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1.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(2): 390-393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775614

ABSTRACT

People with intellectual and developmental disabilities have a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19 than the general population. Providers may assume that this is due to the burden of comorbidities for this population; however, the disparity in mortality persists even when controlling for comorbidities. We review the current policies and practices that may be contributing to this higher level of mortality. We contend that pervasive ableism among medical providers leads to a variation in the medical care options that are provided to people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Due to this bias, poor outcomes for people with intellectual disabilities may become a self-fulfilling prophecy. We make recommendations to address the modifiable factors that are contributing to the higher level of mortality for people with intellectual disabilities who are infected with COVID-19, provide strategies to combat ableism within the medical field, and discuss the unique role of the primary care physician as an advocate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Social Discrimination
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 746399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775919

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-therapeutic hysterectomy has been performed to this day in Mexican women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), but the rationale for performing the procedure has been rarely submitted to clinical ethics committees. The objectives of the present research were to determine the frequency of hysterectomy and the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that associated to the indication of hysterectomy in girls and young females with IDs and to analyse the emerging ethical issues related to the procedure. Materials and Methods: A medical chart review was conducted to identify female patients aged ≤ 25 years who had IDs based on anatomical pathologies and hospital records and underwent hysterectomy between January 2014 and December 2019 in nine high-concentration hospitals in Mexico City. Data were collected using a questionnaire developed ex professo and validated through a pilot study and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 21.0 software. Results: Information of 234 female patients with or without ID who were ≤ 25 years of age was reported by the departments of anatomical pathology and paediatrics. Of the patients, 184 (79%) were excluded because the information reported was found to be erroneous or incomplete during the medical records review. Most of the 50 emales included in the study had moderate ID (n = 23, 46%) followed by those with severe ID (n = 17, 34%). The mean age at hysterectomy was 15 ± 2.9 years. Prophylactic-total abdominal hysterectomy was the most frequently performed (n = 42, 84%). A concurrence was observed between the parental and medical reasons justifying hysterectomy. The most frequent reasons were fertility control (parents vs. physicians: 46 vs. 42%), management of menstrual hygiene (28 vs. 30%) and risk of sexual abuse (6 vs. 6%). Conclusion: This study showed that performing non-therapeutic hysterectomy is subject to the clinical judgement of physicians according to their perception of the patient's quality of life. Therefore, the ethical quality of the decision to perform the procedure in girls and young females resides in the ethical value of its consequences.


Subject(s)
Intellectual Disability , Adult , Child , Female , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hygiene , Hysterectomy/methods , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Menstruation , Mexico/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715370

