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1.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 16(4): 955-961, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization of persons with diabetes in an inpatient diabetes unit is challenging, notably for patients having different profiles. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and the benefit of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) telemetry system to control glucose excursions in hospitalized patients with diabetes, according to their diabetes type and the reasons for their hospitalization. METHOD: A prospective pilot study was conducted in 53 insulin-requiring diabetes patients hospitalized in the general ward. Glucose was monitored using Guardian Connect (GC, Medtronic) to adopt insulin therapy. The time in range (TIR, target 70-180 mg/dL), the time below range (TBR), and the time above range (TAR) were recorded by GC between the start of hospitalization (SH) and end of hospitalization (EH), and analyzed according to the diabetes type (type 1 diabetes n = 28, type 2 diabetes n = 25) and the reasons for hospitalization (acute complications n = 35, therapeutic education n = 18). Patient and caregiver satisfaction was also assessed. RESULTS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and those hospitalized for acute complications, TIR significantly increased between the SH and EH, from 75.7% (95%CI 48.5-84.6) to 82.2% (95%CI 63.2-91.8) P = 0.043 and from 58.3% (95%CI 46.3-69.7) to 66.4% (95%CI 55.6-75.5) P = 0.031, respectively, and TAR significantly decreased, with no change in TBR. In patients with diabetes hospitalized for therapeutic education, TBR significantly decreased from 3.4% (95%CI 0-9.4) to 0% (95%CI 0-3.8) P = 0.037. Finally, 94% of patients and caregivers deemed the GC system useful. CONCLUSIONS: CGM telemetry system use is feasible and well accepted in patients hospitalized in diabetes care unit and could be useful to improve therapeutic education and metabolic control, especially for specific homogenous populations with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Inpatients , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Telemetry
6.
Metabolism ; 133: 155236, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause multiple organ damages as well as metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and new onset of diabetes. The insulin/IGF signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and cell survival, but little is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in the host cell/tissue, and if so, the potential mechanism and association with COVID-19 pathology. METHODS: To determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on insulin/IGF signaling pathway, we utilized transcriptome datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and tissues from public repositories for a wide range of high-throughput gene expression data: autopsy lungs from COVID-19 patients compared to the control from non-COVID-19 patients; lungs from a human ACE2 transgenic mouse infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the control infected with mock; human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived liver organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2; adipose tissues from a mouse model of COVID-19 overexpressing human ACE2 via adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) compared to the control GFP after SARS-CoV-2 infection; iPS-derived human pancreatic cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the mock control. Gain and loss of IRF1 function models were established in HEK293T and/or Calu3 cells to evaluate the impact on insulin signaling. To understand the mechanistic regulation and relevance with COVID-19 risk factors, such as older age, male sex, obesity, and diabetes, several transcriptomes of human respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissue were analyzed. To estimate the association with COVID-19 severity, whole blood transcriptomes of critical patients with COVID-19 compared to those of hospitalized noncritical patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection impaired insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes, such as IRS, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and MAPK, in the host lung, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic cells. The impairments were attributed to interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and its gene expression was highly relevant to risk factors for severe COVID-19; increased with aging in the lung, specifically in men; augmented by obese and diabetic conditions in liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets. IRF1 activation was significantly associated with the impaired insulin signaling in human cells. IRF1 intron variant rs17622656-A, which was previously reported to be associated with COVID-19 prevalence, increased the IRF1 gene expression in human tissue and was frequently found in American and European population. Critical patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher IRF1 and lower insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes in the whole blood compared to hospitalized noncritical patients. Hormonal interventions, such as dihydrotestosterone and dexamethasone, ameliorated the pathological traits in SARS-CoV-2 infectable cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first scientific evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissues. This feature likely contributes to COVID-19 severity with cell/tissue damage and metabolic abnormalities, which may be exacerbated in older, male, obese, or diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(21): 8152-8171, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116346

