Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 821
Filter
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e058171, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 first struck New York City in the spring of 2020, resulting in an unprecedented strain on our healthcare system and triggering multiple changes in public health policy governing hospital operations as well as therapeutic approaches to COVID-19. We examined inpatient mortality at our centre throughout the course of the pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome data of all patients admitted with COVID-19 from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients were grouped into 3-month quartiles. Hospital strain was assessed as per cent of occupied beds based on a normal bed capacity of 1491. RESULTS: Inpatient mortality decreased from 25.0% in spring to 10.8% over the course of the year. During this time, use of remdesivir, steroids and anticoagulants increased; use of hydroxychloroquine and other antibiotics decreased. Daily bed occupancy ranged from 62% to 118%. In a multivariate model with all year's data controlling for demographics, comorbidities and acuity of illness, percentage of bed occupancy was associated with increased 30-day in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 (0.7% mortality increase for each 1% increase in bed occupancy; HR 1.007, CI 1.001 to 1.013, p=0.004) CONCLUSION: Inpatient mortality from COVID-19 was associated with bed occupancy. Early reduction in epicentre hospital bed occupancy to accommodate acutely ill and resource-intensive patients should be a critical component in the strategic planning for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Bed Occupancy , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263900, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pressure Injuries (PIs) are major worldwide public health threats within the different health-care settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare epidemiological and clinical features of PIs in COVID-19 patients and patients admitted for other causes in Internal Medicine Units during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A descriptive longitudinal retrospective study. SETTING: This study was conducted in Internal Medicine Units in Salamanca University Hospital Complex, a tertiary hospital in the Salamanca province, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: All inpatients ≥18-year-old admitted from March 1, 2020 to June 1, 2020 for more than 24 hours in the Internal Medicine Units with one or more episodes of PIs. RESULTS: A total of 101 inpatients and 171 episodes were studied. The prevalence of PI episodes was 6% and the cumulative incidence was 2.9% during the first-wave of COVID-19. Risk of acute wounds was four times higher in the COVID-19 patient group (p<0.001). Most common locations were sacrum and heels. Among hospital acquired pressure injuries a significant association was observed between arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus in patients with COVID-19 diagnosis. CONCLUSION: During the first wave of COVID-19, COVID-19 patients tend to present a higher number of acute wounds, mainly of hospital origin, compared to the profile of the non-COVID group. Diabetes mellitus and arterial hypertension were identified as main associated comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Internal Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Pressure Ulcer/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
4.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 22(2): 131-139, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791820

ABSTRACT

Medical emergencies causing unplanned hospital admission place considerable demands on acute healthcare services. Some patients can be assessed and treated through ambulatory pathways without inpatient admission, via same day emergency care (SDEC), potentially benefiting patients and reducing demands on inpatient services. There is currently considerable variation within acute medicine in aspects of SDEC delivery ranging from overall service design to patient selection methods. Scoring systems identifying patients likely to be successfully managed through SDEC services have been suggested, but evidence of utility in diverse populations is lacking. Specific scoring systems exist for some common medical problems, including cardiac chest pain and pulmonary embolism, but further research is needed to demonstrate how these are most effectively incorporated into SDEC services. This review defines SDEC and describes the variation in services nationally. It reviews the evidence for their clinical impact, tools to screen patients for SDEC and current gaps in our knowledge regarding service deployment.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients
5.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(1): 35-39, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Two COVID-19 epidemic waves occurred in France in 2020. This single-center retrospective study compared patients' characteristics and outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included all patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Colmar Hospital in March (n=600) and October/November (n=205) 2020. RESULTS: Median ages, sex ratio, body mass index, and number of comorbidities were similar in wave 1 and 2 patients. Significant differences were found for temperature (38°C vs. 37.2), need for oxygen (38.6% vs. 26.8%), high-flow cannula (0% vs. 8.3%), and steroid use (6.3% vs. 54.1%). Intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations (25.5% vs. 15.1%, OR: 0.44, 95% CI [0.28; 0.68], P=0.002) and deaths (19.2% vs. 12.7%, OR: 0.61, 95% CI [0.37; 0.98], P=0.04) decreased during the second wave. Except for cardiovascular events (5.5% vs. 10.2%), no change was observed in extrapulmonary events. CONCLUSIONS: Deaths and ICU hospitalizations were significantly reduced during the second epidemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1108-1114, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trust