Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.103
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(2): 73-78, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109362

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The worldwide SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has taken a heavy toll on ICUs worldwide. This review expounds on lessons learned for ICU preparedness during the pandemic and for future mass casualty events. RECENT FINDINGS: In the 21st century, there have already been several outbreaks of infectious diseases that have led to mass casualties creating ICU strain, providing multiple opportunities for hospitals and hospital systems to prepare their ICUs for future events. Unfortunately, the sheer scale and rapidity of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to overwhelming strain on every aspect of ICU disaster preparedness. Yet, by analyzing experiences of hospitals throughout the first 7 months of the current pandemic in the areas of infection control, equipment preparedness, staffing strategies, ICU spatial logistics as well as acute and postacute treatment, various important lessons have already emerged that will prove critical for successful future ICU preparedness. SUMMARY: Preemptive planning, beginning with the early identification of staffing resources, supply chains and alternative equipment sources, coupled with strong infection control practices that also provide for the flexibility for evolving evidence is of utmost importance. However, there is no single approach that can be applied to every health system.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pandemics , Humans
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e045482, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096995

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recent reports suggest a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in COVID-19 patients, but the role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the clinical course of COVID-19 is unknown. We evaluated the time-to-event relationship between hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and COVID-19 outcomes. DESIGN: We analysed data from the prospective Dutch CovidPredict cohort, an ongoing prospective study of patients admitted for COVID-19 infection. SETTING: Patients from eight participating hospitals, including two university hospitals from the CovidPredict cohort were included. PARTICIPANTS: Admitted, adult patients with a positive COVID-19 PCR or high suspicion based on CT-imaging of the thorax. Patients were followed for major outcomes during the hospitalisation. CVD risk factors were established via home medication lists and divided in antihypertensives, lipid-lowering therapy and antidiabetics. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES: The primary outcome was mortality during the first 21 days following admission, secondary outcomes consisted of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and ICU mortality. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to determine the association with CVD risk factors. RESULTS: We included 1604 patients with a mean age of 66±15 of whom 60.5% were men. Antihypertensives, lipid-lowering therapy and antidiabetics were used by 45%, 34.7% and 22.1% of patients. After 21-days of follow-up; 19.2% of the patients had died or were discharged for palliative care. Cox regression analysis after adjustment for age and sex showed that the presence of ≥2 risk factors was associated with increased mortality risk (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.02), but not with ICU admission. Moreover, the use of ≥2 antidiabetics and ≥2 antihypertensives was associated with mortality independent of age and sex with HRs of, respectively, 2.09 (95% CI 1.55 to 2.80) and 1.46 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.91). CONCLUSIONS: The accumulation of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes leads to a stepwise increased risk for short-term mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients independent of age and sex. Further studies investigating how these risk factors disproportionately affect COVID-19 patients are warranted.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044384, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe evolution, epidemiology and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in subjects tested at or admitted to hospitals in North West London. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: London North West Healthcare NHS Trust (LNWH). PARTICIPANTS: Patients tested and/or admitted for COVID-19 at LNWH during March and April 2020 MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of demographic and clinical outcomes (intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality) of those who tested positive for COVID-19. RESULTS: The outbreak began in the first week of March 2020 and reached a peak by the end of March and first week of April. In the study period, 6183 tests were performed in on 4981 people. Of the 2086 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases, 1901 were admitted to hospital. Older age group, men and those of black or Asian minority ethnic (BAME) group were predominantly affected (p<0.05). These groups also had more severe infection resulting in ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation (p<0.05). However, in a multivariate analysis, only increasing age was independently associated with increased risk of death (p<0.05). Mortality rate was 26.9% in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that men, BAME and older population were most commonly and severely affected groups. Only older age was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 72, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is responsible for many hospitalizations in intensive care units (ICU), with widespread use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) which exposes patients to the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The characteristics of VAP in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the first phase of the epidemic in one of the seven ICUs of the Pays-de-Loire region (North-West France) and who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. We studied the characteristics of VAP in these patients. VAP was diagnosed based on official recommendations, and we included only cases of VAP that were confirmed by a quantitative microbiological culture. FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 188 patients. Of these patients, 48.9% had VAP and 19.7% experienced multiple episodes. Our study showed an incidence of 39.0 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (until the first VAP episode) and an incidence of 33.7 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (including all 141 episodes of VAP). Multi-microbial VAP accounted for 39.0% of all VAP, and 205 pathogens were identified. Enterobacteria accounted for 49.8% of all the isolated pathogens. Bacteremia was associated in 15 (10.6%) cases of VAP. Pneumonia was complicated by thoracic empyema in five cases (3.5%) and by pulmonary abscess in two cases (1.4%). Males were associated with a higher risk of VAP (sHR 2.24 CI95% [1.18; 4.26] p = 0.013). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed an unusually high incidence of VAP in patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19, even though our services were not inundated during the first wave of the epidemic. We also noted a significant proportion of enterobacteria. VAP-associated complications (abscess, empyema) were not exceptional. REGISTRATION: As an observational study, this study has not been registered.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 70, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early months of the COVID-19 pandemic were fraught with much uncertainty and some resource constraint. We assessed the change in survival to hospital discharge over time for intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 during the first 3 months of the pandemic and the presence of any surge effects on patient outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using electronic medical record data for all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units from February 25, 2020, to May 15, 2020, at one of 26 hospitals within an integrated delivery system in the Western USA. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and severity of illness were measured along with medical therapies and hospital outcomes over time. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess temporal changes in survival to hospital discharge during the study period. RESULTS: Of 620 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU [mean age 63.5 years (SD 15.7) and 69% male], 403 (65%) survived to hospital discharge and 217 (35%) died in the hospital. Survival to hospital discharge increased over time, from 60.0% in the first 2 weeks of the study period to 67.6% in the last 2 weeks. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the risk-adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge increased over time (biweekly change, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.40, P = 0.02). Additionally, an a priori-defined explanatory model showed that after adjusting for both hospital occupancy and percent hospital capacity by COVID-19-positive individuals and persons under investigation (PUI), the temporal trend in risk-adjusted patient survival to hospital discharge remained the same (biweekly change, aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.38, P = 0.04). The presence of greater rates of COVID-19 positive/PUI as a percentage of hospital capacity was, however, significantly and inversely associated with survival to hospital discharge (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: During the early COVID-19 pandemic, risk-adjusted survival to hospital discharge increased over time for critical care patients. An association was also seen between a greater COVID-19-positive/PUI percentage of hospital capacity and a lower survival rate to hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , United States/epidemiology
7.
Public Health Rep ; 136(2): 143-147, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088392

