disease events. Such information can be challenging to acquire in electronic health records, as it is often available only in unstructured text. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility of annotating and automatically extracting travel history mentions from unstructured clinical documents in the Department of Veterans Affairs across disparate health care facilities and among millions of patients. Information about travel exposure augments existing surveillance applications for increased preparedness in responding quickly to public health threats. METHODS: Clinical documents related to arboviral disease were annotated following selection using a semiautomated bootstrapping process. Using annotated instances as training data, models were developed to extract from unstructured clinical text any mention of affirmed travel locations outside of the continental United States. Automated text processing models were evaluated, involving machine learning and neural language models for extraction accuracy. RESULTS: Among 4584 annotated instances, 2659 (58%) contained an affirmed mention of travel history, while 347 (7.6%) were negated. Interannotator agreement resulted in a document-level Cohen kappa of 0.776. Automated text processing accuracy (F1 85.6, 95% CI 82.5-87.9) and computational burden were acceptable such that the system can provide a rapid screen for public health events. CONCLUSIONS: Automated extraction of patient travel history from clinical documents is feasible for enhanced passive surveillance public health systems. Without such a system, it would usually be necessary to manually review charts to identify recent travel or lack of travel, use an electronic health record that enforces travel history documentation, or ignore this potential source of information altogether. The development of this tool was initially motivated by emergent arboviral diseases. More recently, this system was used in the early phases of response to COVID-19 in the United States, although its utility was limited to a relatively brief window due to the rapid domestic spread of the virus. Such systems may aid future efforts to prevent and contain the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(6): 1275-1283, 2021 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120596

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic swept across the world rapidly, infecting millions of people. An efficient tool that can accurately recognize important clinical concepts of COVID-19 from free text in electronic health records (EHRs) will be valuable to accelerate COVID-19 clinical research. To this end, this study aims at adapting the existing CLAMP natural language processing tool to quickly build COVID-19 SignSym, which can extract COVID-19 signs/symptoms and their 8 attributes (body location, severity, temporal expression, subject, condition, uncertainty, negation, and course) from clinical text. The extracted information is also mapped to standard concepts in the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership common data model. A hybrid approach of combining deep learning-based models, curated lexicons, and pattern-based rules was applied to quickly build the COVID-19 SignSym from CLAMP, with optimized performance. Our extensive evaluation using 3 external sites with clinical notes of COVID-19 patients, as well as the online medical dialogues of COVID-19, shows COVID-19 SignSym can achieve high performance across data sources. The workflow used for this study can be generalized to other use cases, where existing clinical natural language processing tools need to be customized for specific information needs within a short time. COVID-19 SignSym is freely accessible to the research community as a downloadable package (https://clamp.uth.edu/covid/nlp.php) and has been used by 16 healthcare organizations to support clinical research of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Natural Language Processing , Deep Learning , Humans , Symptom Assessment/methods
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D589-D599, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117395

ABSTRACT

PAGER-CoV (http://discovery.informatics.uab.edu/PAGER-CoV/) is a new web-based database that can help biomedical researchers interpret coronavirus-related functional genomic study results in the context of curated knowledge of host viral infection, inflammatory response, organ damage, and tissue repair. The new database consists of 11 835 PAGs (Pathways, Annotated gene-lists, or Gene signatures) from 33 public data sources. Through the web user interface, users can search by a query gene or a query term and retrieve significantly matched PAGs with all the curated information. Users can navigate from a PAG of interest to other related PAGs through either shared PAG-to-PAG co-membership relationships or PAG-to-PAG regulatory relationships, totaling 19 996 993. Users can also retrieve enriched PAGs from an input list of COVID-19 functional study result genes, customize the search data sources, and export all results for subsequent offline data analysis. In a case study, we performed a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of a COVID-19 RNA-seq data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Compared with the results using the standard PAGER database, PAGER-CoV allows for more sensitive matching of known immune-related gene signatures. We expect PAGER-CoV to be invaluable for biomedical researchers to find molecular biology mechanisms and tailored therapeutics to treat COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus/genetics , Databases, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Data Curation/methods , Epidemics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Molecular Sequence Annotation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , User-Computer Interface
15.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(1): 132-137, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066363

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a tremendous need for access to the latest scientific information, leading to both corpora for COVID-19 literature and search engines to query such data. While most search engine research is performed in academia with rigorous evaluation, major commercial companies dominate the web search market. Thus, it is expected that commercial pandemic-specific search engines will gain much higher traction than academic alternatives, leading to questions about the empirical performance of these tools. This paper seeks to empirically evaluate two commercial search engines for COVID-19 (Google and Amazon) in comparison with academic prototypes evaluated in the TREC-COVID task. We performed several steps to reduce bias in the manual judgments to ensure a fair comparison of all systems. We find the commercial search engines sizably underperformed those evaluated under TREC-COVID. This has implications for trust in popular health search engines and developing biomedical search engines for future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Information Systems , Search Engine , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D981-D987, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010406

