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1.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(2): 140-142, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852861

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of initiation of closed-loop control (CLC) on glycemic metrics in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the real world. Methods: Retrospective analysis of electronic health records from a single tertiary diabetes center of older adults prescribed CLC between January and December 2020. Results: Forty-eight patients (mean age 70 ± 4 years, T1D duration 42 ± 14 years) were prescribed CLC and 39/48 started on the CLC. Among the CLC starters, 97.5% and 95% were prior pump and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) users, respectively. CGM metrics showed an increase in time-in-range (62% ± 13% to 76% ± 9%; P < 0.001), a reduction in both time spent <70 mg/dL [2% (1%-3%) to 1% (1%-2%); P = 0.03] and >180 mg/dL (30% ± 11% to 20% ± 9%; P < 0.001) at 3 months. Conclusion: In this real-world data most of the older patients with T1D initiating CLC were prior pump and CGM users. Initiation of CLC improved glycemic control and reduced time spent in hypoglycemia compared with prior therapy.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Aged , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Retrospective Studies
2.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(6): 409-415, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713550

ABSTRACT

Background: Technology for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pumps, and hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems, is improving, being used more commonly in the pediatric population, and impacts glycemic control. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the use of these technologies and their impact on glycemic control among patients with T1D who were seen at the Barbara Davis Center (n = 4003) between January 2018 and December 2020, <22 years old, with diabetes duration >3 months. Data were analyzed by age group and technology-use group defined as multiple daily injection with blood glucose meter (MDI/BGM), pump with BGM (pump/BGM), MDI with CGM (MDI/CGM), and pump with CGM (pump/CGM). Glycemic control was compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and controlling for diabetes duration, race, and insurance. Results: Among 4003 patients, 20% used MDI/BGM (mean hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] = 10.0%); 14.4% used pump/BGM (mean HbA1c = 10.0%); 15.4% used MDI/CGM (mean HbA1c = 8.6%); and 49.8% used pump/CGM (mean HbA1c = 8.1%). Compared with MDI/BGM patients, MDI/CGM and pump/CGM users had a lower HbA1c and were more likely to reach an HbA1c <7.0% (all P < 0.0001). Among pump/CGM users, 35% used HCL technology (mean HbA1c = 7.6%) and had a lower HbA1c and were more likely to reach an HbA1c <7% than non-HCL users (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CGM use was associated with a lower HbA1c in both MDI and pump users. Pump use was only associated with a lower HbA1c if used with CGM. HCL was associated with the lowest HbA1c. Spanish language and minority race/ethnicity were associated with lower rates of pump and CGM use, highlighting the need to reduce disparities.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Technology , Young Adult
3.
Arch Pediatr ; 29(1): 27-29, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561682