ABSTRACT

The first few months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenged health care facilities worldwide in many ways. Inpatient and intensive care unit (ICU) beds were at a premium, and personnel shortages occurred during the initial peak of the pandemic. New York State was the hardest hit of all US states, with a high concentration of cases in New York City and, in particular, Bronx County. The governor of New York and leadership of hospitals in New York City called upon all available personnel to provide support and patient care during this health care crisis. This case study highlights the efforts of Jacobi Medical Center, located in the northeast Bronx, from March 1 through May 31, 2020, and its use of nontraditional health care personnel, including Department of Dentistry/OMFS (Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) staff members, to provide a wide range of health care services. Dental staff members including ancillary personnel, residents, and attendings were redeployed and functioned throughout the facility. Dental anesthesiology residents provided medical services in support of their colleagues in a step-down COVID-19-dedicated ICU, providing intubation, ventilator management, and critical and palliative care. (Step-down units provide an intermediate level of care between ICUs and the general medical-surgical wards.) Clear communication of an acute need, a well-articulated mission, creative use of personnel, and dedicated staff members were evident during this challenging time. Although not routinely called upon to provide support in the medical and surgical inpatient areas, dental staff members may provide additional health care personnel during times of need.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Dentists , Anesthesiologists , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Workforce
8.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(1): 13-19, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087840

