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1.
J Biol Chem ; 298(3): 101710, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670670

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is broadly accepted that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes its spike protein to recognize the extracellular domain of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter cells for viral infection. However, other mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry may occur. We show quantitatively that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein also binds to the extracellular domain of broadly expressed integrin α5ß1 with an affinity comparable to that of SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE2. More importantly, we provide direct evidence that such binding promotes the internalization of SARS-CoV-2 into non-ACE2 cells in a manner critically dependent upon the activation of the integrin. Our data demonstrate an alternative pathway for the cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that upon initial ACE2-mediated invasion of the virus in the respiratory system, which is known to trigger an immune response and secretion of cytokines to activate integrin, the integrin-mediated cell invasion of SARS-CoV-2 into the respiratory system and other organs becomes effective, thereby promoting further infection and progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 47(3): 265-278, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550091

ABSTRACT

Cell adhesion is essential for the formation of organs, cellular migration, and interaction with target cells and the extracellular matrix. Integrins are large protein α/ß-chain heterodimers and form a major family of cell adhesion molecules. Recent research has dramatically increased our knowledge of how integrin phosphorylations regulate integrin activity. Phosphorylations determine the signaling complexes formed on the cytoplasmic tails, regulating downstream signaling. α-Chain phosphorylation is necessary for inducing ß-chain phosphorylation in LFA-1, and the crosstalk from one integrin to another activating or inactivating its function is in part mediated by phosphorylation of ß-chains. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and possible integrin coreceptors may crosstalk and induce a phosphorylation switch and autophagy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Integrins , Cell Adhesion , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20398, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469993

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on binding its spike (S) protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S protein expresses an RGD motif, suggesting that integrins may be co-receptors. Here, we UV-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and fluorescently labeled the envelope membrane with octadecyl rhodamine B (R18) to explore the role of integrin activation in mediating cell entry and productive infection. We used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to show that SARS-CoV-2R18 particles engage basal-state integrins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Mn2+, which induces integrin extension, enhances cell entry of SARS-CoV-2R18. We also show that one class of integrin antagonist, which binds to the αI MIDAS site and stabilizes the inactive, closed conformation, selectively inhibits the engagement of SARS-CoV-2R18 with basal state integrins, but is ineffective against Mn2+-activated integrins. RGD-integrin antagonists inhibited SARS-CoV-2R18 binding regardless of integrin activation status. Integrins transmit signals bidirectionally: 'inside-out' signaling primes the ligand-binding function of integrins via a talin-dependent mechanism, and 'outside-in' signaling occurs downstream of integrin binding to macromolecular ligands. Outside-in signaling is mediated by Gα13. Using cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of talin and Gα13 binding to the cytoplasmic tail of an integrin's ß subunit, we demonstrate that talin-mediated signaling is essential for productive infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Signal Transduction , Vero Cells
4.
FEBS Lett ; 595(17): 2257-2270, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439663

ABSTRACT

HIV preferentially infects α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells, forming latent reservoirs that contribute to HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. However, the properties of α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells in blood and mucosal compartments remain understudied. Employing two distinct models of HIV infection, HIV-infected humans and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques, we show that α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells in blood are enriched for genes regulating cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism. Unlike their circulating counterparts, rectal α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells exhibited a core tissue-residency gene expression program. These features were conserved across primate species, indicating that the environment influences memory T-cell transcriptional networks. Our findings provide an important molecular foundation for understanding the role of α4 ß7 in HIV infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , HIV Infections/blood , Integrins/metabolism , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Gastric Mucosa/cytology , Gastric Mucosa/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunization , Macaca mulatta , Male , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390655

