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1.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732137

ABSTRACT

Associations between habitual dietary intake of minerals and glucose metabolism have been extensively studied in relation to metabolic disorders. However, similar research has yet to be conducted in individuals after acute pancreatitis (AP). The main aim was to investigate the associations between habitual intake of 13 minerals and glycaemic status: new-onset prediabetes/diabetes after AP (NODAP), pre-existing prediabetes/type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and normoglycaemia after AP (NAP). Associations between the dietary intake of minerals and markers of glucose metabolism (glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose) were also studied. The EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional fashion to determine the habitual intake of 13 dietary minerals. ANCOVA as well as multiple linear regression analyses were conducted and five statistical models were built to adjust for covariates. The study included 106 individuals after AP. In the NODAP group, intake of 4 minerals was significantly less when compared with the NAP group: iron (B = -0.076, p = 0.013), nitrogen (B = -0.066, p = 0.003), phosphorous (B = -0.046, p = 0.006), and zinc (B = -0.078, p = 0.001). Glycated haemoglobin was significantly associated with iodine intake (B = 17.763, p = 0.032) and manganese intake (B = -17.147, p = 0.003) in the NODAP group. Fasting plasma glucose was significantly associated with manganese intake (B = -2.436, p = 0.027) in the NODAP group. Habitual intake of minerals differs between individuals with NODAP, T2DM, and NAP. Prospective longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials are now warranted to further investigate the associations between mineral intake and NODAP.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Diet , Minerals/administration & dosage , Pancreatitis/complications , Prediabetic State/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Female , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/metabolism , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Prospective Studies
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256682, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid (GC)-exacerbated hyperglycemia is prevalent in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) but evidence-based insulin guidelines in inpatient settings are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study with capillary blood glucose (CBG) readings and insulin use, dosed with 50% basal (glargine)-50% bolus (lispro) insulin, analyzed in hospitalized patients with insulin-treated DM given GC and matched controls without GC (n = 131 pairs). GC group (median daily prednisone-equivalent dose: 53.36 mg (IQR 30.00, 80.04)) had greatest CBG differences compared to controls at dinner (254±69 vs. 184±63 mg/dL, P<0.001) and bedtime (260±72 vs. 182±55 mg/dL, P<0.001). In GC group, dinner CBG was 30% higher than lunch (254±69 vs. 199±77 mg/dL, P<0.001) when similar lispro to controls given at lunch. Bedtime CBG not different from dinner when 20% more lispro given at dinner (0.12 units/kg (IQR 0.08, 0.17) vs. 0.10 units/kg (0.06, 0.14), P<0.01). Despite receiving more lispro, bedtime hypoglycemic events were lower in GC group (0.0% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Since equal bolus doses inadequately treat large dinner and bedtime GC-exacerbated glycemic excursions, initiating higher bolus insulin at lunch and dinner with additional enhanced GC-specific insulin supplemental scale may be needed as initial insulin doses in setting of high-dose GC.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Insulin , Aged , Chicago/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246265, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117479