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent COVID-19 outbreak has clearly shown how epidemics/pandemics can challenge developed countries' healthcare systems. Proper management of equipment and human resources is critical to provide adequate medical care to all patients admitted to the hospital and the ICU for both pandemic-related and unrelated reasons. RECENT FINDINGS: Appropriate separate paths for infected and noninfected patients and prompt isolation of infected critical patients in dedicated ICUs play a pivotal role in limiting the contagions and optimizing resources during pandemics. The key to handle these challenging events is to learn from past experiences and to be prepared for future occurrences. Hospital space should be redesigned to quickly increase medical and critical care capacity, and healthcare workers (critical and noncritical) should be trained in advance. SUMMARY: A targeted improvement of hospital and ICU protocols will increase medical care quality for patients admitted to the hospital for any clinical reasons during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Critical Care , Humans
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1073, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087443

ABSTRACT

As countries in Europe implement strategies to control the COVID-19 pandemic, different options are chosen regarding schools. Through a stochastic age-structured transmission model calibrated to the observed epidemic in Île-de-France in the first wave, we explored scenarios of partial, progressive, or full school reopening. Given the uncertainty on children's role, we found that reopening schools after lockdown may increase COVID-19 cases, yet protocols exist to keep the epidemic controlled. Under a scenario with stable epidemic activity if schools were closed, reopening pre-schools and primary schools would lead to up to 76% [67, 84]% occupation of ICU beds if no other school level reopened, or if middle and high schools reopened later. Immediately reopening all school levels may overwhelm the ICU system. Priority should be given to pre- and primary schools allowing younger children to resume learning and development, whereas full attendance in middle and high schools is not recommended for stable or increasing epidemic activity. Large-scale test and trace is required to keep the epidemic under control. Ex-post assessment shows that progressive reopening of schools, limited attendance, and strong adoption of preventive measures contributed to a decreasing epidemic after lifting the first lockdown.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Schools , /transmission , Child , Computer Simulation , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Models, Biological , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , /physiology
10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 357-364, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to compare severe clinical outcome between initially asymptomatic and symptomatic infections and to identify risk factors associated with high patient mortality among initially asymptomatic patients. METHODS: In this retrospective, nationwide cohort study, we included 5621 patients who had been discharged from isolation or died from COVID-19 by 30 April 2020. The mortality rate and admission rate to intensive care unit (ICU) were compared between initially asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. We established a prediction model for patient mortality through risk factor analysis among initially asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of initially asymptomatic patients upon admission was 25.8%. The mortality rates were not different between groups (3.3% vs. 4.5%, p = .17). However, initially symptomatic patients were more likely to receive ICU care compared to initially asymptomatic patients (4.1% vs. 1.0%, p < .0001). The age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score (CCIS) was the most potent predictor for patient mortality in initially asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk was not determined by the initial presence of symptom among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The CCIS was the most potent predictors for mortality. The clinicians should predict the risk of death by evaluating age and comorbidities but not the initial presence of symptom. Key messages The mortality rate was not different between initially asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients were more likely to admitted to the intensive care unit. Age and comorbidities were the potent risk factors for mortality.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /physiopathology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 58, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082883

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Whether the use of high-flow nasal oxygen in adult patients with COVID-19 associated acute respiratory failure improves clinically relevant outcomes remains unclear. We thus sought to assess the effect of high-flow nasal oxygen on ventilator-free days, compared to early initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation, on adult patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre cohort study using a prospectively collected database of patients with COVID-19 associated acute respiratory failure admitted to 36 Spanish and Andorran intensive care units (ICUs). Main exposure was the use of high-flow nasal oxygen (conservative group), while early invasive mechanical ventilation (within the first day of ICU admission; early intubation group) served as the comparator. The primary outcome was ventilator-free days at 28 days. ICU length of stay and all-cause in-hospital mortality served as secondary outcomes. We used propensity score matching to adjust for measured confounding. RESULTS: Out of 468 eligible patients, a total of 122 matched patients were included in the present analysis (61 for each group). When compared to early intubation, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen was associated with an increase in ventilator-free days (mean difference: 8.0 days; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.4 to 11.7 days) and a reduction in ICU length of stay (mean difference: - 8.2 days; 95% CI - 12.7 to - 3.6 days). No difference was observed in all-cause in-hospital mortality between groups (odds ratio: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.25 to 1.64). CONCLUSIONS: The use of high-flow nasal oxygen upon ICU admission in adult patients with COVID-19 related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure may lead to an increase in ventilator-free days and a reduction in ICU length of stay, when compared to early initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation. Future studies should confirm our findings.