in healthcare providers is associated with important outcomes, but has primarily been assessed in the outpatient setting. It is largely unknown how hospitalized patients conceptualize trust in their providers. OBJECTIVE: To examine the dimensionality of a measure of trust in the inpatient setting. DESIGN: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized patients (N = 1756; 76% response rate) across six hospitals in the midwestern USA. The sample was randomly split such that approximately one half was used in the EFA, and the other half in the CFA. MAIN MEASURES: The Trust in Physician Scale, adapted for inpatient care. KEY RESULTS: Based on the Kaiser-Guttman criterion and parallel analysis, EFAs were inconclusive, indicating that trust may be comprised of either one or two factors in this sample. In follow-up CFAs, a 2-factor model fit best based on a chi-squared difference test (Δχ2 = 151.48(1), p < .001) and a Comparative Fit Index (CFI) difference test (CFI difference = .03). The overall fit for the 2-factor CFA model was good (χ2 = 293.56, df = 43, p < .01; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .081 [90% confidence interval = .072-.090]; TLI = .93; SRMR = .04). Items loaded onto two factors related to cognitive (i.e., whether patients view providers as competent) and affective (i.e., whether patients view that providers care for them) dimensions of trust. CONCLUSIONS: While measures of trust in the outpatient setting have been validated as unidimensional, in the inpatient setting, trust appears to be composed of two factors: cognitive and affective trust. This provides initial evidence that inpatient providers may need to work to ensure patients see them as both competent and caring in order to gain their trust.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Trust , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759372

ABSTRACT

Inpatient falls are frequently reported incidents in hospitals around the world. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the risk. With the rising importance of human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), a fall prevention programme was introduced by applying HF&E principles to reduce inpatient falls from a systems engineering perspective. The programme was conducted in an acute public hospital with around 750 inpatient beds in Hong Kong. A hospital falls review team (the team) was formed in June 2020 to plan and implement the programme. The 'Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control' (DMAIC) method was adopted. Improvement actions following each fall review were implemented. Fall rates in the 'pre-COVID-19' period (January-December 2019), 'COVID-19' period (January-June 2020) and 'programme' period (July 2020-August 2021) were used for evaluation of the programme effectiveness. A total of 120, 85 and 142 inpatient falls in the 'pre-COVID-19', 'COVID-19' and 'programme' periods were reviewed, respectively. Thirteen areas with fall risks were identified by the team where improvement actions applying HF&E principles were implemented accordingly. The average fall rates were 0.476, 0.773 and 0.547 per 1000 patient bed days in these periods, respectively. The average fall rates were found to be significantly increased from the pre-COVID-19 to COVID-19 periods (mean difference=0.297 (95% CI 0.068 to 0.526), p=0.009), which demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic might have affected the hospitals fall rates, while a significant decrease was noted between the COVID-19 and programme periods (mean difference=-0.226 (95% CI -0.449 to -0.003), p=0.047), which proved that the programme in apply HF&E principles to prevent falls was effective. Since HF&E principles are universal, the programme can be generalised to other healthcare institutes, which the participation of staff trained in HF&E in the quality improvement team is vital to its success.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ergonomics , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
Nutrients ; 14(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has been linked to adverse health economic outcomes. There is a paucity of data on malnutrition in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 4311 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatients at 5 Johns Hopkins-affiliated hospitals between 1 March and 3 December 2020. Malnourishment was identified using the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), then confirmed by registered dietitians. Statistics were conducted with SAS v9.4 (Cary, NC, USA) software to examine the effect of malnutrition on mortality and hospital length of stay among COVID-19 inpatient encounters, while accounting for possible covariates in regression analysis predicting mortality or the log-transformed length of stay. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients who were older, male, or had lower BMIs had a higher likelihood of mortality. Patients with malnutrition were 76% more likely to have mortality (p < 0.001) and to have a 105% longer hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Overall, 12.9% (555/4311) of adult COVID-19 patients were diagnosed with malnutrition and were associated with an 87.9% increase in hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of COVID-19 adult inpatients, malnutrition was associated with a higher likelihood of mortality and increased hospital length of stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Adult , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Length of Stay , Male , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 221-227, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a national epidemic, and Black and Hispanic patients are less likely to receive treatment when compared to white patients. In this study, race was used as a proxy to assess potential effects of racism on the referral process for OUD treatment. Our primary aim was to examine whether Black or Hispanic patients experienced increased barriers to inpatient OUD detoxification (detox) placement at a community-integrated, substance use disorder support program based in an emergency department (ED). Our secondary aim was to determine if Black and Hispanic patients were more likely to have >3 referrals. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large urban safety-net hospital and included patients seen in the ED from July 2018 to September 2019 with ICD-10 codes for an opioid-related visit and who sought placement to inpatient detox. A generalized linear mixed model controlling for multiple visits, age, sex, insurance, time, day of week, and time of year was used to assess the association between race/ethnicity and hypothesized barriers to placement. The proportion of patients with >3 visits for referral to inpatient detox was compared between Black and Hispanic patients and white patients using a chi-squared test. RESULTS: We identified 1733 encounters from 782 unique patients seeking connection to inpatient detox for OUD. Of the 1733 encounters, 45% were among Black and Hispanic patients. Hispanic and Black men had significantly lower odds of having a barrier to inpatient OUD detox than white men (OR = 0.734, 95% CI 0.542-0.995). No significant difference was found for Hispanic and Black women (OR = 1.212, 95% CI 0.705-2.082). More Black and Hispanic patients experienced >3 referrals to inpatient detox compared to white patients (19.2% vs 12.9%, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests in the context of near-universal health insurance coverage, an ED-based OUD support program staffed by diverse community members can mitigate inequities in access to inpatient detox. However, the increased number of ED visits for OUD detox placement by Black and Hispanic patients suggests racial inequities in OUD treatment exist after linkage to care. Additional research should explore the causes, specifically structural and interpersonal racism, and determine solutions to address racial inequities in detox placement as well as maintenance in treatment programs.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Opioid-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 77, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the leading health indicators during the COVID-19 crisis is health literacy and health-promoting behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among women hospitalized during the COVID-19 pandemic in the southern part of Iran in 2020. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical study encompassed 465 women hospitalized and treated in none teaching hospitals affiliated with the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Data collection tools were the Health Literacy for Iranian Adults (HELIA) and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II). The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. RESULTS: The mean scores of the participants' "health literacy" and "health-promoting behaviors" were 64.41 ± 11.31 and 112.23 ± 16.09, respectively, indicating the poor level of health literacy and the average level of health-promoting behaviors. Moreover, there was a significant direct correlation between health literacy and health-promoting behaviors (P < 0.001, r = 0.471). Furthermore, all health literacy dimensions of comprehension (P < 0.001), accessibility (P < 0.001), reading skills (P < 0.001), evaluation (P = 0.002), and decision making and behavior (P = 0.003) were detected as the predictors of health-promoting behaviors. Further, statistically significant relationships were noticed between the mean score of health literacy with age (r = - 0.327, P = 0.007), level of education (F = 3.119, P = 0.002), and place of residence (t = 2.416, P = 0.004) and between health-promoting behaviors with level of education (F = 3.341, P = 0.001) and marital status (F = 2.868, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: According to the findings, health policymakers should adopt national measures for educational planning to promote health literacy and support health-promoting behaviors to encourage women to adopt a healthy lifestyle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adult , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Inpatients , Iran , Pandemics
13.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(4): e144-e145, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745282
16.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 768-776, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We determined the burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in air and on surfaces in rooms of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and investigated patient characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs, surface, and air samples were collected from the rooms of 78 inpatients with COVID-19 at 6 acute care hospitals in Toronto from March to May 2020. Samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA), cultured to determine potential infectivity, and whole viral genomes were sequenced. Association between patient factors and detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in surface samples were investigated. RESULTS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA was detected from surfaces (125 of 474 samples; 42 of 78 patients) and air (3 of 146 samples; 3 of 45 patients); 17% (6 of 36) of surface samples from 3 patients yielded viable virus. Viral sequences from nasopharyngeal and surface samples clustered by patient. Multivariable analysis indicated hypoxia at admission, polymerase chain reaction-positive nasopharyngeal swab (cycle threshold of ≤30) on or after surface sampling date, higher Charlson comorbidity score, and shorter time from onset of illness to sampling date were significantly associated with detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in surface samples. CONCLUSIONS: The infrequent recovery of infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus from the environment suggests that the risk to healthcare workers from air and near-patient surfaces in acute care hospital wards is likely limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Canada/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Health Personnel , Humans , Inpatients , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Lancet ; 399(10324): 530-540, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Passive immunotherapy using hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) to SARS-CoV-2, derived from recovered donors, is a potential rapidly available, specific therapy for an outbreak infection such as SARS-CoV-2. Findings from randomised clinical trials of hIVIG for the treatment of COVID-19 are limited. METHODS: In this international randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who had been symptomatic for up to 12 days and did not have acute end-organ failure were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either hIVIG or an equivalent volume of saline as placebo, in addition to remdesivir, when not contraindicated, and other standard clinical care. Randomisation was stratified by site pharmacy; schedules were prepared using a mass-weighted urn design. Infusions were prepared and masked by trial pharmacists; all other investigators, research staff, and trial participants were masked to group allocation. Follow-up was for 28 days. The primary outcome was measured at day 7 by a seven-category ordinal endpoint that considered pulmonary status and extrapulmonary complications and ranged from no limiting symptoms to death. Deaths and adverse events, including organ failure and serious infections, were used to define composite safety outcomes at days 7 and 28. Prespecified subgroup analyses were carried out for efficacy and safety outcomes by duration of symptoms, the presence of anti-spike neutralising antibodies, and other baseline factors. Analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population, which included all randomly assigned participants who met eligibility criteria and received all or part of the assigned study product infusion. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04546581. FINDINGS: From Oct 8, 2020, to Feb 10, 2021, 593 participants (n=301 hIVIG, n=292 placebo) were enrolled at 63 sites in 11 countries; 579 patients were included in the mITT analysis. Compared with placebo, the hIVIG group did not have significantly greater odds of a more favourable outcome at day 7; the adjusted OR was 1·06 (95% CI 0·77-1·45; p=0·72). Infusions were well tolerated, although infusion reactions were more common in the hIVIG group (18·6% vs 9·5% for placebo; p=0·002). The percentage with the composite safety outcome at day 7 was similar for the hIVIG (24%) and placebo groups (25%; OR 0·98, 95% CI 0·66-1·46; p=0·91). The ORs for the day 7 ordinal outcome did not vary for subgroups considered, but there was evidence of heterogeneity of the treatment effect for the day 7 composite safety outcome: risk was greater for hIVIG compared with placebo for patients who were antibody positive (OR 2·21, 95% CI 1·14-4·29); for patients who were antibody negative, the OR was 0·51 (0·29-0·90; pinteraction=0·001). INTERPRETATION: When administered with standard of care including remdesivir, SARS-CoV-2 hIVIG did not demonstrate efficacy among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 without end-organ failure. The safety of hIVIG might vary by the presence of endogenous neutralising antibodies at entry. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Inactivated
19.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): JC17, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716078

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Spyropoulos AC, Goldin M, Giannis D, et al. Efficacy and safety of therapeutic-dose heparin vs standard prophylactic or intermediate-dose heparins for thromboprophylaxis in high-risk hospitalized patients with COVID-19: the HEP-COVID randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:1612-20. 34617959.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced
20.
Med Care ; 60(5): 381-386, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged the accuracy and racial biases present in traditional mortality scores. An accurate prognostic model that can be applied to hospitalized patients irrespective of race or COVID-19 status may benefit patient care. RESEARCH DESIGN: This cohort study utilized historical and ongoing electronic health record features to develop and validate a deep-learning model applied on the second day of admission predicting a composite outcome of in-hospital mortality, discharge to hospice, or death within 30 days of admission. Model features included patient demographics, diagnoses, procedures, inpatient medications, laboratory values, vital signs, and substance use history. Conventional performance metrics were assessed, and subgroup analysis was performed based on race, COVID-19 status, and intensive care unit admission. SUBJECTS: A total of 35,521 patients hospitalized between April 2020 and October 2020 at a single health care system including a tertiary academic referral center and 9 community hospitals. RESULTS: Of 35,521 patients, including 9831 non-White patients and 2020 COVID-19 patients, 2838 (8.0%) met the composite outcome. Patients who experienced the composite outcome were older (73 vs. 61 y old) with similar sex and race distributions between groups. The model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.88, 0.91) and an average positive predictive value of 0.46 (0.40, 0.52). Model performance did not differ significantly in White (0.89) and non-White (0.90) subgroups or when grouping by COVID-19 status and intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSION: A deep-learning model using large-volume, structured electronic health record data can effectively predict short-term mortality or hospice outcomes on the second day of admission in the general inpatient population without significant racial bias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospices , Algorithms , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Machine Learning , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL