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1.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 240-254, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support, coping strategies, anxiety, and depression symptoms among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by comparing them with a matched control group in terms of age, gender, and education level. METHOD: The patient group (n = 84) and the healthy controls (HCs, n = 92) filled in the questionnaire including the socio-demographic form, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced through the online survey link. RESULTS: The COVID-19 patients had higher perceived social support and coping strategies scores than the HCs. However, anxiety and depression scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. In logistic regression analysis performed in COVID-19 patients, the presence of chest CT finding (OR = 4.31; 95% CI = 1.04-17.95) was a risk factor for anxiety and the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.73-0.99) had a negative association with anxiety. In addition, the use of adaptive coping strategies (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.98) and high perceived social support (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.93- 0,99) had a negative association with depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies involving the return to normality phase of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed to investigate the effects of factors such as coping strategies and perceived social support that could increase the psychological adjustment and resilience of individuals on anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Inpatients/psychology , Social Support , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1968141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475710

ABSTRACT

The no-visitor policies endorsed by healthcare organizations to limit COVID-19 virus risk exposure have unfortunately contributed to the isolation of patients further exacerbating distress in relatives and frontline healthcare workers. To contrast such effects, many healthcare institutions have adopted technology-based solutions helping patients and families communicate online through the aid of virtual devices. To date, no study has investigated whether facilitating patient-family videocalls would mitigate distress levels in frontline healthcare professionals. Caring for emotional needs of patients by re-establishing affiliative connections interrupted by the pandemic through patient-family videocalls is expected to mitigate distress in engaged healthcare workers as an example of a tend-and-befriend response to stress caused by the pandemic. We tested this hypothesis in a cross-sectional study conducted during 1-30 June 2020, involving 209 healthcare workers (nurses = 146; physicians = 63) engaged in the COVID-19 frontline in Italy. Half of participants in our sample (n = 107) had assisted efforts aimed at connecting patients remotely with families through videocalls. Psychological distress measures included symptoms of burnout, post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, and difficulty in sleep and wakefulness. Partially in line with our expectations we found a modulation effect specific for professional category: nurses assisting patient-family videocalls reported significantly lower levels of distress and a better quality of wakefulness compared to those who did not, whereas physicians reported higher levels of distress during such virtual communications. We interpret these findings from the perspective of patient-family communication and differences in skills and training between nurses and physicians. These findings highlight that technology-based solutions aimed at reducing barriers and alleviating distress in healthcare settings should be promoted in concert with skill enhancement training for healthcare professionals especially in terms of communicating online and communicating difficult topics with patients and families.