Subject(s)
/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , /therapy , Aged , Cannula , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 20, 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble nutrient that functions as a key antioxidant and has been proven to be effective for boosting immunity. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of adding high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) to the regimens for patients with severe COVID-19 disease. METHODS: An open-label, randomized, and controlled trial was conducted on patients with severe COVID-19 infection. The case and control treatment groups each consisted of 30 patients. The control group received lopinavir/ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine and the case group received HDIVC (6 g daily) added to the same regimen. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between two groups with respect to age and gender, laboratory results, and underlying diseases. The mean body temperature was significantly lower in the case group on the 3rd day of hospitalization (p = 0.001). Peripheral capillary oxygen saturations (SpO2) measured at the 3rd day of hospitalization was also higher in the case group receiving HDIVC (p = 0.014). The median length of hospitalization in the case group was significantly longer than the control group (8.5 days vs. 6.5 days) (p = 0.028). There was no significant difference in SpO2 levels at discharge time, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find significantly better outcomes in the group who were treated with HDIVC in addition to the main treatment regimen at discharge. Trial registration irct.ir (IRCT20200411047025N1), April 14, 2020.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , /drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Body Temperature , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , /virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
13.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 8853787, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081629

ABSTRACT

This paper puts forward a decision model for allocation of intensive care unit (ICU) beds under scarce resources in healthcare systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. The model is built upon a portfolio selection approach under the concepts of the Utility Theory. A binary integer optimization model is developed in order to find the best allocation for ICU beds, considering candidate patients with suspected/confirmed COVID-19. Experts' subjective knowledge and prior probabilities are considered to estimate the input data for the proposed model, considering the particular aspects of the decision problem. Since the chances of survival of patients in several scenarios may not be precisely defined due to the inherent subjectivity of such kinds of information, the proposed model works based on imprecise information provided by users. A Monte-Carlo simulation is performed to build a recommendation, and a robustness index is computed for each alternative according to its performance as evidenced by the results of the simulation.


Subject(s)
Decision Support Techniques , Hospital Bed Capacity , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Bed Occupancy , Computer Simulation , Health Care Rationing , Humans , Monte Carlo Method , Resource Allocation
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 58-68, 2021 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079734

