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1.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(2): 140-142, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852861

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of initiation of closed-loop control (CLC) on glycemic metrics in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the real world. Methods: Retrospective analysis of electronic health records from a single tertiary diabetes center of older adults prescribed CLC between January and December 2020. Results: Forty-eight patients (mean age 70 ± 4 years, T1D duration 42 ± 14 years) were prescribed CLC and 39/48 started on the CLC. Among the CLC starters, 97.5% and 95% were prior pump and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) users, respectively. CGM metrics showed an increase in time-in-range (62% ± 13% to 76% ± 9%; P < 0.001), a reduction in both time spent <70 mg/dL [2% (1%-3%) to 1% (1%-2%); P = 0.03] and >180 mg/dL (30% ± 11% to 20% ± 9%; P < 0.001) at 3 months. Conclusion: In this real-world data most of the older patients with T1D initiating CLC were prior pump and CGM users. Initiation of CLC improved glycemic control and reduced time spent in hypoglycemia compared with prior therapy.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Aged , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Retrospective Studies
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 536, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815583

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of the combination of linagliptin and insulin on metabolic control and prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and hyperglycemia. A parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial including hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia, randomized to receive 5 mg linagliptin + insulin (LI group) or insulin alone (I group) was performed. The main outcomes were the need for assisted mechanical ventilation and glucose levels during hospitalization. Subjects were screened for eligibility at hospital admission if they were not with assisted mechanical ventilation and presented hyperglycemia, and a total of 73 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia were randomized to the LI group (n = 35) or I group (n = 38). The average hospital stay was 12 ± 1 vs 10 ± 1 days for the I and LI groups, respectively (p = 0.343). There were no baseline clinical differences between the study groups, but the percentage of males was higher in the LI group (26 vs 18, p = 0.030). The improvements in fasting and postprandial glucose levels were better in the LI group that the I group (122 ± 7 vs 149 ± 10, p = 0.033; and 137 ± 7 vs 173 ± 12, p = 0.017, respectively), and insulin requirements tended to be lower in the LI group than the I group. Three patients in the LI group and 12 in the I group required assisted mechanical ventilation (HR 0.258, CI 95% 0.092-0.719, p = 0.009); 2 patients in the LI group and 6 in the I group died after a follow-up of 30 days (p = 0.139). No major side effects were observed. The combination of linagliptin and insulin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and hyperglycemia reduced the relative risk of assisted mechanical ventilation by 74% and improved better pre and postprandial glucose levels with lower insulin requirements, and no higher risk of hypoglycemia.This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT04542213 on 09/03/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Linagliptin/therapeutic use , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809849

ABSTRACT

With the growing prevalence and complex pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, many patients fail to achieve treatment goals despite guidelines and possibilities for treatment individualization. One of the identified root causes of this failure is clinical inertia. We explored this phenomenon, its possible predictors, and groups of patients affected the most, together with offering potential paths for intervention. Our research was a cross-sectional study conducted during 2021 involving 52 physicians and 543 patients of primary healthcare institutions in Belgrade, Serbia. The research instruments were questionnaires based on similar studies, used to collect information related to the factors that contribute to developing clinical inertia originating in both physicians and patients. In 224 patients (41.3%), clinical inertia was identified in patients with poor overall health condition, long diabetes duration, and comorbidities. Studying the changes made to the treatment, most patients (53%) had their treatment adjustment more than a year ago, with 19.3% of patients changing over the previous six months. Moreover, we found significant inertia in the treatment of patients using modern insulin analogues. Referral to secondary healthcare institutions reduced the emergence of inertia. This assessment of primary care physicians and their patients pointed to the high presence of clinical inertia, with an overall health condition, comorbidities, diabetes duration, current treatment, last treatment change, glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose measuring frequency, BMI, patient referral, diet adjustment, and physician education being significant predictors.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Physicians, Primary Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
4.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to medication in chronic diseases, like diabetes, is a serious problem which is associated with poor outcomes. Material and Objectives: Primary Objective: To study the proportion of non-adherence to treatment in patients with type 2 DM and factors responsible for it. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: To correlate the degree of glycemic control, presence of target organ damage and metabolic derangements with non-adherence to medication. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 100 patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Proportion of drug coverage (PDC) over the last 1 month was used to assess adherence. A questionnaire was used to collect information for variable factors responsible for non-adherence. The percentage of non-adherence and factors contributing were analyzed. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: Out of 100 patients with T2 DM (M:F:: 35:65); 56 patients had good (>80%) adherence, 13 patients had moderate (50-80%) adherence and 31 patients had poor (<50%) adherence to medication. Following factors were assessed for non-adherence;