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to impose lockdown policies, thus impacting patients with chronic diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of lockdown on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients using a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion device during the nationwide lockdown. Children and adolescents aged 2-18 years followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Unit of Hospitalar São João in Portugal were included in the study. We collected data on the age, weight, insulin doses, and glycemic control of the patients before and after the restrictions. RESULTS: The study included 100 patients, 59 males, with a mean age of 12.5 years. Baseline data showed a suboptimal glycemic control with a median HbA1c of 7.9%. The lockdown was associated with an increase in the body mass index (BMI) of all patients (p = 0.009), particularly girls and older teenagers. Metabolic control deteriorated in the 10-13 age group (p = 0.03), with a 0.4% increase in HbA1c. CONCLUSION: To date, this is the largest study on the impact of lockdown on type 1 diabetes in patients using an insulin pump. The results highlight the importance of physical activity, parental supervision, and continuation of healthcare assistance through telemedicine in young individuals with type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycemic Control/methods , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Insulin Infusion Systems/adverse effects , Male , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Diabet Med ; 39(4): e14755, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid implementation of remote care delivery in type 1 diabetes. We studied current modes of care delivery, healthcare professional experiences and impact on insulin pump training in type 1 diabetes care in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: The UK Diabetes Technology Network designed a 48-question survey aimed at healthcare professionals providing care in type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-three healthcare professionals (48% diabetes physicians, 52% diabetes educators and 88% working in adult services) from approximately 75 UK centres (52% university hospitals, 46% general and community hospitals), responded to the survey. Telephone consultations were the main modality of care delivery. There was a higher reported time taken for video consultations versus telephone (p < 0.001). Common barriers to remote consultations were patient familiarity with technology (72%) and access to patient device data (67%). We assessed the impact on insulin pump training. A reduction in total new pump starts (73%) and renewals (61%) was highlighted. Common barriers included patient digital literacy (61%), limited healthcare professional experience (46%) and time required per patient (44%). When grouped according to size of insulin pump service, pump starts and renewals in larger services were less impacted by the pandemic compared to smaller services. CONCLUSION: This survey highlights UK healthcare professional experiences of remote care delivery. While supportive of virtual care models, a number of factors highlighted, especially patient digital literacy, need to be addressed to improve virtual care delivery and device training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Health Personnel , Self-Management/education , Telemedicine , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Biomedical Technology/education , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pandemics , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Patient Education as Topic/organization & administration , Remote Consultation/methods , Remote Consultation/organization & administration , Self-Management/methods , Self-Management/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(2): 445-452, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is aimed at evaluating changes in metrics of glucose control in home-isolated patients with type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system. METHODS: We included adults aged 18-45 years with type 1 diabetes, using CGM, followed by telemedicine at a Southern Italian University Hospital. Thirty-two home-quarantined subjects with SARS-CoV-2 positive swab constituted the COVID-19 group. Thirty age-matched diabetic individuals without COVID-19 formed the control group. The effects of COVID-19 on glycemic control in patients infected were assessed at different time points [2 weeks before-COVID-19 (Time 1), 2 weeks during-COVID-19 (Time 2) and 2 weeks after COVID-19 (Time 3)] and compared with those without infection. RESULTS: A significant reduction of TIR (Time 1 vs Time 2, %, 60.1 ± 16.6 vs 55.4 ± 19.2, P = 0.03), associated with a significant increase of TAR level 2 (10.1 ± 7.3 vs 16.7 ± 12.9, P < 0.001), GMI (7.1 ± 0.6 vs 7.5 ± 0.8, P < 0.001), CV (37.3 ± 7.1 vs 39.6 ± 7.0, P = 0.04), mean glucose values (mg/dL, 160.2 ± 26.5 vs 175.5 ± 32.6, P = 0.001) and standard deviation (59.2 ± 13.1 vs 68.6 ± 17.7, P = 0.001) was observed in patients with COVID-19. No significant change of glycemic metrics was found in the NO COVID-19 group across the time. CONCLUSION: Young home-isolated patients with type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 showed a worsening of glucose control during COVID-19, as compared with age-matched diabetic subjects without the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Glycemic Control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/drug effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Italy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine , Young Adult
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 703905, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376692