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV2 pandemic marks the need to pay attention to bacterial pathogens that can complicate the hospital stay of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ESKAPE bacteria which includes Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae are considered the most important, because of their close relationship with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this work was to identify and characterize ESKAPE bacteria and to detect their possible clonal spread in medical devices, patients, and medical personnel of the ICU for COVID-19 patients of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico. METHODOLOGY: Genetic identification of ESKAPE bacteria was performed by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. Resistance assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Assembly of AdeABCRS operon and inhibition assays of pumps efflux in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were performed. Associated gene involved in biofilm formation (icaA) was performed in isolates belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Finally, typing by ERIC-PCR and characterization of mobile genetic element SCCmec were done. RESULTS: Heterogeneous distribution of ESKAPE and non-ESKAPE bacteria was detected in various medical devices, patients, and medical personnel. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant ESKAPE members. The analysis of intergenic regions revealed an important clonal distribution of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+). Genotyping of SCCmec mobile genetic elements and the icaA gene showed that there is no clonal distribution of S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Clonal spread of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+) highlights the importance of adopting good practices for equipment disinfection, surfaces and management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Genotype , Humans , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Mexico , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Latin America. We present findings from a nationwide study in Argentina. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is disease severity measures and risk factors are associated with admission to an intensive care unit and mortality? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the COVID-19 database of the Integrated Argentina Health Information System, encompassing the period of March 3rd to October 2nd, 2020, using a standardized case report form that included information on contact history, clinical signs and symptoms, and clinical diagnosis. Information was collected at the initial site of care and follow-up conducted through calls by the regional healthcare authorities. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as having a positive result through sequencing or real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. RESULTS: RT-PCR testing was positive in 738,776 cases. Complete datasets were available for analysis in 207,079 cases. Mean age was 42.9±18.8 years, 50.0% were males. Frequent co-existing conditions included hypertension (19.2%), diabetes (9.7%), asthma (6.1%) and obesity (5.2%). Most common symptoms included fever (58.5%), cough (58.0%), headache (45.4%), and sore throat (42.1%). Death or ICU admission were independently associated with older age, male, coma, dyspnea or tachypnea, and seizures, with underlying co-morbidities such as immunodeficiency, chronic renal failure, and liver disease showing the strongest effects. INTERPRETATION: Most cases of COVID-19 diagnosed in Argentina were mild and had a favorable outcome, but fatality rates were relatively elevated. Risk factors for adverse outcome included older age, male sex, coma and seizures, and the concurrent presence of several morbidities. These data may be useful for healthcare providers and healthcare policy makers of low-middle income and Latin American countries to guide decisions toward optimized care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , /physiopathology , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insight into COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) patient characteristics, rates and risks of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and associated outcomes as well as any regional discrepancies is critical in this pandemic for individual case management and overall resource planning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic searches were performed for reports through May 1 2020 and reports on COVID-19 ICU admissions and outcomes were included using predefined search terms. Relevant data was subsequently extracted and pooled using fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending on heterogeneity. Study quality was assessed by the NIH tool and heterogeneity was assessed by I2 and Q tests. Baseline patient characteristics, ICU and IMV outcomes were pooled and meta-analyzed. Pooled odds ratios (pOR) were calculated for clinical features against ICU, IMV mortality. Subgroup analysis was carried out based on patient regions. A total of twenty-eight studies comprising 12,437 COVID-19 ICU admissions from seven countries were meta-analyzed. Pooled ICU admission rate was 21% [95% CI 0.12-0.34] and 69% of cases needed IMV [95% CI 0.61-0.75]. ICU and IMV mortality were 28.3% [95% CI 0.25-0.32], 43% [95% CI 0.29-0.58] and ICU, IMV duration was 7.78 [95% CI 6.99-8.63] and 10.12 [95% CI 7.08-13.16] days respectively. Besides confirming the significance of comorbidities and clinical findings of COVID-19 previously reported, we found the major correlates with ICU mortality were IMV [pOR 16.46, 95% CI 4.37-61.96], acute kidney injury (AKI) [pOR 12.47, 95% CI 1.52-102.7], and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [pOR 6.52, 95% CI 2.66-16.01]. Subgroup analyses confirm significant regional discrepancies in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of COVID-19 ICU and IMV cases and associated outcomes. The significant association of AKI, ARDS and IMV with mortality has implications for ICU resource planning for AKI and ARDS as well as suggesting the need for further research into optimal ventilation strategies for COVID-19 patients in the ICU setting. Regional differences in outcome implies a need to develop region specific protocols for ventilatory support as well as overall treatment.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , /epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 170, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited number of studies with controversial findings regarding the association between anemia at admission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to investigate the prospective association between anemia and COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients in Iran. METHODS: In this prospective study, the data of 1274 consecutive patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were statistically analyzed. All biomarkers, including hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using standard methods. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of less than 13 g/dL and 12 g/dL in males and females, respectively. Assessing the association between anemia and COVID-19 survival in hospitalized patients was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 64.43 ± 17.16 years, out of whom 615 (48.27%) were anemic subjects. Patients with anemia were significantly older (P = 0.02) and had a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes, and cancer (P < 0.05). The frequency of death (anemic: 23.9% vs. nonanemic: 13.8%), ICU admission (anemic: 27.8% vs. nonanemic:14.71%), and ventilator requirement (anemic: 35.93% vs. nonanemic: 20.63%) were significantly higher in anemic patients than in nonanemic patients (P < 0.001). According to the results of regression analysis, after adjusting for significant covariate in the univariable model, anemia was independently associated with mortality (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.57, P = 0.01), ventilator requirement (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54, P = 0.004), and the risk of ICU admission (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.46, 2.90, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was high and was associated with poor outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , /mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/epidemiology , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3455, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078608