  1. Amongst Drug-related factors; cost (43%;p<0.001), non-availability of drugs (39%;p<0.001) and long-term use of drugs (3%;p=0.017) were significantly associated with non-adherence to medication.
  2. None of the Insulin-related factors i.e. phobia (13.04%;p=0.441), negative impact (13.04%;p=0.441), less flexibility (60.86%;p=0.595), don't know the way of taking insulin (52.17%;p=0.983) and others (17.39%,p=0.67) were significantly associated with non-adherence.
  3. Amongst social factors:- Function(12%;p=0.881), no support (27%;p=0.005), patient not well (23%;p=0.004), travelling (42%,p=0.158) and illness in family (5%;p=0.658). No support from family and patient not well were significantly associated with non-adherence.
  4. None of the disease-related (duration, poor perception & unawareness) and psychological factors (forgetfulness & willful default) were significantly associated with non-adherence.
  5. Miscellaneous factors:- Frequency of visits (20%,p=0.034), lack of communication (53%,p<0.001) and SMBG related issues (74%,p=0.029) were significantly associated with non-adherence. Others factors like distance, covid-related and alternate therapy were not significantly associated with non-adherence.
Patients with good adherence had significantly lower HbA1c (p=0.044).Patients with good adherence had lesser prevalence of target organ damage but it was not significantly associated with non-adherence except nephropathy (66%;p=0.039). Also, association of medication adherence with metabolic complications was found to be insignificant. CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to medication in patients with Type 2 DM is significantly associated with cost of medication, non-availability of medication, long-term use, no support from family, patient not well, frequency of visits, lack of communication and SMBG related issues. Non-adherence impairs glycemic control and effects target organ damage to some extent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 186: 109812, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Muslim people with T1DM should be actively discouraged from fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic, as diabetes has emerged as a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 infection. We report the experience of young patients with type 1, type 2 and other types diabetes who fasted during Ramadan 2020 at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic time lockdown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A Post- Ramadan survey was designed for young patients who fasted during Ramadan in 2020 during COVID pandemic time. The study was conducted to compared the basal characteristics and other parameters in children and adolescents (<18 years), with young adults (≥18 years) with diabetes at Paediatric Diabetes Center in BIRDEM in Bangladesh. RESULTS: Among the study participants, a significantly higher number of participants were in older age group who fasted for more than 15 days (p = 0.045). A considerable proportion (30.7%) of patients developed mild hypoglycaemia, and only eight patients (2.6%) developed moderate to severe hypoglycemia. There was significant reduction of post Ramadan basal insulin dose in both groups (p = 0.001). Although increased bolus insulin dose requirements were observed in older age group, but decreased requirement was observed in younger age group during Ramadan (p = 0.001). Post Ramadan median HbA1C in both groups was increased with marked increase in older age group compared to younger age group though it did not reach the statistical significance. (p = 0.239) CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic had minor impact on fasting during Ramadan in our cohort, they could fast safely with less complications during Ramadan. Our data supports Ramadan focused diabetes education with ample self-care, young people with diabetes can fast safely during Ramadan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Adolescent , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Fasting/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Islam , Pandemics , Young Adult
6.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 24(6): 409-415, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713550