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is no consensus on the impact of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Aim: To determine the impact of the pandemic lockdown of March 15th through July 6th, 2020 on glycemic control after controlling for confounders. Subjects and Methods: An observational study of 110 subjects of mean age 14.8 ± 4.9 years(y), [male 15.4 ± 4.0y, (n=57); female 14.1 ± 3.8y, (n=53), p=0.07] with T1D of 6.31 ± 4.3y (95% CI 1.0-19.7y). Data were collected at 1-4 months before the lockdown and 1-4 months following the lifting of the lockdown at their first post-lockdown clinic visit. Results: There was no significant change in A1c between the pre- and post-pandemic lockdown periods, 0.18 ± 1.2%, (95% CI -0.05 to 0.41), p=0.13. There were equally no significant differences in A1c between the male and female subjects, -0.16 ± 1.2 vs -0.19 ± 1.2%, p=0.8; insulin pump users and non-pump users, -0.25 ± 1.0 vs -0.12 ± 1.4%, p=0.5; and pubertal vs prepubertal subjects, 0.18 ± 1.3 vs -0.11 ± 0.3%, p=0.6. The significant predictors of decrease in A1c were pre-lockdown A1c (p<0.0001) and the use of CGM (p=0.019). The CGM users had significant reductions in point-of-care A1c (0.4 ± 0.6%, p=0.0012), the CGM-estimated A1c (p=0.0076), mean glucose concentration (p=0.022), a significant increase in sensor usage (p=0.012), with no change in total daily dose of insulin (TDDI). The non-CGM users had significantly increased TDDI (p<0.0001) but no change in HbA1c, 0.06 ± 1.8%, p=0.86. Conclusions: There was no change in glycemic control during the pandemic lockdown of 2020 in US children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Glycemic Control , Quarantine , Adolescent , Age Factors , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Glycemic Control/instrumentation , Glycemic Control/methods , History, 21st Century , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Pandemics , Quarantine/organization & administration , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
9.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 1055-1058, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The use of remote real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the hospital has rapidly emerged to preserve personal protective equipment and reduce potential exposures during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We linked a hybrid CGM and point-of-care (POC) glucose testing protocol to a computerized decision support system for continuous insulin infusion and integrated a validation system for sensor glucose values into the electronic health record. We report our proof-of-concept experience in a COVID-19 intensive care unit. RESULTS: All nine patients required mechanical ventilation and corticosteroids. During the protocol, 75.7% of sensor values were within 20% of the reference POC glucose with an associated average reduction in POC of 63%. Mean time in range (70-180 mg/dL) was 71.4 ± 13.9%. Sensor accuracy was impacted by mechanical interferences in four patients. CONCLUSIONS: A hybrid protocol integrating real-time CGM and POC is helpful for managing critically ill patients with COVID-19 requiring insulin infusion.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Diabetes Complications , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin/administration & dosage , Remote Sensing Technology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Equipment and Supplies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , Proof of Concept Study , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 1, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Starting March 2020 the Italian Government imposed a lockdown to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. During lockdown outpatient visits were limited and telemedicine (TM) was encouraged. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from continuous or flash glucose monitoring systems shared through different cloud systems during the lockdown by subjects with type 1 diabetes and compared data obtained 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after structured telephonic visit. Variables considered were mean glucose, time spent in target (70-180 mg/dl), hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dl), coefficient of variation, and length of sensor use. RESULTS: During the 4 weeks following the telephonic visit there was an improvement of glycemic control, with a significant reduction of mean glucose values (161.1 before vs 156.3 mg/dl after, p = 0.001), an increase of the time spent in target (63.6 vs 66.3, p = 0.0009) and a reduction of time spent in hyperglycemia (33.4 vs 30.5, p = 0.002). No changes were observed regarding glucose variability, time spent in hypoglycemia, and length of sensor use. Similar results were observed in subjects treated with multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. CONCLUSIONS: A structured telephonic visit appears to be an effective way to replace or integrate routine visits in particular conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 243-247, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Colombia, the government established mandatory isolation after the first case of COVID-19 was reported. As a diabetes care center specialized in technology, we developed a virtual training program for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who were upgrading to hybrid closed loop (HCL) system. The aim of this study is to describe the efficacy and safety outcomes of the virtual training program. METHOD: ology: A prospective observational cohort study was performed, including patients with diagnosis of T1D previously treated with multiple doses of insulin (MDI) or sensor augmented pump therapy (SAP) who were updating to HCL system, from March to July 2020. Virtual training and follow-up were done through the Zoom video conferencing application and Medtronic Carelink System version 3.1 software. CGM data were analyzed to compare the time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR) and glycemic variability, during the first two weeks corresponding to manual mode with the final two weeks of follow-up in automatic mode. RESULTS: 91 patients were included. Mean TIR achieved with manual mode was 77.3 ± 11.3, increasing to 81.6% ± 7.6 (p < 0.001) after two weeks of auto mode use. A significant reduction in TBR <70 mg/dL (2,7% ± 2,28 vs 1,83% ± 1,67, p < 0,001) and in glycemic variability (% coefficient of variation 32.4 vs 29.7, p < 0.001) was evident, independently of baseline therapy. CONCLUSION: HCL systems allows T1D patients to improve TIR, TBR and glycemic variability independently of previous treatment. Virtual training can be used during situations that limit the access of patients to follow-up centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Insulin Infusion Systems , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
12.
Curr Diab Rep ; 21(2): 7, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033241

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the USA continues to rise, so does the popularity of diabetes management devices such as continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and insulin pumps. The use of this technology has been shown to improve outpatient glycemic outcomes and quality of life and oftentimes may be continued in the hospital setting. Our aim is to review the current guidelines and available evidence on the continuation of insulin pumps and CGMs in the inpatient setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with diabetes are at higher risk for hospitalizations and complications due to hyper- or hypoglycemia, metabolic co-morbidities, or as seen recently, more severe illness from infections such as SARS-CoV-2. The maintenance of euglycemia is important to decrease both morbidity and mortality in the hospital setting. There is consensus among experts and medical societies that inpatient use of diabetes technology in carefully selected patients with proper institutional protocols is safe and can improve inpatient glycemic outcomes and reduce hypoglycemia. During the COVID-19 pandemic, CGMs played a vital role in managing hyperglycemia in some hospitalized patients. Insulin pumps and CGMs have the potential to transform glycemic management in hospitalized patients. In order for institutions to safely and effectively incorporate these technologies on their inpatient units, hospital-based providers will need to be able to understand how to manage and utilize these devices in their practice in conjunction with diabetes experts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Insulins , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulins/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 23(6): 467-470, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029729