La política de no recibir visitas que ha sido legitimada por organizaciones de atención de salud para limitar el riesgo de la exposición al virus COVID-19 ha contribuido en forma desafortunada al aislamiento de los pacientes, lo que aumenta el malestar/angustia en familiares y en trabajadores de salud de la primera línea. Para contrastar tales efectos, muchas instituciones de salud han adoptado soluciones basadas en la tecnología para ayudar a pacientes y familiares a comunicarse en línea a través de la ayuda de dispositivos virtuales. Hasta la fecha, ningún estudio ha investigado si es que la facilitación de video llamadas paciente-familiares pudiese mitigar el nivel de angustia en profesionales de salud de primera línea. Se espera que el cuidado de las necesidades emocionales de los pacientes mediante el restablecimiento de conexiones afilativas interrumpidas por la pandemia a través de video llamadas entre el paciente y la familia ayude a mitigar la angustia en los trabajadores de la salud como un ejemplo de una respuesta de "cuidar y hacer amigos" a la angustia causada por la pandemia. Probamos esta hipótesis en un estudio transversal realizado entre el 01 y el 30 de junio del 2020, en la que participaron 209 trabajadores de la salud (enfermeras=146; médicos=63) involucrados en la atención de la primera línea del COVID-19 en Italia. La mitad de los participantes en nuestra muestra (n=107) habían asistido a esfuerzos destinados a conectar a los pacientes en forma remota con sus familias a través de video-llamadas. Las medidas de angustia psicológica incluyeron síntomas de burnout, estrés postraumático, ansiedad, depresión, dificultad para dormir y estar despiertos. Parcialmente en línea con nuestras expectativas, encontramos un efecto modulador específico para la categoría profesional: Las enfermeras que asistían las video llamadas de los pacientes con sus familias reportaron significativamente menor nivel de angustia y una mejor calidad de vigilia en comparación con las que no lo hicieron, mientras los médicos reportaron mayores niveles de angustia durante tales comunicaciones virtuales. Interpretamos estos hallazgos desde la perspectiva de la comunicación paciente-familia y las diferencias en las habilidades y formación entre las enfermeras y los médicos. Estos hallazgos destacan que las soluciones basadas en la tecnología destinadas a reducir las barreras y aliviar la angustia en los entornos de atención de salud deben promoverse junto con la capacitación para la mejora de habilidades para profesionales de la salud especialmente en términos de comunicarse en línea y comunicar temáticas difíciles a pacientes y familiares.医疗机构批准的限制 COVID-19 病毒风险暴露的无访客政策不幸导致患者被隔离,进一步加剧了亲属和一线医护人员的痛苦。为了应对这种影响,许多医疗机构采用了基于技术的解决方案,通过虚拟设备帮助患者和家人进行在线沟通。迄今为止,还没有研究考查帮助患者家庭视频通话是否会减轻一线医疗保健专业人员的痛苦程度。通过患者家属视频通话重建因疫情中断的亲友联系来照顾患者的情感需求,有望作为一个对疫情引发应激的照料与结盟反应的例子,减轻敬业的医护人员的困扰。我们在 2020 å¹´ 6 月 1 日至 30 日期间进行的一项横断面研究中检验了这一假设#x0FF0C;涉及在意大利从事 COVID-19 一线工作的 209 名医护人员(护士 = 146; 医生 = 63)。我们样本中的一半参与者 (n=107) 协助了旨在通过视频通话将患者与家人远程联系起来的努力。心理困扰测量包括倦怠、创伤后应激、焦虑、抑郁以及睡眠和清醒困难的症状。部分符合我们的预期,我们发现了特定于专业类别的中介效应: 相较于未协助患者家属视频通话的护士,协助患者家属视频通话的护士报告的痛苦程度显著降低,清醒质量更好,而医生在这种虚拟通信过程中报告了更高的痛苦。我们从患者与家属的沟通以及护士和医生之间技能和培训的差异的角度来解释这些结果。这些发现强调了旨在减少障碍和减轻医护环境中痛苦的技术解决方案应与医疗保健专业人员的医护技能增强培训(尤其是在在线沟通和与患者和家属沟通困难话题方面)一起推广。.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Family/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Inpatients/psychology , Psychological Distress , Videoconferencing/instrumentation , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Technology
3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies in acute care settings, and describe perspectives and mitigation approaches among patients, families, and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on January 01/2021, unrestricted, for published primary research records reporting any study design. We included secondary (e.g., reviews) and non-research records (e.g., commentaries), and performed manual searches in web-based resources. We excluded records that did not report primary data. Two reviewers independently abstracted data in duplicate. RESULTS: Of 7810 citations, we included 155 records. Sixty-six records (43%) were primary research; 29 (44%) case reports or case series, and 26 (39%) cohort studies; 21 (14%) were literature reviews and 8 (5%) were expert recommendations; 54 (35%) were commentary, editorial, or opinion pieces. Restricted visitation policies impacted coping and daily function (n = 31, 20%) and mental health outcomes (n = 29, 19%) of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Participants described a need for coping and support (n = 107, 69%), connection and communication (n = 107, 69%), and awareness of state of well-being (n = 101, 65%). Eighty-seven approaches to mitigate impact of restricted visitation were identified, targeting families (n = 61, 70%), patients (n = 51, 59%), and healthcare professionals (n = 40, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, families, and healthcare professionals were impacted by restricted visitation polices in acute care settings during COVID-19. The consequences of this approach on patients and families are understudied and warrant evaluation of approaches to mitigate their impact. Future pandemic policy development should include the perspectives of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221662) and a protocol peer-reviewed prior to data extraction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care , Family , Health Policy , Inpatients , Physical Distancing , Visitors to Patients , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Communication , Family/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , Visitors to Patients/psychology
4.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(2): 137-144, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292182

ABSTRACT

The widespread prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) means that inpatient psychiatric units will necessarily manage patients who have COVID-19 that is comorbid with acute psychiatric symptoms. We report a case of recurrence of respiratory symptoms and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing in a patient on an inpatient psychiatric unit occurring 42 days after the initial positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, 38 days after initial symptom resolution, and 30 days after the first of 3 negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests. Over the course of the admission, the patient was safely initiated on clozapine. Recent literature on COVID-19's potential recurrence and neuropsychiatric effects is reviewed and implications for the management of COVID-19 on inpatient psychiatric units are discussed. In the era of COVID-19 and our still-developing understanding of this illness, psychiatrists' role as advocates and collaborators in our patients' physical health care has become even more critical.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Clozapine , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Male , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Suicide, Attempted
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114045, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253498