ABSTRACT

Elevation in blood glucose is common in COVID-19 patients. There is also a high incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) in COVID-19 patients following hospitalization. To date, the underlying cause(s) for the hyperglycemia and new-onset DM post-COVID-19 remain poorly understood. In this narrative review, we suggest that upregulation of the cytotoxic and diffusible glycolytic byproduct methylglyoxal (MGO) arising from increased glycolysis in infected pancreatic islets, macrophages, and peripheral cells/tissues is impairing insulin production, secretion, and signaling. This hypothesis is based on our recent discovery that MGO levels were elevated in the plasma of hospitalized COVID-19 patients without and with DM and even higher in COVID-19 patients that succumb to the disease. In pancreatic islets infected with SARS-CoV-2, elevated MGO will disrupt mitochondrial function, perturb Ca2+ homeostasis, and activate the receptors for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) resulting in impaired insulin production and secretion. In macrophages, excess MG production can diffuse into the vasculature disrupting endothelial function and triggering micro/macro hemorrhage, ischemia, and tissue fibrosis. In skeletal muscle and liver cells, MGO disruption of insulin signaling can blunt glucose absorption. Metformin and N-acetyl cysteine have recently been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Here we propose that these agents may be exerting their beneficial effects by chemically reacting with and lowering MGO levels. Knowledge gained from this review should provide novel mechanistic insights for hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients and strategies to blunt the development of new-onset of DM in post-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Humans , Pyruvaldehyde , Magnesium Oxide , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Insulin
8.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 753-759, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113826

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To analyse if antidiabetic treatment was associated with better COVID-19 outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients, measured by hospital admission and mortality rates as severe outcomes. METHODS: Cohort study including COVID-19 patients registered in the Primary Care electronic records, in March-June 2020, comparing exposed to metformin in monotherapy with exposed to any other antidiabetic. DATA SOURCE: SIDIAP (Information System for Research in Primary Care), which captures clinical information of 5,8 million people from Catalonia, Spain. RESULTS: We included 31,006 diabetic patients infected with COVID-19, 43.7% previously exposed to metformin, 45.5% of them in monotherapy. 16.4% were admitted to hospital and 15.1% died. Users of insulin in monotherapy (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.50), combined with metformin (OR 1.38, 1.13-1.69) or IDPP4 alone (OR 1.29, 1.03-1.63) had higher risk of severe outcomes than those in metformin monotherapy. Users of any insulin (OR 1.61, 1.32-1.97) or combined with metformin (OR 1.69, 1.30-2.20) had a higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving metformin monotherapy in our study showed a lower risk of hospitalization and death in comparison to those treated with other frequent antidiabetic agents. We cannot distinguish if better outcomes are related with the antidiabetic therapy or with other factors, such as metabolic control or interventions applied during the hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Spain/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Metformin/adverse effects , Insulin/adverse effects , Primary Health Care
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 991269, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099127

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, governments of many countries decided to implement lockdowns, which included school closures. This major lifestyle change also applied to people with diabetes. The aim of this paper was to analyze how the COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions influenced the metabolic compensation of diabetes in the pediatric population. Methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), treated by one therapeutic team, who in 2020 and 2021 paid at least two in-person visits in the outpatient clinic, were included in the study. The time in range (TIR) and HbA1c, as well as the total daily dose (TDD) of insulin and BMI from the visit before the announcement of the pandemic restrictions (March 2020) and during the lockdown (second visit after 6 months) and within the period of loosened restrictions (two visits in 2021) were analyzed. Results: A total of 185 patients with T1D were included in the study (96 boys), aged 2-18 years (11.5 ± 3.5); 135 of them (72.9%) use CSII and 142 (76.8%) use CGM or FGM. During the first months of the studied period, despite comparable (p>0.05) TIR (57.5 ± 21.4% vs. 59.9 ± 20.5%), improvement of HbA1c was noticed (7.9 ± 1.6% vs. 7.5 ± 1.4%, p=0.0336), whereas in the following months, both HbA1c and TIR were comparable. Also, the TDD increased significantly (from 37.3 ± 18.9 units/day on the first visit up to 46.8 ± 22.7 units/day on the last visit, p=0.0003); however, TDD/kg remained constant (p>0.05) (0.8 ± 0.2 units/kg/day vs. 0.8 ± 0.3 units/kg/day) possibly due to an increased BMI (19.1 ± 3.7 kg/m2 vs. 20.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2, p=0.0001). The percentage of basal insulin in the TDD remained stable (p>0.05) (39.7 ± 11.3% vs. 39.3 ± 13.6%). Furthermore, a significant (p=0.0001) change in the BMI percentile was noticed [from 58.9 ± 26.2 percentiles (%iles) before lockdown vs. 64.6 ± 26.0%iles on the second visit]. However, the BMI percentile returned to baseline (58.1 ± 28.4%iles) at the visit at the end of the observation period. Conclusions: The parameters of metabolic control in pediatric patients with T1D during the pandemic period remained stable; however, weight gain and an increase in daily insulin dose have been observed, possibly due to reduced physical activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Male , Humans , Child , Pandemics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Insulin/therapeutic use , Weight Gain
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 193: 110146, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095254