ABSTRACT

The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism knowledgebase for the laboratory mouse, a widely used animal model for comparative studies of the genetic and genomic basis for human health and disease. MGD is the authoritative source for biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and mouse models of human disease. MGD is the primary source for official gene, allele, and mouse strain nomenclature based on the guidelines set by the International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice. MGD's biocuration scientists curate information from the biomedical literature and from large and small datasets contributed directly by investigators. In this report we describe significant enhancements to the content and interfaces at MGD, including (i) improvements in the Multi Genome Viewer for exploring the genomes of multiple mouse strains, (ii) inclusion of many more mouse strains and new mouse strain pages with extended query options and (iii) integration of extensive data about mouse strain variants. We also describe improvements to the efficiency of literature curation processes and the implementation of an information portal focused on mouse models and genes for the study of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Genetic , Genome/genetics , Genomics/methods , Knowledge Bases , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Curation/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Epidemics , Gene Ontology , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e23449, 2020 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since it was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 has dominated headlines around the world and researchers have generated thousands of scientific articles about the disease. The fast speed of publication has challenged researchers and other stakeholders to keep up with the volume of published articles. To search the literature effectively, researchers use databases such as PubMed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of different searches for COVID-19 records in PubMed and to assess the complexity of searches required. METHODS: We tested PubMed searches for COVID-19 to identify which search string performed best according to standard metrics (sensitivity, precision, and F-score). We evaluated the performance of 8 different searches in PubMed during the first 10 weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic to investigate how complex a search string is needed. We also tested omitting hyphens and space characters as well as applying quotation marks. RESULTS: The two most comprehensive search strings combining several free-text and indexed search terms performed best in terms of sensitivity (98.4%/98.7%) and F-score (96.5%/95.7%), but the single-term search COVID-19 performed best in terms of precision (95.3%) and well in terms of sensitivity (94.4%) and F-score (94.8%). The term Wuhan virus performed the worst: 7.7% for sensitivity, 78.1% for precision, and 14.0% for F-score. We found that deleting a hyphen or space character could omit a substantial number of records, especially when searching with SARS-CoV-2 as a single term. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive search strings combining free-text and indexed search terms performed better than single-term searches in PubMed, but not by a large margin compared to the single term COVID-19. For everyday searches, certain single-term searches that are entered correctly are probably sufficient, whereas more comprehensive searches should be used for systematic reviews. Still, we suggest additional measures that the US National Library of Medicine could take to support all PubMed users in searching the COVID-19 literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , PubMed , Humans , Medical Subject Headings , Publications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Search Engine/methods
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D29-D37, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947664

ABSTRACT

The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI; https://www.ebi.ac.uk/) provides freely available data and bioinformatics services to the scientific community, alongside its research activity and training provision. The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the forefront a need for the scientific community to work even more cooperatively to effectively tackle a global health crisis. EMBL-EBI has been able to build on its position to contribute to the fight against COVID-19 in a number of ways. Firstly, EMBL-EBI has used its infrastructure, expertise and network of international collaborations to help build the European COVID-19 Data Platform (https://www.covid19dataportal.org/), which brings together COVID-19 biomolecular data and connects it to researchers, clinicians and public health professionals. By September 2020, the COVID-19 Data Platform has integrated in excess of 170 000 COVID-19 biomolecular data and literature records, collected through a number of EMBL-EBI resources. Secondly, EMBL-EBI has strived to continue its support of the life science communities through the crisis, with updated Training provision and improved service provision throughout its resources. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of EMBL-EBI's core principles, including international cooperation, resource sharing and central data brokering, and has further empowered scientific cooperation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Nucleic Acid/statistics & numerical data , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Computational Biology/organization & administration , Databases, Nucleic Acid/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D1373-D1380, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944361

ABSTRACT

The development of new drugs for diseases is a time-consuming, costly and risky process. In recent years, many drugs could be approved for other indications. This repurposing process allows to effectively reduce development costs, time and, ultimately, save patients' lives. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, drug repositioning has gained widespread attention as a fast opportunity to find potential treatments against the newly emerging disease. In order to expand this field to researchers with varying levels of experience, we made an effort to open it to all users (meaning novices as well as experts in cheminformatics) by significantly improving the entry-level user experience. The browsing functionality can be used as a global entry point to collect further information with regards to small molecules (∼1 million), side-effects (∼110 000) or drug-target interactions (∼3 million). The drug-repositioning tab for small molecules will also suggest possible drug-repositioning opportunities to the user by using structural similarity measurements for small molecules using two different approaches. Additionally, using information from the Promiscuous 2.0 Database, lists of candidate drugs for given indications were precomputed, including a section dedicated to potential treatments for COVID-19. All the information is interconnected by a dynamic network-based visualization to identify new indications for available compounds. Promiscuous 2.0 is unique in its functionality and is publicly available at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/promiscuous2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Curation/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D981-D987, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941569

ABSTRACT

The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the community model organism knowledgebase for the laboratory mouse, a widely used animal model for comparative studies of the genetic and genomic basis for human health and disease. MGD is the authoritative source for biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and mouse models of human disease. MGD is the primary source for official gene, allele, and mouse strain nomenclature based on the guidelines set by the International Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Mice. MGD's biocuration scientists curate information from the biomedical literature and from large and small datasets contributed directly by investigators. In this report we describe significant enhancements to the content and interfaces at MGD, including (i) improvements in the Multi Genome Viewer for exploring the genomes of multiple mouse strains, (ii) inclusion of many more mouse strains and new mouse strain pages with extended query options and (iii) integration of extensive data about mouse strain variants. We also describe improvements to the efficiency of literature curation processes and the implementation of an information portal focused on mouse models and genes for the study of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Databases, Genetic , Genome/genetics , Genomics/methods , Knowledge Bases , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Curation/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Epidemics , Gene Ontology , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Internet , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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