ABSTRACT

This study examined the general public's perceptions of how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the elderly and people with intellectual disabilities as well how these perceptions relate to people's level of familiarity and contact quality with these groups. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample of the Dutch population (n = 1458 and n = 1761, comprising questions related to the elderly and people with intellectual disabilities, respectively). The general public was found to be generally aware of the deleterious impact of the pandemic upon the elderly and people with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the respondents reported that both groups' quality of life, physical and mental health, and quality and frequency of social contact was lower than it was prior to COVID-19, in addition to perceiving them as lonelier and less self-reliant. Notably, the impact on the elderly was considered to be greater than that on people with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, those who had no familiarity with people with intellectual disabilities in real life perceived the impact to be lower than those who had a greater degree of familiarity. These findings have important implications, both for increasing awareness of the pandemic's negative impact on these vulnerable groups and in terms of sufficiently addressing their specific needs and concerns. The findings also underscore that, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to increase the visibility of groups who already relied more on help and support from others in society prior to the pandemic, such as the elderly and people with intellectual disabilities, via, among other things, self-advocacy, education, and enhanced intergroup contact, in order to be able to sufficiently address their needs during these challenging times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Res Dev Disabil ; 122: 104178, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For a number of reasons, persons with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19. AIMS: This study explored the influence of congregate setting on testing positive for COVID-19 among adults with IDD in Ontario. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 833 home care recipients with IDD were included, 204 were tested at least once for COVID-19. These data were linked to the homecare assessment data. The association between living in a congregate setting and receiving a positive COVID-19 test was explored using a logistic regression model among the total sample and those tested for COVID-19. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: 77 individuals tested positive for COVID-19 (9.24 %). Congregate setting, age, aggression, and mobility were significantly associated with receiving a positive COVID-19 test in the total sample. Among the subgroup, congregate setting and age were significant. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Adults with IDD have an increased risk for positive COVID-19 tests at younger ages than other high-risk populations, such as elderly persons. These findings confirm the vulnerability of adults with IDD living in group settings to COVID-19. As such, they should be prioritized when COVID-19 prevention and public health strategies, including vaccination and boosters, are introduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Adult , Aged , Child , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 35(2): 587-595, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities are a particularly vulnerable group, at an increased risk of mortality from COVID-19 and of poor mental health. Psychologists providing mental health support to people with intellectual disabilities report poorer mental wellbeing and higher occupational stress. Moreover, they raise concerns about the ability of people with intellectual disabilities to engage with digital technologies for mental health support in the context of reduced face-to-face psychological provision. AIMS: The study aimed to understand psychologists' experiences of working with people with intellectual disabilities during the pandemic. MATERIALS & METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 psychologists from community intellectual disabilities services. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Two superordinate themes emerged. Survive or Thrive highlighted the challenges and successes clinical psychologists experienced while working during the pandemic. 'Left to Their Own Devices' described psychologists' experiences of their clients as forgotten within society. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates psychologists' ability to adapt to extremely challenging circumstances, exposes the vulnerabilities of people with intellectual disabilities and highlights the gaps in service provision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 35(1): 243-251, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462821

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study examined factors that predict stress level and life satisfaction among adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of social support. METHOD: From a larger study about the experiences during the pandemic of 2028 individuals with and without disabilities, 181 adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities (or proxy) responded. RESULTS: Most respondents with intellectual or developmental disabilities (92.8%) reported negative impacts from the pandemic, with 55.2% of the 96 employed pre-pandemic reporting impacted employment, including job loss. The negative impact of the pandemic was a significant predictor of stress level; social support was related to reduced stress. Stress level and the negative impact of the pandemic were inversely related to life satisfaction; social support was positively related to life satisfaction. Social support partially mediated the association between stress level and life satisfaction. DISCUSSION: Comprehensive services and social support systems are needed to combat the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Child , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052482, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the hospital journey of patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) compared with the general population after admission for COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic (when demand on inpatient resources was high) to identify disparities in treatment and outcomes. DESIGN: Matched cohort study; an ID cohort of 506 patients were matched based on age, sex and ethnicity with a control group using a 1:3 ratio to compare outcomes from the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK. SETTING: Admissions for COVID-19 from UK hospitals; data on symptoms, severity, access to interventions, complications, mortality and length of stay were extracted. INTERVENTIONS: Non-invasive respiratory support, intubation, tracheostomy, ventilation and admission to intensive care units (ICU). RESULTS: Subjective presenting symptoms such as loss of taste/smell were less frequently reported in ID patients, whereas indicators of more severe disease such as altered consciousness and seizures were more common. Controls had higher rates of cardiovascular risk factors, asthma, rheumatological disorder and smoking. ID patients were admitted with higher respiratory rates (median=22, range=10-48) and were more likely to require oxygen therapy (35.1% vs 28.9%). Despite this, ID patients were 37% (95% CI 13% to 57%) less likely to receive non-invasive respiratory support, 40% (95% CI 7% to 63%) less likely to receive intubation and 50% (95% CI 30% to 66%) less likely to be admitted to the ICU while in hospital. They had a 56% (95% CI 17% to 102%) increased risk of dying from COVID-19 after they were hospitalised and were dying 1.44 times faster (95% CI 1.13 to 1.84) compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: There have been significant disparities in healthcare between people with ID and the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have contributed to excess mortality in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Cohort Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(10): 929-936, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415873

ABSTRACT

Informal (unpaid) carers are an integral part of all societies and the health and social care systems in the UK depend on them. Despite the valuable contributions and key worker status of informal carers, their lived experiences, wellbeing, and needs have been neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Health Policy, we bring together a broad range of clinicians, researchers, and people with lived experience as informal carers to share their thoughts on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on UK carers, many of whom have felt abandoned as services closed. We focus on the carers of children and young people and adults and older adults with mental health diagnoses, and carers of people with intellectual disability or neurodevelopmental conditions across different care settings over the lifespan. We provide policy recommendations with the aim of improving outcomes for all carers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Needs and Demand/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Caregivers/economics , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Life Change Events , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Morbidity/trends , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Support , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390638

ABSTRACT

Reliability, accuracy, and timeliness of diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection have allowed adequate public health management of the disease, thus notably helping the timely mapping of viral spread within the community. Furthermore, the most vulnerable populations, such as people with intellectual disability and dementia, represent a high-risk group across multiple dimensions, including a higher prevalence of pre-existing conditions, lower health maintenance, and a propensity for rapid community spread. This led to an urgent need for reliable in-house rapid testing to be performed prior to hospital admission. In the present study, we describe a pooling procedure in which oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 detection (performed prior to hospital admission using rapid RT-PCR assay) are pooled together at the time of sample collection. Sample pooling (groups of 2-4 samples per tube) allowed us to significantly reduce response times, consumables, and personnel costs while maintaining the same test sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Hospitals , Humans , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Autism ; 26(4): 975-987, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367657

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: Autistic adults, adults with intellectual disability, and adults with other mental health conditions may have higher risk of contracting COVID-19 or experiencing more severe illness from COVID-19 if infected. We used data from Medicaid to look at whether autistic adults and other adults with intellectual disability and other mental health conditions were more likely to have risk factors for COVID-19, such as living in a residential facility, receiving services regularly in the home from outside caregivers, having had a long hospitalization, having had avoidable hospitalizations, and having high-risk health conditions. We found that autistic adults had higher odds of living in a residential facility, receiving in-home services from outside caregivers, having had an avoidable hospitalization, and having a high-risk health condition, compared to neurotypical adults without mental health conditions. Adults with intellectual disability had similar odds of having these conditions. Adults with other mental health conditions were also more likely to live in a residential facility, receive services from outside caregivers, and have had avoidable hospitalizations compared to the neurotypical population without mental health conditions. They had three times higher odds of having a high-risk health condition. High risk of COVID-19 among autistic adults and adults with intellectual disability and mental health conditions should be recognized by clinicians, and these groups should be prioritized for vaccine outreach.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Adult , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autistic Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Medicaid , Mental Health , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ ; 26(4): 556-559, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286558

ABSTRACT

Two indicators for stress (mood and aggressive behavior) were evaluated in order to investigate the effect of the restrictions taken against the spread of the coronavirus on people who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) and have intellectual disabilities (ID). In three therapeutic living communities, specifically designed for the visual communication needs of people who are DHH and have ID, the mood of the residents is routinely assessed by staff members and every aggressive incident is recorded with the Staff Observation of Aggressions Scale-Revised (SOAS-R). For the 38 residents who were present 8 weeks before the first lockdown (t1) and the following 8 weeks (t2), mood ratings and ratings of aggressive behavior were compared between the two time periods. In contrast to our hypothesis the mood ratings of the residents had a slight significant improvement, whereas the incidents and severity of aggressive behavior did not change significantly. These results suggest that with proper communicative support, individuals who are DHH and have ID can cope effectively with significant restrictions imposed by a pandemic-caused lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , Persons With Hearing Impairments/rehabilitation , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intellectual Disability/rehabilitation , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112862, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260537