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with mental disorders might be differentially affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on patients with various psychiatric disorders who were admitted to inpatient treatment. METHODS: Five-hundred thirty-eight inpatients with mental disorders participated in a survey about psychological consequences of the pandemic between March-December 2020. We examined the perceived burden by restrictions and worries, changes in health care utilization, and helpfulness of coping strategies. RESULTS: More than 50% reported any worsening of symptoms, 40% stated increased need of therapeutic support. High rates of symptom deterioration were observed for depressive symptoms (>55%), anxiety (>40%), and sleeping behavior (>40%). Treatment impairment was stated by 27.9%. Patients with anxiety disorders were less affected by contact restrictions compared with eating disorders and depression. Patients with anorexia nervosa and post-traumatic stress disorder experienced higher helpfulness by daily structuring than patients with depression. DISCUSSION: About half of our sample of psychiatric patients experienced symptom deterioration due to the pandemic and about one quarter reported impairment of treatment modalities. Especially patients with eating disorders and depressive disorders were more frequently affected. The results indicate a needed improvement of treatment options during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Inpatients/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 143(6): 526-534, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine how mental disorders and psychopharmacological treatments before and during COVID-19 hospital admissions are related to mortality. METHODS: Subjects included in the study were all adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19, confirmed clinically and by PCR, who were admitted to a tertiary university hospital in Badalona (Spain) between March 1 and November 17, 2020. Data were extracted anonymously from computerized clinical records. RESULTS: 2,150 subjects were included, 57% males, mean age 61 years. History of mental disorders was registered in 957 (45%). Throughout admission, de novo diagnosis of mood or anxiety, stress, or adjustment disorder was made in 12% of patients without previous history. Delirium was diagnosed in 10% of cases. 1011 patients (47%) received a psychotropic prescription during admission (36% benzodiazepines, 22% antidepressants, and 21% antipsychotics). Mortality rate was 17%. Delirium during admission and history of mood disorder were independently associated with higher mortality risk (hazard ratios, 1.39 and 1.52 respectively), while previous year's treatments with anxiolytics/hypnotics and antidepressants were independently associated with lower mortality risk (hazard ratios, 0.47 and 0.43, respectively). CONCLUSION: Mental symptoms are very common in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection. Detecting, diagnosing, and treating them is key to determining the prognosis of the disease and functional recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inpatients , Mental Disorders , Psychotropic Drugs , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Records/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Psychotropic Drugs/classification , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mealtimes occur six times a day on eating disorder (ED) inpatient units and are a mainstay of treatment for EDs. However, these are often distressing and anxiety provoking times for patients and staff. A product of patients' distress is an increase in ED behaviours specific to mealtimes. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the number of ED behaviours at mealtimes in the dining room through the implementation of initiatives identified through diagnostic work. METHODS: The Model for Improvement was used as the systematic approach for this project. Baseline assessment included observations in the dining room, gathering of qualitative feedback from staff and patients and the development of an ED behaviours form used by patients and staff. The first change idea of a host role in the dining room was introduced, and the impact was assessed. RESULTS: The introduction of the host role has reduced the average number of ED behaviours per patient in the dining room by 35%. Postintervention feedback demonstrated that the introduction of the host role tackled the disorganisation and chaotic feeling in the dining room which in turn has reduced distress and anxiety for patients and staff. CONCLUSIONS: This paper shows the realities of a quality improvement (QI) project on an ED inpatient unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results are positive for changes made; however, a large challenge, as described has been staff engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Food Service, Hospital/standards , Meals/psychology , Quality Improvement , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Behavior Observation Techniques , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Male , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
13.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110399, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the mental health outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The aims of the study were: (1) to examine the trajectories of anxiety, depression, and pandemic-related stress factors (PRSF) of COVID-19 hospitalized patients one-month following hospitalization; (2) to assess the presence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) a month after hospitalization; (3) to identify baseline risk and protective factors that would predict PTSS one month after hospitalization. METHODS: We contacted hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 64) by phone, at three time-points: during the first days after admission to the hospital (T1); after ~two weeks from the beginning of hospitalization (T2), and one month after hospitalization (T3). At all time-points we assessed the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as PRSF. At T3, PTSS were assessed. RESULTS: The levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms decreased one-month following hospitalization. Moreover, higher levels of anxiety (standardized ß = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.81-1.49, p < 0.001) and depression (ß = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.63-1.31 p < 0.001) symptoms during the first week of hospitalization, feeling socially disconnected (ß = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.81 p < 0.001) and experiencing a longer hospitalization period (ß = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.03-0.47 p = 0.026) predicted higher PTSS scores a month post-hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: We identified early hospitalization risk factors for the development of PTSS one month after hospitalization that should be targeted to reduce the risk for PTSS.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Hospitalization , Inpatients/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/complications , Depression/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Symptom Assessment
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113779, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062565