ABSTRACT

Background: Technology for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pumps, and hybrid closed-loop (HCL) systems, is improving, being used more commonly in the pediatric population, and impacts glycemic control. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the use of these technologies and their impact on glycemic control among patients with T1D who were seen at the Barbara Davis Center (n = 4003) between January 2018 and December 2020, <22 years old, with diabetes duration >3 months. Data were analyzed by age group and technology-use group defined as multiple daily injection with blood glucose meter (MDI/BGM), pump with BGM (pump/BGM), MDI with CGM (MDI/CGM), and pump with CGM (pump/CGM). Glycemic control was compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and controlling for diabetes duration, race, and insurance. Results: Among 4003 patients, 20% used MDI/BGM (mean hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] = 10.0%); 14.4% used pump/BGM (mean HbA1c = 10.0%); 15.4% used MDI/CGM (mean HbA1c = 8.6%); and 49.8% used pump/CGM (mean HbA1c = 8.1%). Compared with MDI/BGM patients, MDI/CGM and pump/CGM users had a lower HbA1c and were more likely to reach an HbA1c <7.0% (all P < 0.0001). Among pump/CGM users, 35% used HCL technology (mean HbA1c = 7.6%) and had a lower HbA1c and were more likely to reach an HbA1c <7% than non-HCL users (P < 0.001). Conclusions: CGM use was associated with a lower HbA1c in both MDI and pump users. Pump use was only associated with a lower HbA1c if used with CGM. HCL was associated with the lowest HbA1c. Spanish language and minority race/ethnicity were associated with lower rates of pump and CGM use, highlighting the need to reduce disparities.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Insulin Infusion Systems , Technology , Young Adult
7.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(12): 950-959, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692260

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite high type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in Medicare enrollees, newer therapeutic options, and revised treatment guidelines, little is known about US antihyperglycemic prescribing trends after 2015. This research describes recent monthly antihyperglycemic prescribing trends in a large, diverse population of Medicare enrollees from the US Mid-Atlantic region. METHODS: Encounter data (July 2018-July 2020) for Medicare enrollees 65 years of age or older with T2DM were extracted from electronic health records of a large integrated health system. Descriptive time-series regression models were estimated to describe monthly prescribing rates (ie, prescription orders per 100 eligible plan members with T2DM) overall and by medication subgroups for all-eligible and continuously-eligible samples. Trends in monthly prescription orders per 100 eligible plan members with T2DM were reported. RESULTS: The monthly all-eligible member sample (n > 22,000) exhibited an overall positive baseline monthly prescribing rate of 23.88 T2DM medication orders per 100 members with T2DM and a significant positive monthly prescribing rate trend (ie, change) of 0.12 T2DM medication orders per 100 members with T2DM (P < 0.05). Subgroup T2DM medication order rates per 100 members with T2DM at baseline were 16.28 for first-generation medications, 3.87 for human insulins, 3.04 for insulin analogs, 0.58 for second-generation medications, and 0.11 for combination medications. Human insulins, insulin analogs, and second-generation medications had positive monthly trends (P < 0.05). Among second-generation medications, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists had positive monthly trends (P < 0.05). Continuously eligible members with T2DM (n = 19,185) had no significant overall monthly prescribing trend; however, human insulins, insulin analogs, and second-generation medications and the SGLT-2 inhibitor class had positive monthly prescribing trends (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In a diverse Medicare sample, this study observed increasing monthly trends for second-generation medications, human insulins, and insulin analogs consistent with emerging evidence. Among second-generation medications, SGLT-2 inhibitors became the most commonly prescribed over time.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Medicare , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , United States/epidemiology
8.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 322(1): E44-E53, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518165

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a pandemic emerged due to a new coronavirus that imposed various uncertainties and discoveries. It has been reported that diabetes is a risk factor for worst outcomes of COVID-19 and also that SARS-CoV-2 infection was correlated with the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in patients. The aim of this work is to discuss this correlation emphasizing the main case reports from 2020 while exploring the management of DKA during the course of COVID-19. Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched using two sets of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) search terms or Title/Abstract words: Coronavirus Infections (Coronavirus Infections, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, COVID-19) and Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Diabetic Acidosis, Diabetic Ketosis). There is a clear correlation between COVID-19 and DKA. The SARS-Cov-2 infection may precipitate both a hyperglycemic state and ketoacidosis occurrence in patients with diabetes and nondiabetic patients, which may lead to fatal outcomes. DKA in patients with COVID-19 may increase risk and worse outcomes. Hence, the SARS-Cov-2 infection presents a new perspective toward the management of glycemia and acidosis in patients with diabetes and nondiabetic patients, highlighting the need for rapid interventions to minimize the complications from COVID-19 while reducing its spreading.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/metabolism , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Telemedicine
9.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1837-1850, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510434