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although there is evidence of more severe COVID-19 outcomes, there is no information describing the risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and/or mortality among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) receiving residential support services in the US. Objective: To identify associations between demographic characteristics, residential characteristics, and/or preexisting health conditions and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality for people with IDD receiving residential support services. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study tracked COVID-19 outcomes for 543 individuals with IDD. Participants were receiving support services from a single organization providing residential services in the 5 boroughs of New York City from March 1 to October 1, 2020. Statistical analysis was performed from December 2020 to February 2021. Exposures: Resident-level characteristics, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, disability status, residential characteristics, and preexisting medical conditions. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory test. COVID-19 mortality indicated that the individual died from COVID-19 during the course of the study. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between demographic characteristics, residential characteristics, and preexisting health conditions and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality. Results: Among the 543 individuals with IDD in the study, the median (interquartile range) age was 57.0 (45-65) years; 217 (40.0%) were female, and 274 (50.5%) were Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Hispanic. The case rate was 16 759 (95% CI, 13 853-20 131) per 100 000; the mortality rate was 6446 (95% CI, 4671-8832) per 100 000; and the case-fatality rate was 38.5% (95% CI, 29.1%-48.7%). Increased age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), Down syndrome (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.49-5.69), an increased number of residents (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.90-9.15) were associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. Heart disease (OR, 10.60; 95% CI, 2.68-41.90) was associated with COVID-19 mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, similar to the general population, increased age and preexisting health conditions were associated with COVID-19 outcomes for people with IDD receiving residential support services in New York City. As with older adults living in nursing homes, number of residents was also associated with more severe COVID-19 outcomes. Unique to people with IDD was an increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis for people with Down syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , Residential Facilities , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Down Syndrome , Female , Housing , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Autism ; 25(8): 2400-2411, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255867