ABSTRACT

Medicinal uses and applications of metals and their complexes are of increasing clinical and commercial importance. The ligation behavior of quercetin (Q), which is a flavonoid, and its Zn (II) (Q/Zn) complex were studied and characterized based on elemental analysis, molar conductance, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, electronic spectra, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). FTIR spectral data revealed that Q acts as a bidentate ligand (chelating ligand) through carbonyl C(4) = O oxygen and phenolic C(3)-OH oxygen in conjugation with Zn. Electronic, FTIR, and 1H-NMR spectral data revealed that the Q/Zn complex has a distorted octahedral geometry, with the following chemical formula: [Zn(Q)(NO3)(H2O)2].5H2O. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. A total of 70 male albino rats were divided into seven groups: control, diabetic untreated group and diabetic groups treated with either MSCs and/or Q and/or Q/Zn or their combination. Serum insulin, glucose, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were determined. Pancreatic and lung histology and TEM for pancreatic tissues in addition to gene expression of both SOD and CAT in pulmonary tissues were evaluated. MSCs in combination with Q/Zn therapy exhibited potent protective effects against STZ induced hyperglycemia and suppressed oxidative stress, genotoxicity, glycometabolic disturbances, and structural alterations. Engrafted MSCs were found inside pancreatic tissue at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, Q/Zn with MSC therapy produced a synergistic effect against oxidative stress and genotoxicity and can be considered potential ameliorative therapy against diabetes with pulmonary dysfunction, which may benefit against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Animals , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Peptide/blood , C-Peptide/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Insulin/blood , Insulin/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Rats , Zinc/chemistry
4.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has recently been declared an epidemic by the WHO, and there is an urgent need for affected countries and laboratories to assess and treat people at risk of COVID-19. A heat procedure has been suggested for specimen inactivation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of serum heating on biochemical indexes, and providing a basis for accurate detection results of the COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected 29 normal cases of two tubes of 5 mL whole blood. One tube was analyzed directly, and the other was analyzed after heating at 56°C 30 minutes. RESULTS: A total of 34 serum biochemical index quantitative results were obtained, 28/34 indexes were not significantly affected by the heat inactivation and remained clinically interpretable. As the thermal inactivation for these indexes showed good correlation, ALB (p = 0.04, Pearson R = 0.91, 2.6% mean increase), CysC (p = 0.03, Pearson R = 0.98, 9.9% mean increase), CO2CP (p < 0.001, Pearson R = 0.96, 13% mean decrease), they were still inter-pretable. Four biochemical indexes ALP, CK, CK-MB, and insulin were inactivated and showed significant statistical differences (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed CK, CK-MB, ALP, and insulin were sensitive to heat and will be inhibited or degrade after heating, indicating that the rapid decrease of this indexes in the COVID-19 patients may be caused by sample heat inactivation. For safety and diagnostic accuracy, we recommend the use of a point-of-care device for blood gases, electrolytes, troponin, and liver and renal function tests within a ISL 2 or above biosafety cabinet with level 3 or above biosafety laboratory practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19 , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Hot Temperature/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Inactivation , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/standards , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Female , Humans , Insulin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028880

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Critically and non-critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Covid-19) may present with higher-than-expected glycemia, even in the absence of diabetes. With this study we aimed to assess glucose, glycemic gap (GlyG) and insulin secretion/sensitivity measures in patients with Covid-19. Materials and Methods: We studied, upon admission, 157 patients with Covid-19 (84: in wards and 73: in intensive care units; ICU); 135 had no history of diabetes. We measured blood glucose upon admission as well as glycated hemoglobin (A1c), plasma insulin and C-peptide. We calculated the GlyG and the Homeostasis Model Assessment 2 (HOMA2) estimates of steady state beta cell function (HOMA2%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S). Statistical assessment was done with analysis or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Compared to patients in the wards without diabetes, patients with diabetes in the wards, as well as patients in the ICU (without or with diabetes) had higher admission glycemia. The GlyG was significantly higher in patients without diabetes in the ICU compared to patients without diabetes in the wards, while HOMA2%B based on glucose and insulin was significantly higher in the ICU patients compared to patients in the wards. Of all the parameters, HOMA2%S based on C-peptide/glucose was higher in survivors (n = 133). Conclusions: In our series of patients with Covid-19, a substantial number of patients with and without diabetes had admission hyperglycemia and those who were critically ill may have had compromised insulin secretion and lowered sensitivity to insulin. These findings lend credence to reports of association between Covid-19 and hyperglycemia/secondary diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Peptide/blood , COVID-19/blood , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772161

ABSTRACT

Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechanism of action, underlying CVD, hypertension and strokes, all conditions typified with thrombi. The underlying science provides a theoretical management algorithm for the frontline practitioners.Vitamin D activation requires magnesium. Hyperinsulinaemia promotes: magnesium depletion via increased renal excretion, reduced intracellular levels, lowers vitamin D status via sequestration into adipocytes and hydroxylation activation inhibition. Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity. Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions. Degree/level of restriction is determined by serial testing of blood glucose, insulin and ketones. Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered. By implementing refined carbohydrate restriction, three primary risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, that increase inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis risk are rapidly managed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted , Dietary Supplements , Hyperinsulinism/therapy , Insulin/blood , Magnesium/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Thrombosis/therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyperinsulinism/blood , Hyperinsulinism/epidemiology , Ketones/blood , Magnesium/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology , Vitamin D/blood , Zinc/therapeutic use
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