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes is on the rise globally; however, the burden of mortality remains disproportionate in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). As 2021 marks 100 years since the discovery of insulin, we revisit progress, global burden of type 1 diabetes trends, and understanding of the pathogenesis and management practices related to the disease. Despite much progress, inequities in access and availability of insulin formulations persist and are reflected in differences in survival and morbidity patterns related to the disease. Some of these inequities have also been exacerbated by health-system challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a clear opportunity to improve access to insulin and related essential technologies for improved management of type 1 diabetes in LMICs, especially as a part of universal health coverage. These improvements will require concerted action and investments in human resources, community engagement, and education for the timely diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes, as well as adequate health-care financing. Further research in LMICs, especially those in Africa, is needed to improve our understanding of the burden, risk factors, and implementation strategies for managing type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Management , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/economics , Hypoglycemic Agents/history , Insulin/economics , Insulin/history , Life Expectancy , Universal Health Insurance
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 198, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448234

ABSTRACT

Patients with Covid-19 place new challenges on the management of type 2 diabetes, including the questions of whether glucose-lowering therapy should be adjusted during infection and how to manage a return to normal care after resolution of Covid-19 symptoms. Due to the sudden onset of the pandemic, physicians have by necessity made such important clinical decisions in the absence of robust evidence or consistent guidelines. The risk to patients is compounded by the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in this population, which alongside diabetes is a major risk factor for severe disease and mortality in Covid-19. We convened as experts from the Central and Eastern European region to consider what advice we can provide in the setting of type 2 diabetes and Covid-19, considering the evidence before, during and after infection. We review recommendations that have been published to date, and consider the best available-but currently limited-evidence from large observational studies and the DARE-19 randomized control trial. Notably, we find a lack of guidance on restarting patients on optimal antidiabetic therapy after recovering from Covid-19, and suggest that this may provide an opportunity to optimize treatment and counter clinical inertia that predates the pandemic. Furthermore, we emphasize that optimization applies not only to glycaemic control, but other factors such as cardiorenal protection. While we look forward to the emergence of new evidence that we hope will address these gaps, in the interim we provide a perspective, based on our collective clinical experience, on how best to manage glucose-lowering therapy as patients with Covid-19 recover from their disease and return to normal care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycemic Control , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Factors , Time Factors
13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(4): e323-e326, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357649

ABSTRACT

Insulin is required for all people living with type 1 diabetes, and may be required in nearly half of those with type 2 diabetes. It is a complex drug, manufactured in several forms and utilised in various regimens and devices. There is evidence that non-specialist professionals lack confidence in insulin therapy and, in addition, insulin-related prescribing errors are common in hospital care. In this article, I summarise commonly used insulin regimens, along with indications and safety considerations when prescribing insulin therapy.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Physicians , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 696087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348473

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Recently, insulin treatment has been found to be associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes, but the results remain unclear and controversial, therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis. Methods: Four databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, were used to identify all studies concerning insulin treatment and the adverse effects of COVID-19, including mortality, incidence of severe/critical complications, in-hospital admission and hospitalization time. To assess publication bias, funnel plots, Begg's tests and Egger's tests were used. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to access the effect of insulin therapy on mortality, severe/critical complications and in-hospital admission. The association between insulin treatment and hospitalization time was calculated by the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs. Results: Eighteen articles, involving a total of 12277 patients with COVID-19 and diabetes were included. Insulin treatment was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR=2.10; 95% CI, 1.51-2.93) and incidence of severe/critical COVID-19 complications (OR=2.56; 95% CI, 1.18-5.55). Moreover, insulin therapy may increase in-hospital admission in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes (OR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61). However, there was no significant difference in the hospitalization time according to insulin treatment (SMD=0.21 95% CI, -0.02-0.45). Conclusions: Insulin treatment may increase mortality and severe/critical complications in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes, but more large-scale studies are needed to confirm and explore the exact mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Treatment Outcome
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314668