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents (<20 years of age) during the COVID-19 pandemic (3/2020 to 12/2021) in Germany. METHODS: The present study was based on the IQVIA longitudinal prescription database (LRx), All persons (age ≤ 20 years) with new insulin prescriptions from 2016 to 2021 (index date) were selected and stratified by age group. Weekly (age-specific) data were used to forecast the prescription incidence for the pandemic period based on pre-pandemic data and to explore the relationship between weekly reported age-specific COVID-19 incidences and type 1 diabetes incidence and rate ratios of observed vs. predicted diabetes incidence respectively. RESULTS: During the pre-pandemic period, there was a stable higher insulin prescription incidence during the winter period and a lower insulin prescription incidence during summer. During the pandemic period, there was less seasonal variation in incidence related to the finding that the observed incidence during summer in 2002 and 2021 was 44 % and 65 %, higher, respectively, than the expected incidence based on pre-pandemic year. We did not find any cross-correlations between the COVID-19 incidence and the type 1 diabetes incidence for any age group. Likewise, there were no cross-correlations between the COVID-19 incidence and the incidence rate ratios of observed incidences to predicted incidences. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was less seasonal variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (defined by new insulin prescriptions), with higher observed than expected incidences during summer. We found no evidence that the increase in type 1 diabetes incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic relates to direct effects of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Germany/epidemiology , Insulin/therapeutic use
11.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(9): 635-642, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062818

ABSTRACT

Background: Automated insulin delivery (AID) systems have proven effective in increasing time-in-range during both clinical trials and real-world use. Further improvements in outcomes for single-hormone (insulin only) AID may be limited by suboptimal insulin delivery settings. Methods: Adults (≥18 years of age) with type 1 diabetes were randomized to either sensor-augmented pump (SAP) (inclusive of predictive low-glucose suspend) or adaptive zone model predictive control AID for 13 weeks, then crossed over to the other arm. Each week, the AID insulin delivery settings were sequentially and automatically updated by an adaptation system running on the study phone. Primary outcome was sensor glucose time-in-range 70-180 mg/dL, with noninferiority in percent time below 54 mg/dL as a hierarchical outcome. Results: Thirty-five participants completed the trial (mean age 39 ± 16 years, HbA1c at enrollment 6.9% ± 1.0%). Mean time-in-range 70-180 mg/dL was 66% with SAP versus 69% with AID (mean adjusted difference +2% [95% confidence interval: -1% to +6%], P = 0.22). Median time <70 mg/dL improved from 3.0% with SAP to 1.6% with AID (-1.5% [-2.4% to -0.5%], P = 0.002). The adaptation system decreased initial basal rates by a median of 4% (-8%, 16%) and increased initial carbohydrate ratios by a median of 45% (32%, 59%) after 13 weeks. Conclusions: Automated adaptation of insulin delivery settings with AID use did not significantly improve time-in-range in this very well-controlled population. Additional study and further refinement of the adaptation system are needed, especially in populations with differing degrees of baseline glycemic control, who may show larger benefits from adaptation.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Insulin , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infant, Newborn , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Young Adult
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1002375, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055022

ABSTRACT

The Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) and Insulin Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) are three M1 zinc metalloproteases whose role in antigen processing is the refining of peptidome either in the Endoplasmic reticulum (ERAP1 and ERAP2), or in the endosomes (IRAP). However, other novel and distinct functions are emerging. Here, we focus specifically on ERAP2. This gene has a peculiar evolutionary history, being absent in rodents and undergoing in humans to a balanced selection of two haplotypes, one of which not expressing the full length ERAP2. These observations suggest that its role in antigen presentation is not essential. An additional, less investigated role is in the regulation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS). ERAP1 and ERAP2 cleave Angiotensin II (Ang II) into Ang III and IV, which counteract the action of Ang II whereas IRAP is itself the receptor for Ang IV. We have recently reported that macrophages, independently from the haplotype, express and release a N-terminus ERAP2 "short" form which directly binds IRAP and the two molecules are co-expressed in the endosomes and on the cell membrane. This new evidence suggests that the maintenance of the ERAP2 gene in humans could be due to its activity in the regulation of the RAS system, possibly as an Ang IV agonist. Its role in the immune-mediated diseases as well as in disorders more specifically related to an imbalance of the RAS system, including hypertension, pre-eclampsia but also viral infections such as COVID-19, is discussed here.


