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1.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100373, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525658

ABSTRACT

Approximately 4% of pregnant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 require intensive care unit admission. Given the practical implications of advanced ventilatory and circulatory support techniques, urgent or emergent delivery for nonreassuring fetal status frequently presents a logistical impossibility. This article proposes a protocol for obstetrical management of patients in these situations, emphasizing coordinated preparation among obstetrical, anesthesiology, and intensivist teams for planned preterm delivery at gestational ages when neonatal outcomes are likely to be favorable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1613-1616, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524681

ABSTRACT

Surges in COVID-19 cases have stressed hospital systems, negatively affected health care and public health infrastructures, and degraded national critical functions (1,2). Resource limitations, such as available hospital space, staffing, and supplies led some facilities to adopt crisis standards of care, the most extreme operating condition for hospitals, in which the focus of medical decision-making shifted from achieving the best outcomes for individual patients to addressing the immediate care needs of larger groups of patients (3). When hospitals deviated from conventional standards of care, many preventive and elective procedures were suspended, leading to the progression of serious conditions among some persons who would have benefitted from earlier diagnosis and intervention (4). During March-May 2020, U.S. emergency department visits declined by 23% for heart attacks, 20% for strokes, and 10% for diabetic emergencies (5). The Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) COVID Task Force* examined the relationship between hospital strain and excess deaths during July 4, 2020-July 10, 2021, to assess the impact of COVID-19 surges on hospital system operations and potential effects on other critical infrastructure sectors and national critical functions. The study period included the months during which the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant became predominant in the United States.† The negative binomial regression model used to calculate estimated deaths predicted that, if intensive care unit (ICU) bed use nationwide reached 75% capacity an estimated 12,000 additional excess deaths would occur nationally over the next 2 weeks. As hospitals exceed 100% ICU bed capacity, 80,000 excess deaths would be expected in the following 2 weeks. This analysis indicates the importance of controlling case growth and subsequent hospitalizations before severe strain. State, local, tribal, and territorial leaders could evaluate ways to reduce strain on public health and health care infrastructures, including implementing interventions to reduce overall disease prevalence such as vaccination and other prevention strategies, as well as ways to expand or enhance capacity during times of high disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Adult , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
5.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
6.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e61049, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1518833

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar o tempo de permanência hospitalar e status das primeiras internações por COVID-19 em mulheres no início da pandemia. Métodos estudo ecológico com dados das internações por COVID-19 em mulheres. Os dados foram estratificados por estados, regiões, idade, tempo de permanência hospitalar, diagnóstico principal e secundários (comorbidades) e desfecho da internação. Utilizaram-se os testes de Kruskall-Wallis, Mann-Whitney e qui-quadrado para a análise. Resultados a região Sudeste teve o maior número de internações (0,6%). Do total de internações, 14,6% necessitaram de unidade intensiva. O tempo de permanência hospitalar em mulheres acima de 50 anos foi significativo para o Brasil (p<0,001). Houve associação entre tempo de permanência hospitalar e níveis 2 e 3 de comorbidade. Óbitos em mulheres com mais de 50 anos foi significativo no Brasil, Nordeste e Sudeste (p<0,001). Conclusão mulheres com mais de 50 anos e com comorbidades estão associadas ao maior tempo de internação hospitalar e óbitos.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze the length of hospital stay and outcomes of the first hospitalizations due to COVID-19 of women at the beginning of the pandemic. Methods ecological study with data on COVID-19 hospitalizations of women. Data classification was done by states, regions, age, length of hospital stay, main and secondary diagnosis (underlying diseases), and outcome. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square tests were used for the analysis. Results the Southeast region had the highest number of hospitalizations (0.6%). Of the total number of hospitalizations, 14.6% required an intensive care unit. The length of hospital stay of women over 50 years was significant for Brazil (p<0.001). There was an association between length of hospital stay and levels 2 and 3 of comorbidity. Deaths in women over 50 years old were significant in Brazil, Northeast, and Southeast (p<0.001). Conclusion women over 50 years old with comorbidities are associated with longer hospital stays and deaths.


Subject(s)
Women , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay
7.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(11): 1209-1216, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to the describe indications, management, complications and outcomes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in COVID-19 critically ill patients. To contextualize these findings, comparisons were made against 36 non-COVID-19 consecutive patients requiring RRT on ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single center observational cohort study of patients requiring acute RRT between 1st March and 30th June 2020. Comparison was made against those receiving RRT in the pre-COVID-19 period from January 2019 to February 2020. RESULTS: Of 154 COVID-19 patients, 47 (30.5%) received continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF), all of whom required mechanical ventilation and vasopressor support. The requirement for RRT was related to fluid balance rather than azotemia. Compared to 36 non-COVID-19 patients, those with COVID-19 were younger (P=0.016) with a lower serum creatinine on hospital admission (P=0.049), and lesser degrees of metabolic acidosis (P<0.001) and lactatemia (P<0.001) before initiation of RRT. In addition, the duration of RRT requirement was longer (P<0.001). Despite lower CVVHF exchange rates with higher serum creatinine levels following RRT initiation in the COVID-19 patients, metabolic abnormalities were corrected. Hospital mortality was 60% among COVID-19 patients requiring RRT, compared to 67% in non-COVID-19 patients (P=0.508), and renal recovery among survivors without pre-existing CKD was similar (P=0.231). CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for RRT in COVID-19 patients was primarily related to fluid balance. Using lower CVVHF exchange rates was effective to correct metabolic abnormalities. Renal recovery occurred in all but one patient by 60 days in the 40% of patients who survived.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e049740, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Develop an individualised prognostic risk prediction tool for predicting the probability of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN AND SETTING: This study developed and validated prognostic penalised logistic regression models using reports to the international Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Inflammatory Bowel Disease voluntary registry from March to October 2020. Model development was done using a training data set (85% of cases reported 13 March-15 September 2020), and model validation was conducted using a test data set (the remaining 15% of cases plus all cases reported 16 September-20 October 2020). PARTICIPANTS: We included 2709 cases from 59 countries (mean age 41.2 years (SD 18), 50.2% male). All submitted cases after removing duplicates were included. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 related: (1) Hospitalisation+: composite outcome of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death; (2) Intensive Care Unit+ (ICU+): composite outcome of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death; (3) Death. We assessed the resulting models' discrimination using the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic curves and reported the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the submitted cases, a total of 633 (24%) were hospitalised, 137 (5%) were admitted to the ICU or intubated and 69 (3%) died. 2009 patients comprised the training set and 700 the test set. The models demonstrated excellent discrimination, with a test set area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.79 (0.75 to 0.83) for Hospitalisation+, 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95) for ICU+ and 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for Death. Age, comorbidities, corticosteroid use and male gender were associated with a higher risk of death, while the use of biological therapies was associated with a lower risk. CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic models can effectively predict who is at higher risk for COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in a population of patients with IBD. A free online risk calculator (https://covidibd.org/covid-19-risk-calculator/) is available for healthcare providers to facilitate discussion of risks due to COVID-19 with patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 370-376, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513257

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) diagnostic and prognostic value in the context of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A case-control study in which 701 confirmed COVID-19 patients (of which 41 were intensive care unit [ICU]-admitted) and 250 control subjects were enrolled. The study was conducted retrospectively in October on patients admitted to 3 separate hospitals in Saudi Arabia namely: King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital (Riyadh), Ohud Hospital (Madinah), and Nojood Medical Center (Madinah) between May and September 2020. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated based on absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte count. Institutional ethical approval was obtained prior to the study. RESULTS: Patients (median age 35 years), of which 54.8% were females, were younger than the control cohort (median age 48 years). Patients had significantly higher NLR compared to the control group. Intensive care unit admitted patients had significantly higher platelet, WBC and neutrophil counts. The ICU patients' NLR was almost twice as of the non-intensive patients. The NLR value of 5.5 was found to be of high specificity (96.4%) and positive predictive value (91.4%) in diagnosing COVID-19. Furthermore, it had a very good sensitivity (86.4%) in predicting severe forms of disease, such as, ICU admission. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an important tool in determining the COVID-19 clinical status. This study further confirms the prognostic value of NLR in detecting severe infection, and those patients with high NLR should be closely monitored and managed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Neutrophils , Adult , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(11): 71-74, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506980
12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 381, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, there is also evidence that it causes endothelial damage in the microvasculature of several organs. The aim of the present study is to characterize in vivo the microvascular reactivity in peripheral skeletal muscle of severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study carried out in Spain, Mexico and Brazil. Healthy subjects and severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the intermediate respiratory (IRCU) and intensive care units (ICU) due to hypoxemia were studied. Local tissue/blood oxygen saturation (StO2) and local hemoglobin concentration (THC) were non-invasively measured on the forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A vascular occlusion test (VOT), a three-minute induced ischemia, was performed in order to obtain dynamic StO2 parameters: deoxygenation rate (DeO2), reoxygenation rate (ReO2), and hyperemic response (HAUC). In COVID-19 patients, the severity of ARDS was evaluated by the ratio between peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (SF ratio). RESULTS: Healthy controls (32) and COVID-19 patients (73) were studied. Baseline StO2 and THC did not differ between the two groups. Dynamic VOT-derived parameters were significantly impaired in COVID-19 patients showing lower metabolic rate (DeO2) and diminished endothelial reactivity. At enrollment, most COVID-19 patients were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (53%) or high-flow nasal cannula support (32%). Patients on MV were also receiving sedative agents (100%) and vasopressors (29%). Baseline StO2 and DeO2 negatively correlated with SF ratio, while ReO2 showed a positive correlation with SF ratio. There were significant differences in baseline StO2 and ReO2 among the different ARDS groups according to SF ratio, but not among different respiratory support therapies. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe COVID-19 show systemic microcirculatory alterations suggestive of endothelial dysfunction, and these alterations are associated with the severity of ARDS. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether these observations have prognostic implications. These results represent interim findings of the ongoing HEMOCOVID-19 trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04689477 . Retrospectively registered 30 December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Microvessels/physiopathology , Respiratory Care Units/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(11): 69-71, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505629
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(11): 3934-3940.e9, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sites of entry for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells; however, little is known about the impact of intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between baseline INCS use and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: Using the Cleveland Clinic COVID-19 Research Registry, we performed a propensity score matching for treatment with INCS before SARS-CoV-2 infection (April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021). Of the 82,096 individuals who tested positive, 72,147 met inclusion criteria. Our endpoints included the need for hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 12,608 (17.5%) who were hospitalized, 2935 (4.1%) required ICU admission and 1880 (2.6%) died during hospitalization. A significant proportion (n = 10,187; 14.1%) were using INCS before SARS-CoV-2 infection. Compared with nonusers, INCS users demonstrated lower risk for hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.78 [0.72; 0.85]), ICU admission (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 0.77 [0.65; 0.92]), and in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 0.76 [0.61; 0.94]). These findings were replicated in sensitivity analyses where patients on inhaled corticosteroids and those with allergic rhinitis were excluded. The beneficial effect of INCS was significant after adjustment for baseline blood eosinophil count (measured before SARS-CoV-2 testing) in a subset of 30,289 individuals. CONCLUSION: INCS therapy is associated with a lower risk for COVID-19-related hospitalization, ICU admission, or death. Future randomized control trials are needed to determine if INCS reduces the risk for severe outcomes related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1136, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of biometric covariates on risk for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 disease was assessed by numerous observational studies on unstratified cohorts, which show great heterogeneity. However, multilevel evaluations to find possible complex, e.g. non-monotonic multi-variate patterns reflecting mutual interference of parameters are missing. We used a more detailed, computational analysis to investigate the influence of biometric differences on mortality and disease evolution among severely ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We analyzed a group of COVID-19 patients requiring Intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. For further analysis, the study group was segmented into six subgroups according to Body mass index (BMI) and age. To link the BMI/age derived subgroups with risk factors, we performed an enrichment analysis of diagnostic parameters and comorbidities. To suppress spurious patterns, multiple segmentations were analyzed and integrated into a consensus score for each analysis step. RESULTS: We analyzed 81 COVID-19 patients, of whom 67 required mechanical ventilation (MV). Mean mortality was 35.8%. We found a complex, non-monotonic interaction between age, BMI and mortality. A subcohort of patients with younger age and intermediate BMI exhibited a strongly reduced mortality risk (p < 0.001), while differences in all other groups were not significant. Univariate impacts of BMI or age on mortality were missing. Comparing MV with non-MV patients, we found an enrichment of baseline CRP, PCT and D-Dimers within the MV group, but not when comparing survivors vs. non-survivors within the MV patient group. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this study was to get a more detailed insight into the influence of biometric covariates on the outcome of COVID-19 patients with high degree of severity. We found that survival in MV is affected by complex interactions of covariates differing to the reported covariates, which are hidden in generic, non-stratified studies on risk factors. Hence, our study suggests that a detailed, multivariate pattern analysis on larger patient cohorts reflecting the specific disease stages might reveal more specific patterns of risk factors supporting individually adapted treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021266, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504149

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has dramatically imposed healthcare systems to reorganize their departments, including neurological wards. We aimed to describe the rearrangements made by stroke units (SU) and neurological intensive care units (ICU) in several German community and university hospitals facing the pandemic. This cross-sectional, survey-based, nationwide study collected data of 15 university and 4 community hospitals in Germany, being part of IGNITE Study Group, from April 1 to April 6, 2020. The rearrangements and implementation of safety measures in SUs, intermediate care units (IMC), and neurological ICUs were compared. 84.2% of hospitals implemented a separated area for patients awaiting their COVID-19 test results and 94.7% had a dedicated zone for their management. Outpatient treatment was reduced in 63.2% and even suspended in 36.8% of the hospitals. A global reduction of bed capacity was observed. Hospitals reported compromised stroke treatment (52.6%) and reduction of thrombolysis and thrombectomy rates (36.8%). All hospitals proposed special training for COVID-19 management, recurrent meetings and all undertook measures improving safety for healthcare workers. In an unprecedented global healthcare crisis, knowledge of the initial reorganization and response of German hospitals to COVID-19 may help finding effective strategies to face the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
19.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021365, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: During the first wave of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, we faced a massive clinical and organizational challenge having to manage critically ill patients outside the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). This was due to the significant imbalance between ICU bed availability and the number of patients presenting Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure caused by SARS-CoV-2-related interstitial pneumonia. We therefore needed to perform Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) in non-intensive wards to assist these patients and relieve pressure on the ICUs and subsequently implemented a new organizational and clinical model. This study was aimed at evaluating its effectiveness and feasibility. METHODS: We recorded the anamnestic, clinical and biochemical data of patients undergoing non-invasive mechanical ventilation while hospitalized in non-intensive CoronaVirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) wards. Data were registered on admission, during anesthesiologist counseling, and when NIV was started and suspended. We retrospectively registered the available results from routine arterial blood gas and laboratory analyses for each time point. RESULTS: We retrospectively enrolled 231 patients. Based on our criteria, we identified 46 patients as NIV responders, representing 19.9% ​​of the general study population and 29.3% of the patients that spent their entire hospital stay in non-ICU wards. Overall mortality was 56.2%, with no significant differences between patients in non-intensive wards (57.3%) and those later admitted to the ICU (54%) Conclusions: NIV is safe and manageable in an emergency situation and could become part of an integrated clinical and organizational model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(11)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503482

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early literature on the COVID-19 pandemic indicated striking ethnic inequalities in SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to describe the presence and magnitude of associations between ethnic groups and COVID-19-related outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched from December 2019 through September 2020. Studies reporting extractable data (ie, crude numbers, and unadjusted or adjusted risk/ORs) by ethnic group on any of the five studied outcomes: confirmed COVID-19 infection in the general population, hospitalisation among infected patients, and disease severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality among hospitalised patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included using standardised electronic data extraction forms. We pooled data from published studies using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: 58 studies were included from seven countries in four continents, mostly retrospective cohort studies, covering a total of almost 10 million individuals from the first wave until the summer of 2020. The risk of diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher in most ethnic minority groups than their White counterparts in North American and Europe with the differences remaining in the US ethnic minorities after adjustment for confounders and explanatory factors. Among people with confirmed infection, African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans were also more likely than White-Americans to be hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection. No increased risk of COVID-19 outcomes (ie, severe disease, ICU admission and death) was found among ethnic minority patients once hospitalised, except for a higher risk of death among ethnic minorities in Brazil. CONCLUSION: The risk of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was higher in most ethnic minorities, but once hospitalised, no clear inequalities exist in COVID-19 outcomes except for the high risk of death in ethnic minorities in Brazil. The findings highlight the necessity to tackle disparities in social determinants of health, preventative opportunities and delay in healthcare use. Ethnic minorities should specifically be considered in policies mitigating negative impacts of the pandemic. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020180085.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnic Groups , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
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