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection poses an important clinical therapeutic problem, especially in patients with coexistent diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Potential pathogenetic links between COVID-19 and diabetes include inflammation, effects on glucose homeostasis, haemoglobin deoxygenation, altered immune status and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Moreover, drugs often used in the clinical care of diabetes (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, metformin and insulin) may influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, so it is very important to verify their effectiveness and safety. This review summarises the new advances in diabetes therapy and COVID-19 and provides clinical recommendations that are essential for medical doctors and for patients suffering from type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
17.
Cell Metab ; 33(4): 692-699, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298657

ABSTRACT

Marking insulin's centennial, we share stories of researchers and clinicians whose seminal work has advanced our understanding of insulin, islet biology, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The past century of pursuing the "hormone of hormones" and advancing diabetes therapies is replete with stories of collaboration, perseverance, and triumph.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Insulin/therapeutic use , Biomedical Research/history , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/agonists , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor/metabolism , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Insulin/chemistry , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism
18.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 649405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295631

ABSTRACT

The finding that high-dose dexamethasone improves survival in those requiring critical care due to COVID-19 will mean much greater usage of glucocorticoids in the subsequent waves of coronavirus infection. Furthermore, the consistent finding of adverse outcomes from COVID-19 in individuals with obesity, hypertension and diabetes has focussed attention on the metabolic dysfunction that may arise with critical illness. The SARS coronavirus itself may promote relative insulin deficiency, ketogenesis and hyperglycaemia in susceptible individuals. In conjunction with prolonged critical care, these components will promote a catabolic state. Insulin infusion is the mainstay of therapy for treatment of hyperglycaemia in acute illness but what is the effect of insulin on the admixture of glucocorticoids and COVID-19? This article reviews the evidence for the effect of insulin on clinical outcomes and intermediary metabolism in critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Insulin/therapeutic use , Metabolic Diseases/chemically induced , Metabolic Diseases/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/drug therapy , Obesity/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; 16(4): 181-189, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233816

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire population with the most deleterious effects in elders. Elders, especially those with diabetes, are at the highest risk of COVID-19 related adverse outcomes and mortality. This is usually linked to the comorbidities that accumulate with age, diabetes-related chronic inflammation, and the pandemic's psychosocial effects.Areas covered: We present some approaches to manage these complicated elderly patients with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the inpatient setting, we suggest similar (pre-pandemic) glycemic targets and emphasize the importance of using IV insulin and possible use of continuous glucose monitoring to reduce exposure and PPE utilization. Outside the hospital, we recommend optimal glycemic control within the limits imposed by considerations of safety. We also describe the advantages and challenges of using various technological platforms in clinical care.Expert opinion: The COVID-19 pandemic has lifted the veil off serious deficiencies in the infrastructures for care at both the individual level and the population level and also highlighted some of the strengths, all of which affect individuals with diabetes and COVID-19. We anticipate that things will not return to 'normal' after the COVID-19 pandemic has run its course, but rather they will be superseded by 'New Normal.'


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Inflammation/complications , Personal Protective Equipment/ethics , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Management , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/administration & dosage , Insulin/therapeutic use , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine/methods
20.
Diabet Med ; 38(2): e14458, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214788

ABSTRACT

Dapagliflozin (SGLT-2 inhibitor) and sotagliflozin (SGLT1/2 inhibitor) are two of the drugs of SGLT inhibitor class which have been recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in people with type 1 diabetes with BMI ≥27 kg/m2 . Dapagliflozin is licensed in the UK for use in the NHS while sotagliflozin may be available in future. These and possibly other SGLT inhibitors may be increasingly used in people with type 1 diabetes as new licences are obtained. These drugs have the potential to improve glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes with the added benefit of weight loss, better control of blood pressure and more time in optimal glucose range. However, SGLT inhibitors are associated with a higher incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis without significant hyperglycaemia. The present ABCD/Diabetes UK joint updated position statement is to guide people with type 1 diabetes and clinicians using these drugs help mitigate this risk and other potential complications. Particularly, caution needs to be exercised in people who are at risk of diabetic ketoacidosis due to low calorie diets, illnesses, injuries, starvation, excessive exercise, excessive alcohol consumption and reduced insulin administration among other precipitating factors for diabetic ketoacidosis.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Overweight/metabolism , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Glycosides/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Overweight/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , United Kingdom
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