ABSTRACT

Insulin pump training has traditionally been performed in-person. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated vast increases in the number of virtual pump trainings for Tandem t:slim X2 insulin pump starts. A customized structured pump training curriculum specifically tailored to virtual learning was deployed in early 2020, and included (1) preparation for training with use of the t:simulator app, (2) use of the teach-back method during video training, and (3) automating data uploads for follow-up. Retrospective analysis from >23,000 pump training sessions performed from January 1, 2020 to July 28, 2020 showed sensor time-in-range for up to 6 months after training was 72% (60%-81%) for virtual training versus 67% (54%-78%) for in-person training. Higher user satisfaction (4.78 ± 0.52 vs. 4.64 ± 0.68; P < 0.01) and higher user confidence (4.61 ± 0.75 vs. 4.47 ± 0.0.85; P < 0.01) were reported after the virtual sessions. Virtual pump training was well received and proved safe and effective with the new virtual training curriculum.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin/administration & dosage , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Curriculum , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Educational Measurement , Feasibility Studies , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infusion Pumps, Implantable , Insulin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 1, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Starting March 2020 the Italian Government imposed a lockdown to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. During lockdown outpatient visits were limited and telemedicine (TM) was encouraged. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from continuous or flash glucose monitoring systems shared through different cloud systems during the lockdown by subjects with type 1 diabetes and compared data obtained 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after structured telephonic visit. Variables considered were mean glucose, time spent in target (70-180 mg/dl), hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dl), coefficient of variation, and length of sensor use. RESULTS: During the 4 weeks following the telephonic visit there was an improvement of glycemic control, with a significant reduction of mean glucose values (161.1 before vs 156.3 mg/dl after, p = 0.001), an increase of the time spent in target (63.6 vs 66.3, p = 0.0009) and a reduction of time spent in hyperglycemia (33.4 vs 30.5, p = 0.002). No changes were observed regarding glucose variability, time spent in hypoglycemia, and length of sensor use. Similar results were observed in subjects treated with multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. CONCLUSIONS: A structured telephonic visit appears to be an effective way to replace or integrate routine visits in particular conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Pandemics , Quarantine , Telemedicine/trends , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 847-849, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (rtCGM) in critically ill hospitalized patients holds promise; however, real-world data are needed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We placed Dexcom G6 CGM on intensive care unit (ICU) patients at Montefiore Medical Center with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and glycemic variability. We analyzed inpatient CGM accuracy using point-of-care (POC) glucose-CGM matched pairs and included patients for analysis regardless of clinical status. RESULTS: We included 11 patients with CGM: 8 on continuous insulin infusion (CII), 8 on vasopressors, 8 intubated, 4 on high-dose glucocorticoids, 6 on renal replacement therapy, and 2 with anasarca. Accuracy was 12.58% for mean and 6.3% for median absolute relative difference. CGM reduced POC testing by ∼60% for patients on CII. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world preliminary analysis of rtCGM during critical illness, we demonstrate early feasibility, considerable accuracy, and meaningful reduction in the frequency of POC glucose testing.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Adult , Aged , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 63-68, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected people's lives including patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on psychological status, self-management behaviors, and diabetes care maintenance among Saudi adults with T1DM using insulin pump therapy. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a web survey to collect data on Saudi adults with T1DM who were treated in the specialized insulin pump clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and General Anxiety Disorder-7 scales to measure depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Of the 70 patients who received the survey, 65 completed it. Overall, 23.1% and 29.2% of the patients reported moderate to severe and mild depression, respectively; 18.5% and 24.6% reported moderate to severe and mild anxiety, respectively. Compared with pre-lockdown, adherence to a healthy diet and regular physical activity decreased in 67.7% and 41.5% of the patients, respectively. Most patients maintained their adherence to insulin pump behaviors; frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose increased in 47% of glucometer users. Most patients benefited from phone visits or virtual education sessions, but 66.2% of the patients reported difficulty obtaining at least one type of insulin pump supply. CONCLUSIONS: Promoting self-management behaviors and psychological wellbeing of patients with T1DM using insulin pump therapy is crucial during a lockdown. Telemedicine is a useful alternative to in-person appointments, but strategies to ensure that patients have access to adequate resources during lockdown must be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Insulin Infusion Systems , Quarantine/methods , Self-Management/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Female , Humans , Insulin Infusion Systems/psychology , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Self-Management/psychology , Telemedicine/methods
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(3): 383-388, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893283