Subject(s)
Aminopeptidases , COVID-19 , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Antigen Presentation , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Zinc
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043770

ABSTRACT

Although the COVID-19 disease has developed into a worldwide pandemic, its pathophysiology remains to be fully understood. Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a zinc-metalloprotease with a high affinity for insulin, has been found in the interactomes of multiple SARS-CoV-2 proteins. However, the relevance of IDE in the innate and adaptative immune responses elicited by circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells is unknown. Here, we show that IDE is highly expressed on the surface of circulating monocytes, T-cells (both CD4+ and CD4-), and, to a lower extent, in B-cells from healthy controls. Notably, IDE's surface expression was upregulated on monocytes from COVID-19 patients at diagnosis, and it was increased in more severe patients. However, IDE's surface expression was downregulated (relative to healthy controls) 3 months after hospital discharge in all the studied immune subsets, with this effect being more pronounced in males than in females, and thus it was sex-dependent. Additionally, IDE levels in monocytes, CD4+ T-cells, and CD4- T-cells were inversely correlated with circulating insulin levels in COVID-19 patients (both at diagnosis and after hospital discharge). Of note, high glucose and insulin levels downregulated IDE surface expression by ~30% in the monocytes isolated from healthy donors, without affecting its expression in CD4+ T-cells and CD4- T-cells. In conclusion, our studies reveal the sex- and metabolism-dependent regulation of IDE in monocytes, suggesting that its regulation might be important for the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, as well as for glucometabolic control, in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulysin , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Glucose , Hospitals , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Insulysin/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Monocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
15.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(4): 389-394, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a complex bidirectional relationship between critical illness and disordered glucose metabolism. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence focused on the relationship between critical illness and disordered glucose metabolism through the distinct phases of prior to, during, and after an acute illness that requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data suggest that preexisting glucose metabolism affects the optimal blood glucose target during critical illness, with preliminary data suggesting that glucose targets should be 'personalized' based on preexisting glycemia. Because of the close association between critical illness and disordered glucose metabolism, there is a need to optimize glucose monitoring in the ICU with rapid, precise, and cost-efficient measurements at the bedside. Recent studies have evaluated the use of various methodologies, with a focus on the use of near-continuous glucose monitoring. For those patients with preexisting diabetes who survive ICU, nocturnal hypoglycemia may be an unrecognized and important issue when discharged to the ward. There is increasing evidence that patients with high blood glucose during their acute illness, so called 'stress hyperglycemia', are at increased risk of developing diabetes in the years following recovery from the inciting event. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 appear at greater risk. SUMMARY: There have been important recent insights in the approach to glucose monitoring and glucose targets during critical illness, monitoring and administration of glucose-lowering drugs on discharge from the ICU, and longitudinal follow-up of patients with stress hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperglycemia , Acute Disease , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/adverse effects , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Insulin , Intensive Care Units
17.
Endocr Pract ; 28(8): 811-821, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The health and economic burden of type 2 diabetes is of global significance. Many people with type 2 diabetes eventually need insulin to help reduce their risk of serious associated complications. However, barriers to the initiation and/or optimization of insulin expose people with diabetes to sustained hyperglycemia. In this review, we investigated how new and future technologies may provide opportunities to help overcome these barriers to the initiation and/or optimization of insulin. METHODS: A focused literature search of PubMed and key scientific congresses was conducted. Software tools and devices developed to support the initiation and/or optimization of insulin were identified by manually filtering >300 publications and conference abstracts. RESULTS: Most software tools have been developed for smartphone platforms. At present, published data suggest that the use of these technologies is associated with equivalent or improved glycemic outcomes compared with standard care, with additional benefits such as reduced time burden and improved knowledge of diabetes among health care providers. However, there remains paucity of good-quality evidence. Most new devices to support insulin therapy help track the dose and timing of insulin. CONCLUSION: New digital health tools may help to reduce barriers to optimal insulin therapy. An integrated solution that connects glucose monitoring, dose recording, and titration advice as well as records comorbidities and lifestyle factors has the potential to reduce the complexity and burden of treatment and may improve adherence to titration and treatment, resulting in better outcomes for people with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin, Regular, Human/therapeutic use
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273675, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021932