ABSTRACT

The identification of thrombospondin-1 as an angiogenesis inhibitor in 1990 prompted interest in its role in cancer biology and potential as a therapeutic target. Decreased thrombospondin-1 mRNA and protein expression are associated with progression in several cancers, while expression by nonmalignant cells in the tumor microenvironment and circulating levels in cancer patients can be elevated. THBS1 is not a tumor suppressor gene, but the regulation of its expression in malignant cells by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes mediates some of their effects on carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. In addition to regulating angiogenesis and perfusion of the tumor vasculature, thrombospondin-1 limits antitumor immunity by CD47-dependent regulation of innate and adaptive immune cells. Conversely, thrombospondin-1 is a component of particles released by immune cells that mediate tumor cell killing. Thrombospondin-1 differentially regulates the sensitivity of malignant and nonmalignant cells to genotoxic stress caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The diverse activities of thrombospondin-1 to regulate autophagy, senescence, stem cell maintenance, extracellular vesicle function, and metabolic responses to ischemic and genotoxic stress are mediated by several cell surface receptors and by regulating the functions of several secreted proteins. This review highlights progress in understanding thrombospondin-1 functions in cancer and the challenges that remain in harnessing its therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Thrombospondin 1/physiology , Tumor Microenvironment/physiology , Animals , Cell Adhesion , Cell Movement , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Mice , Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Neovascularization, Physiologic/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Thrombospondin 1/genetics , Thrombospondin 1/metabolism
6.
J Nucl Med ; 61(12): 1717-1719, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369627

ABSTRACT

The true impact and long-term damage to organs such as the lungs after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain to be determined. Noninvasive molecularly targeted imaging may play a critical role in aiding visualization and understanding of the systemic damage. We have identified αvß6 as a molecular target; an epithelium-specific cell surface receptor that is low or undetectable in healthy adult epithelium but upregulated in select injured tissues, including fibrotic lung. Herein we report the first human PET/CT images using the integrin αvß6-binding peptide (18F-αvß6-BP) in a patient 2 mo after the acute phase of infection. Minimal uptake of 18F-αvß6-BP was noted in normal lung parenchyma, with uptake being elevated in areas corresponding to opacities on CT. This case suggests that 18F-αvß6-BP PET/CT is a promising noninvasive approach to identify the presence and potentially monitor the persistence and progression of lung damage.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Aged , Humans , Male
7.
Life Sci ; 284: 119881, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347741

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious disease that has spread worldwide. Current treatments are limited in both availability and efficacy, such that improving our understanding of the factors that facilitate infection is urgently needed to more effectively treat infected individuals and to curb the pandemic. We and others have previously demonstrated the significance of interactions between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, integrin α5ß1, and human ACE2 to facilitate viral entry into host cells in vitro. We previously found that inhibition of integrin α5ß1 by the clinically validated small peptide ATN-161 inhibits these spike protein interactions and cell infection in vitro. In continuation with our previous findings, here we have further evaluated the therapeutic potential of ATN-161 on SARS-CoV-2 infection in k18-hACE2 transgenic (SARS-CoV-2 susceptible) mice in vivo. We discovered that treatment with single or repeated intravenous doses of ATN-161 (1 mg/kg) within 48 h after intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 lead to a reduction of lung viral load, viral immunofluorescence, and improved lung histology in a majority of mice 72 h post-infection. Furthermore, ATN-161 reduced SARS-CoV-2-induced increased expression of lung integrin α5 and αv (an α5-related integrin that has also been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 interactions) as well as the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (Cxcl10), further supporting the potential involvement of these integrins, and the anti-inflammatory potential of ATN-161, respectively, in SARS-CoV-2 infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the potential therapeutic efficacy of targeting integrin α5ß1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo and supports the development of ATN-161 as a novel SARS-CoV-2 therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Staining and Labeling , Viral Load/genetics
8.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295777

ABSTRACT

Integrins belong to a group of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) which is a large group of membrane-bound proteins. They are responsible for cell attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and signal transduction from the ECM to the cells. Integrins take part in many other biological activities, such as extravasation, cell-to-cell adhesion, migration, cytokine activation and release, and act as receptors for some viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). They play a pivotal role in cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, tissue repair and are involved in the processes that are crucial to infection, inflammation and angiogenesis. Integrins have an important part in normal development and tissue homeostasis, and also in the development of pathological processes in the eye. This review presents the available evidence from human and animal research into integrin structure, classification, function and their role in inflammation, infection and angiogenesis in ocular diseases. Integrin receptors and ligands are clinically interesting and may be promising as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of some eye disorders.