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: Families of children with autism spectrum disorder are more likely to experience financial strain and resulting food insecurity due to additional cost of care, disparate access to needed services, and loss of income resulting from parental job loss. Utilizing nationally representative data, this analysis indicates that the families of children with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring intellectual disabilities are twice as likely to experience food insecurity than families of children without disabilities after adjusting for various factors. Several factors, ranging from state-level policies such as Medicaid expansion to individual-level factors such as higher utilization of emergency room services, were associated with the higher prevalence of food insecurity in families of children with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring intellectual disabilities. Implications of these findings on programs and policies supporting families in the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Food Insecurity , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
15.
Disabil Health J ; 14(4): 101117, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with intellectual and developmental disabilities (PWIDD) are contracting and dying of COVID-19 at significantly greater rates than nondisabled people and people with other disabilities. Despite the increased risk of COVID-19 for the IDD community, there has been less attention drawn to the impact of the pandemic on people with IDD, especially beyond their health and safety. Yet, PWIDD also face unique challenges as a result of the pandemic compared to other populations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life outcomes of PWIDD. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of Personal Outcome Measures® interviews from 2019 to 2020 (n = 2284). RESULTS: There were significant differences in the following quality of life outcomes of PWIDD between 2019 and 2020: continuity and security; interact with other members of the community; participate in the life of the community; intimate relationships; and, choose goals. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively hindered the quality of life outcomes of PWIDD in a number of different areas. While the pandemic has been undoubtably hard on the IDD community, in many ways it has simply intensified an underfunded and fractured IDD service system. However the IDD service system evolves during and after the pandemic, it must be done in a way that prioritizes the quality of life of PWIDD and what is most important to them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Intellectual Disability , Child , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 34(6): 1655-1660, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Workers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities experience significant stress in their essential role during COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of these workers and determine predictors of emotional distress. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-eight workers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities completed an online survey about their work during COVID-19 and their mental health in July 2020. RESULTS: One in four workers reported moderate to severe emotional distress. Being older and more experienced, having counselling services available through one's agency, and engaging in regular exercise or hobbies outside work were associated with less distress. Workers who reported increased stress in the workplace, stigma towards their families because of their job, personal fears about spreading COVID-19, and receipt of medications for mental health conditions or therapy reported greater distress. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is needed to address the mental health of workers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities as they continue their essential work during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intellectual Disability , Adult , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Disabil Health J ; 14(4): 101116, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is evidence from two US states that people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at more severe risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research has not explored whether this increased risk is consistent across the US. OBJECTIVE: This study compared COVID-19 case-fatality rates among people with IDD in 11 states and the District of Columbia that are publicly reporting data. METHODS: Cumulative data reported through March 31 - April 13, 2021 were analyzed. Case-fatality rates and risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals for IDD settings were compared the overall case-fatality rate for the jurisdictions from Johns Hopkins' Center for Systems Science and Engineering COVID-19 data. RESULTS: Settings were reported as receiving any services, community or institutional residential services, or living in own/family home. Comparison of case-fatality rates between people with IDD and their respective jurisdiction populations demonstrates that case-fatality rates were consistently higher for people with IDD living in congregate residential settings (fifteen instances) and receiving 24/7 nursing services (two instances). Results were mixed for people with IDD living in their own or a family home (eight instances). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight that people with IDD, especially those living in residential settings, are experiencing higher case-fatality rates from COVID-19 than the general population across multiple US jurisdictions. Short-term and long-term public health interventions addressing COVID-19 risks will not be able to properly address the needs of people with IDD until all states begin reporting COVID-19 outcomes for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Intellectual Disability , Child , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 114: 103985, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) may be especially vulnerable to changes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic given an increased likelihood of health concerns, low socioeconomic status, and difficulty accessing services. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to explore mental health problems and services in individuals with IDD during the pandemic. We explored whether number of mental health problems differed by disability, age, gender, living situation, physical health, and access to services. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: An online survey about experiences during the pandemic was administered to adults with IDD and their caregivers in the United States and in Chile. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: In both Chile and the United States, few people endorsed increased health problems. Half of the sample in Chile and 41 % of the sample in the United States endorsed increased mental health problems. Approximately 15 % of the sample in the US reported no longer receiving state developmental disability services. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Healthcare and disability-specific agencies should consider strategies to tailor supports to improve mental health functioning and access to community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developmental Disabilities , Intellectual Disability , Mental Health , Adult , Chile , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
19.
Res Dev Disabil ; 111: 103889, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 measures face-to-face contact is limited and professional carers have to find other ways to support people with intellectual disabilities. COVID-19 measures can increase stress in people with intellectual disabilities, although some people may adapt to or grow from these uncertain situations. Resilience is the process of effectively negotiating, adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress and trauma. The current study aims to provide professional carers with new insights into how they can support people with intellectual disabilities. METHOD: An online survey was shared through the social media and organizational newsletters of MEE ZHN (a non-governmental organization for people with disabilities). The resilience framework by Ungar (2019) was adapted to fit to people with intellectual disabilities during COVID-19 measures. Statistical analyses were performed in SPSS statistics version 26. RESULTS: Results show that professional carers applied diverse and distal methods to maintain contact with people with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 measures. Professional carers reported a significant decrease in the quality of contact with clients with intellectual disabilities, but overall high levels of resilience in the same clients. IMPLICATIONS: Online methods of communication are possibly insufficient for professionals to cover all needs of people with intellectual disabilities. During this pandemic professionals should be aware of stress but also of resilience in people with intellectual disabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Disabled Persons , Intellectual Disability , Psychosocial Support Systems , Resilience, Psychological , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Disabled Persons/psychology , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Intellectual Disability/rehabilitation , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Professional-Patient Relations , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Res Dev Disabil ; 110: 103856, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014787

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Oasi Research Institute of Troina (Italy) became an important hotbed for infection; in fact, 109 patients with different levels of Intellectual Disability (ID) tested positive for COVID-19. The procedures and interventions put in place at the Oasi Research Institute due to the COVID-19 pandemic are exhaustively reported in this paper. The description of the clinical procedures as well as remote/in person psychological support services provided to people with ID and their families are here divided into three different sections: Phase I (or Acute phase), Phase II (or Activity planning), and Phase III (or Activity consolidation). In each section, the main psycho-pathological characteristics of patients, the reactions of family members and the multidisciplinary interventions put in place are also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/rehabilitation , Intellectual Disability/rehabilitation , Psychosocial Support Systems , Telemedicine , Academies and Institutes , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/rehabilitation , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/psychology , Disease Hotspot , Disease Outbreaks , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Infant , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/psychology , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/psychology , Mood Disorders/rehabilitation , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Personality Disorders/epidemiology , Personality Disorders/psychology , Personality Disorders/rehabilitation , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Psychotic Disorders/rehabilitation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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