ABSTRACT

Psychological problems commonly experienced by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cause diabetes fatigue conditions that can further worsen the treatment prognosis. We conducted this investigation to determine the effectiveness of a resilience-based Islamic program on diabetes fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by measuring the biochemical indicators of T2DM. This was a quasi-experimental study performed from May to August 2021, in which 80 respondents aged 18-64 years diagnosed with T2DM were included through purposive sampling at a male:female sex ratio of 1:1 in the control group and 17:23 in the treatment group. A resilience-based Islamic program (a combination of stress management, mindfulness, prayer, and dhikr (the ritual formula of Sufi brotherhood recited devotionally in praise of Allah and as a means of attaining ecstatic experience)) was implemented in the treatment group for six sessions by blended online and offline interventions. Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 and World Health Organization Quality of Life, Brief Form were used to evaluate diabetes fatigue and HRQoL. Blood tests were performed to measure HbA1c, total antioxidant serum, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels from baseline to 3 months. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired t test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, independent t test, and Mann-Whitney U test. The resilience-based Islamic program had a beneficial impact on the levels of HbA1c (p < 0.001), lipid profile (triglyceride) (p = 0.011), HDL-c (p = 0.01), LDL-c (p < 0.001), total antioxidant serum (p = 0.001), insulin (p < 0.001), diabetes fatigue (p < 0.05), and HRQoL (p < 0.05) in patients of the treatment group. The results of biochemical tests related to T2DM also indicated a reduction in diabetes fatigue and an increase in HRQoL due to the resilience-based Islamic program. Considering that a patient's resilience to diabetes is an important factor in the management of diabetes fatigue, the resilience-based Islamic program can be applied at public health centers and community levels to increase T2DM resilience.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Quality of Life , Antioxidants , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fatigue/therapy , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Insulin , Male , Triglycerides
19.
Acta Diabetol ; 59(12): 1609-1614, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007152

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the impact of SARS-COV-2 vaccination on the glycaemic control in children and adolescents with T1DM wearing continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). METHODS: Caregivers of children and adolescents with T1DM were questioned regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during their regular visits at the Pediatric Diabetes Outpatient Clinic. Data regarding Time in Range (TIR) (glucose levels: 70-180 mg/dl) 7 days prior and 7 days after a vaccination dose were collected in patients wearing CGM and data regarding insulin daily doses were also obtained for the insulin pump users. RESULTS: From a total of 135 patients eligible for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, 70 (51.9%) children (37 boys, 52.9%) were vaccinated with at least one dose. Seven patients received only one dose, whereas two children received a third booster shot. No statistically significant difference was observed in either TIR (64.19% post vs. 65.53% pre, p = 0.158) or total daily insulin dose (40.08 U/day post vs. 39.32 U/day pre, p = 0,282). Additionally, in ten patients on Hybrid Closed-Loop System the percentage of the automated insulin boluses given post-vaccination was not statistically significant different compared to the boluses given pre-vaccination (15.80% vs. 16.90%, p = 0,491). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents with T1DM is safe and is not associated with immediate glucose imbalance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Male , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 Vaccines , Blood Glucose , Glycemic Control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Insulin
20.
Aust J Prim Health ; 28(4): 357-363, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic, autoimmune disease where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. T1D requires ongoing management across the lifespan through insulin regulation, monitoring of blood glucose levels, and adherence to strict diet and exercise plans. The most recent National Diabetes Services Scheme Australian Diabetes Map indicates that 129 210 Australians currently have T1D. Traditionally considered a childhood disease, more than half of all T1D diagnoses actually occur in adults aged >20 years. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of individuals living with adult-onset T1D in relation to their diagnosis experience, access to health care, and post-diagnostic wellbeing. METHODS: An exploratory, cross-sectional study was undertaken. Participants completed an online survey delivered via Qualtrics detailing their experiences with adult-onset T1D. The survey contained four domains: (1) demographic information; (2) diagnosis experience; (3) access to care; and (4) post-diagnostic wellbeing, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and the Diabetes Distress Scale (T1-DDS). Data analysis was conducted using STATA SE (v16). Descriptive statistics (means, counts) were used to describe continuous data, and frequencies and odds ratios were used to describe categorical data. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty adults (mean age 49 years; 78% female) with adult-onset T1D (mean age at diagnosis 37 years) completed the survey. The most common symptoms prior to diagnosis were excess thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, and unintended weight loss. Half (50%) the sample received their T1D diagnosis from a general practitioner (GP). Several participants reported being misdiagnosed by their GP initially, representing an unadjusted odds ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 1.5, 6.2). Nearly half of all participants presented with anxiety (mean 7 (s.d. 4)) on the HADS, and most reported moderate levels of diabetes-related distress according to the T1-DDS. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a starting point to understanding the experiences of adults living with adult-onset T1D and can be used to raise awareness of their challenges and needs. These exploratory findings can also be used to inform a larger, population-based study.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Female , Humans , Insulin , Male , Middle Aged
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