ABSTRACT

This current cross sectional survey was carried out amongst patients and staff in an acute psychiatric inpatient unit in the very first weeks of the ongoing pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 in Norway. Most patients found the visiting restrictions difficult, many reported that the pandemic made them feel unsafe, affected their sleep and that they feared transmission from other patients. Among staff, almost half were afraid that they would contract the virus, a majority feared they would bring the virus home and infect their family and one third were concerned that the pandemic compromised the treatment provided for the patients.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Inpatients/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Acute Disease , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway
17.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(3): 1021-1033, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012234

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect mental health in different ways. There is little research about psychiatric complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The aim of the study was to describe the psychiatric clinical profile and pharmacological interactions in COVID-19 inpatients referred to a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) unit. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out at a tertiary hospital in Spain, in inpatients admitted because of COVID-19 and referred to our CLP Unit from March 17,2020 to April 28,2020. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The patients were divided in three groups depending on psychiatric diagnosis: delirium, severe mental illness (SMI) and non-severe mental illness (NSMI). Of 71 patients included (median [ICR] age 64 [54-73] years; 70.4% male), 35.2% had a delirium, 18.3% had a SMI, and 46.5% had a NSMI. Compared to patients with delirium and NSMI, patients with SMI were younger, more likely to be institutionalized and were administered less anti-COVID19 drugs. Mortality was higher among patients with delirium (21.7%) than those with SMI (0%) or NSMI (9.45%). The rate of side effects due to interactions between anti-COVID19 and psychiatric drugs was low, mainly drowsiness (4.3%) and borderline QTc prolongation (1.5%). Patients affected by SMI were more often undertreated for COVID-19. However, the rate of interactions was very low, and avoidable with a proper evaluation and drug-dose adjustment. Half of the patients with SMI were institutionalized, suggesting that living conditions in residential facilities could make them more vulnerable to infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Inpatients/psychology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/psychology , Psychiatry , Referral and Consultation , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 411, 2020 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943885

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been classified as a pandemic, and mental hospitals located in epidemic centers have been affected. Social isolation is an important and irreplaceable measure to control the spread of the epidemic. In this study, schizophrenic patients who were subjected to social isolation after close contact with COVID-19 patients were used as participants to explore the impact of social isolation on common inflammatory indicators and psychological characteristics. A total of 30 patients with schizophrenia were recruited from Wuhan Mental Health Center. In addition, 30 ordinary schizophrenic patients were matched with the isolation group and were recruited from another branch of Wuhan Mental Health Center as controls. We compared the differences in common inflammatory indicators and psychological characteristics between the isolated group and the control group, and longitudinal comparison of the differences in the above indicators before and after isolation among the isolation group. The Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) score, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) score and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score of the isolation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p = 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, respectively). The C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CPSS score, HAMA score and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) score of the isolation group were significantly higher after isolation (p = 0.01, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, respectively). Inpatients of schizophrenia suffered from social isolation due to COVID-19 have a severe psychological burden. Social isolation caused patients to develop a weak inflammatory state and led to worse anxiety and sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Inpatients/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Schizophrenic Psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , China , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Schizophrenia/complications , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 255: 190-196, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the changing level of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in pregnant women, with and without high-risk indicators separately, in a tertiary care center serving also for COVID-19 patients, in the capital of Turkey. STUDY DESIGN: We designed a case-control and cross-sectional study using surveys. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale questionnaire (STAI-T) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) which were validated in Turkish were given to outpatient women with high-risk pregnancies as study group and normal pregnancies as control group. A total of 446 women were recruited. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between those with and without high-risk pregnancy in terms of Trait-State Anxiety scores with COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.05). We found an increased prevalence of anxiety during COVID-19 pandemic in high-risk pregnant women comparing to pregnancies with no risk factors (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the education level in high-risk pregnant women in terms of anxiety scores (p < 0.05), Beck Anxiety score was highest in high school graduates (42.75). While the level of Trait Anxiety was the highest with pandemic in those with high-risk pregnancy with threatened preterm labor and preterm ruptures of membranes (58.0), those with thrombophilia were the lowest (50.88). The State Anxiety level and Beck Anxiety Score of those with maternal systemic disease were the highest (53.32 and 45.53), while those with thrombophilia were the lowest (46.96 and 40.08). The scores of Trait Anxiety (56.38), State Anxiety (52.14), Beck Anxiety (43.94) were statistically higher during the pandemic in those hospitalized at least once (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High-risk pregnant women require routine anxiety and depression screening and psychosocial support during the COVID-19 pandemic. High-risk pregnancy patients have comorbid conditions most of the time, hence they not only at more risk for getting infected, but also have higher anxiety scores because of the stress caused by COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/virology , COVID-19/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/virology , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
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