Subject(s)
Eye Diseases/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Adhesion , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Extracellular Matrix/pathology , Eye Diseases/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Integrins/analysis , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219713

ABSTRACT

Background: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide range of symptoms including gastrointestinal manifestations, and intestinal epithelial cells are a target of the virus. However, it is unknown how the intestinal immune system contributes to systemic immune responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We characterized peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with active COVID-19 and convalescent patients as well as healthy controls by flow cytometry. Results: The frequency and absolute number of circulating memory T and B cells expressing the gut homing integrin α4ß7 integrin was reduced during COVID-19, whether gastrointestinal symptoms were present or not. While total IgA-expressing B cells were increased, gut-imprinted B cells with IgA expression were stable. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with a decrease in circulating adaptive immune cells expressing the key gut homing marker α4ß7 suggesting that these cells are preferentially recruited to extra-intestinal tissues independently of α4ß7 or that the systemic immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is at least numerically dominated by extraintestinal, particularly pulmonary, immune cell priming.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Integrin alpha4/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626308, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190310

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that conformational change in the ß2-integrin is a very early activation marker that can be detected with fluorescent multimers of its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 for rapid assessment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In this study, we describe a modified protocol of this assay for sensitive detection of functional antigen-specific CD4+ T cells using a monoclonal antibody (clone m24 Ab) specific for the open, high-affinity conformation of the ß2-integrin. The kinetics of ß2-integrin activation was different on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (several hours vs. few minutes, respectively); however, m24 Ab readily stained both cell types 4-6 h after antigen stimulation. With this protocol, we were able to monitor ex vivo effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in whole blood or cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of infected or vaccinated individuals. By costaining ß2-integrin with m24 and CD154 Abs, we assessed extremely low frequencies of polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses. The novel assay used in this study allows very sensitive and simultaneous screening of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivities, with versatile applicability in clinical and vaccination studies.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Integrins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Carrier Proteins/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , HLA Antigens/chemistry , HLA Antigens/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Immunophenotyping , Integrins/genetics , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
11.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067780

ABSTRACT

Although ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) is considered the primary receptor for CoV-2 cell entry, recent reports suggest that alternative pathways may contribute. This paper considers the hypothesis that viral binding to cell-surface integrins may contribute to the high infectivity and widespread extra-pulmonary impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This potential is suggested on the basis of the emergence of an RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) sequence in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. RGD is a motif commonly used by viruses to bind cell-surface integrins. Numerous signaling pathways are mediated by integrins and virion binding could lead to dysregulation of these pathways, with consequent tissue damage. Integrins on the surfaces of pneumocytes, endothelial cells and platelets may be vulnerable to CoV-2 virion binding. For instance, binding of intact virions to integrins on alveolar cells could enhance viral entry. Binding of virions to integrins on endothelial cells could activate angiogenic cell signaling pathways; dysregulate integrin-mediated signaling pathways controlling developmental processes; and precipitate endothelial activation to initiate blood clotting. Such a procoagulant state, perhaps together with enhancement of platelet aggregation through virions binding to integrins on platelets, could amplify the production of microthrombi that pose the threat of pulmonary thrombosis and embolism, strokes and other thrombotic consequences. The susceptibility of different tissues to virion-integrin interactions may be modulated by a host of factors, including the conformation of relevant integrins and the impact of the tissue microenvironment on spike protein conformation. Patient-specific differences in these factors may contribute to the high variability of clinical presentation. There is danger that the emergence of receptor-binding domain mutations that increase infectivity may also enhance access of the RGD motif for integrin binding, resulting in viral strains with ACE2 independent routes of cell entry and novel integrin-mediated biological and clinical impacts. The highly infectious variant, B.1.1.7 (or VUI 202012/01), includes a receptor-binding domain amino acid replacement, N501Y, that could potentially provide the RGD motif with enhanced access to cell-surface integrins, with consequent clinical impacts.