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Spain has been one of the worst affected countries by the COVID-19 pandemic. A very strict lockdown at home was imposed with a tough restriction of mobility. We aimed to evaluate the impact of this exceptional scenario on glucose profile of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) prone to hypoglycaemia using sensor-augmented pump (SAP). METHODS: Patients with T1D prone to hypoglycaemia using SAP (640G Medtronic-Minimed®) for at least 6 months under the funding of a National Health Service were included in an observational, retrospective study. Data were collected in two periods: pre-lockdown (PL), February 23rd-March 7th and within lockdown (WL), April 1st to 14th 2020. The primary outcome was the difference in the proportion of time in target glucose range of 70-180 mg/dL (TIR). Additional glucometric data and total daily insulin were also analysed. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were included: 33 women, age 46.17 ± 13.0 years and disease duration of 30.2 ± 12.0 years. TIR 70-180 mg/dL (67.6 ± 11.8 vs. 69.8 ± 12.0%), time > 180 (28.1 ± 13.6 vs. 25.5 ± 13.1%), time > 250 (6.9 ± 6.1 vs. 5.1 ± 4.8) and estimated HbA1c (6.94 ± 0.8 vs. 6.75 ± 0.7%) significantly improved (PL vs. WL, respectively, p < 0.05). Time in hypoglycaemia, coefficient of variation, sensor usage and total daily insulin dose remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown conditions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic may be managed successfully in terms of glycaemia control by population with DT1 prone to hypoglycaemia using SAP. The strict daily routine at home could probably explain the improvement in the time in glycemic target without increasing the time hypoglycaemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycemic Control/methods , Hypoglycemia/blood , Insulin Infusion Systems , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(6): 1060-1063, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887387

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to report our telemedicine experience with type 1 diabetes patients using insulin pumps who fasted for Ramadan 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The routine diabetes outpatient care in our Changing Diabetes in Children (CDiC) Pediatric Diabetes Center at the Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders hospital was closed, as there was a lockdown from 26 March in Bangladesh. The diabetes team in our center started telemedicine care for routine follow up of patients. Nine patients who wished to fast for Ramadan contacted our diabetes team over the phone. The mean age was 19.3 ± 5.0 years, and five (55.6%) were female. Most of the patients fasted >20 days. Hyperglycemia and mild hypoglycemia were common complications during fasting. There was no episode of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis, and none of the patients required admission. During the COVID-19 crisis in Bangladesh, patients with type 1 diabetes using an insulin pump could fast safely for Ramadan with the support of the telemedicine service by the diabetes team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Fasting/blood , Insulin Infusion Systems , Islam , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Young Adult
20.
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol ; 13(4): 468-472, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883950

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced health care teams to look for alternative approaches to manage a great number of children with diabetes, not only in rural but also in urban locations. The aim was to assess the provision of information about follow-up of new-onset pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, and to investigate the integration of telemedicine into routine clinical care in the long term. The changes in coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation and percentages of time in range (TIR), time below range (TBR) and time above range were evaluated in eight children with new-onset T1D, diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study period was two-months of follow-up using a telemedicine system. Median follow-up time was 51 (24-66) days. Two of the patients were using low glucose suspend system and six were on multiple daily injection therapy. Target TIR values were achieved in seven patients in the last televisit and, in line with recent guidelines, a TBR <70 mg/dL (<3.9 mmol/L) (level 1 hypoglycemia) of <4% and a TBR <54 mg/dL (<3.0 mmol/L) (level 2 hypoglycemia) of <1% were achieved in all patients. Seven patients achieved a CV of <36% at their last televisit. Telemedicine as an alternative follow-up tool during unusual circumstances such pandemics, even in countries where it is not routinely used, could be beneficial to achieve optimum glycemic control in patients with new-onset T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/instrumentation , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Treatment Outcome , Turkey/epidemiology
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