Subject(s)
Integrins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neovascularization, Pathologic/virology , Oligopeptides , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Virus Internalization
12.
Immunology ; 161(3): 200-208, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755305

ABSTRACT

Cell migration is an essential, energetically demanding process in immunity. Immune cells navigate the body via chemokines and other immune mediators, which are altered under inflammatory conditions of injury or infection. Several factors determine the migratory abilities of different types of immune cells in diverse contexts, including the precise co-ordination of cytoskeletal remodelling, the expression of specific chemokine receptors and integrins, and environmental conditions. In this review, we present an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the relationship of each of these factors with cellular metabolism, with a focus on the spatial organization of glycolysis and mitochondria, reciprocal regulation of chemokine receptors and the influence of environmental changes.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement/immunology , Cytoskeleton/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Animals , Chemokines/metabolism , Glycolysis , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Integrins/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/metabolism
13.
Immunobiology ; 226(1): 152021, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908903

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus that has caused serious health crisis world-wide resulting into a pandemic situation. As per the literature, the SARS-CoV-2 is known to exploit humanACE2 receptors (similar toprevious SARS-CoV-1) for gaining entry into the host cell for invasion, infection, multiplication and pathogenesis. However, considering the higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 along with the complex etiology and pathophysiological outcomes seen in COVID-19 patients, it seems that there may be an alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2. I performed comparative protein sequence analysis, database based gene expression profiling, bioinformatics based molecular docking using authentic tools and techniques for unveiling the molecular basis of high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to previous known coronaviruses. My study revealed that SARS-CoV-2 (previously known as 2019-nCoV) harbors a RGD motif in its receptor binding domain (RBD) and the motif is absent in all other previously known SARS-CoVs. The RGD motif is well known for its role in cell-attachment and cell-adhesion. My hypothesis is that the SARS-CoV-2 may be (via RGD) exploiting integrins, that have high expression in lungs and all other vital organs, for invading host cells. However, an experimental verification is required. The expression of ACE2, which is a known receptor for SARS-CoV-2, was found to be negligible in lungs. I assume that higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 could be due to this RGD-integrin mediated acquired cell-adhesive property. Gene expression profiling revealed that expression of integrins is significantly high in lung cells, in particular αvß6, α5ß1, αvß8 and an ECM protein, ICAM1. The molecular docking experiment showed the RBD of spike protein binds with integrins precisely at RGD motif in a similar manner as a synthetic RGD peptide binds to integrins as found by other researchers. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has a number of phosphorylation sites that can induce cAMP, PKC, Tyr signaling pathways. These pathways either activate calcium ion channels or get activated by calcium. In fact, integrins have calcium & metal binding sites that were predicted around and in vicinity of RGD-integrin docking site in our analysis which suggests that RGD-integrins interaction possibly occurs in calcium-dependent manner. The higher expression of integrins in lungs along with their previously known high binding affinity (~KD = 4.0 nM) for virus RGD motif could serve as a possible explanation for high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. On the contrary, human ACE2 has lower expression in lungs and its high binding affinity (~KD = 15 nM) for spike RBD alone could not manifest significant virus-host attachment. This suggests that besides human ACE2, an additional or alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is likely to exist. A highly relevant evidence never reported earlier which corroborate in favor of RGD-integrins mediated virus-host attachment is an unleashed cytokine storm which causes due to activation of TNF-α and IL-6 activation; and integrins role in their activation is also well established. Altogether, the current study has highlighted possible role of calcium and other divalent ions in RGD-integrins interaction for virus invasion into host cells and suggested that lowering divalent ion in lungs could avert virus-host cells attachment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Calcium/metabolism , Chelation Therapy , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Integrins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Receptors, Peptide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Integrins/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Virus Attachment
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7816-7825, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693354

ABSTRACT

Currently, the outbreak and spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are increasing worldwide. Furthermore, it has been considered as a major challenge, which threatens human beings and affects all aspects of their life. Understanding the cellular and molecular pathophysiology of the disease is currently under the focus of investigations. Accordingly, this turns the human scientific community attention to find a solution for addressing the challenge. The development of vaccines and efficient therapeutic modality is critical. So, both primary and clinical scientists are not only trying to decipher the structure of SARS-CoV-2, but also attempting to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that cause tissues and cell injuries. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2 are highly homologous and share a highly similar function and behavior patterns. Therefore, this might guide us toward decoding the molecular mechanisms that are behind the SARS-CoV2 pathologic effects. It is noteworthy to mention that, the undesired host immune reactions play important roles in the pathophysiology of the disease, and it also seems that, renin-angiotensin signaling (RAS) is a key contributor in this regard. In this review, we provided a vision, highlight as well as discussing on potential therapeutic targets that might be considered to address the COVID-19 challenge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , SARS Virus/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Basigin/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Integrins/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Troponin I/metabolism
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