ABSTRACT

The Nucleocapsid Protein (N Protein) of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is located in the viral core. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting N protein is detectable in the serum of infected patients. The effect of high titers of IgG against N-protein on clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV2 disease has not been described. We studied 400 RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV2 patients to determine independent factors associated with poor outcomes, including Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) admission, prolonged MICU stay and hospital admissions, and in-hospital mortality. We also measured serum IgG against the N protein and correlated its concentrations with clinical outcomes. We found that several factors, including Charlson comorbidity Index (CCI), high levels of IL6, and presentation with dyspnea were associated with poor clinical outcomes. It was shown that higher CCI and higher IL6 levels were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Anti-N protein IgG was detected in the serum of 55 (55%) patients at the time of admission. A high concentration of antibodies, defined as signal to cut off ratio (S/Co) > 1.5 (75 percentile of all measurements), was found in 25 (25%) patients. The multivariable logistic regression models showed that between being an African American, higher CCI, lymphocyte counts, and S/Co ratio > 1.5, only S/Co ratio were independently associated with MICU admission and longer length of stay in hospital. This study recommends that titers of IgG targeting N-protein of SARS-CoV2 at admission is a prognostic factor for the clinical course of disease and should be measured in all patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
19.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All countries are facing decisions about which population groups to prioritize for access to COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine products have been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Our objective is to define the key target populations, their size, and priority for a COVID-19 vaccination program in the context of China. METHODS: On the basis of utilitarian and egalitarian principles, we define and estimate the size of tiered target population groups for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, considering evolving goals as vaccine supplies increase, detailed information on the risk of illness and transmission, and past experience with vaccination during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. Sensitivity analyses considered higher vaccine coverages and scaled up vaccine delivery relative to the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: Essential workers, including staff in the healthcare, law enforcement, security, nursing homes, social welfare institutes, community services, energy, food and transportation sectors, and overseas workers/students (49.7 million) could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services in the early phase of a vaccination program. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. In later stages, the vaccination program could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (784.8 million), in order to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. Given 10 million doses administered per day, and a two-dose vaccination schedule, it would take 1 week to vaccinate essential workers but likely up to 7 months to vaccinate 70% of the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework is general but could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program. Additionally, this exercise could be generalized to inform other national and regional strategies for use of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Immunization Programs/methods , Patient Selection , Police , Adolescent , Aged , /mortality , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Ethical Theory , Female , Food Industry , Health Priorities , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making , Pregnancy , Transportation , Vaccination , Young Adult
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 163, 2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not yet been investigated. We sought to investigate the characteristics, inflammatory laboratory finding trends, and outcomes among critically ill Japanese patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a single institution in the center of Tokyo. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU from March 19 to April 30, 2020 were included. Trends for significant inflammatory laboratory findings were analyzed. In-hospital death, days of mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation, days of ICU or hospital stay were followed until May 26, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included. Median age was 57.5 years, and 79% were male. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was elevated to a median of 10.1 on admission and peaked on Day 10 of illness. Seventeen patients were intubated on Day 11 of illness and received mechanical ventilation. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The majority (88%) received systemic steroids, including 16 patients who received high dose methylprednisolone (500-1000 mg). Favipiravir was used in 38% of patients. Two patients, including 1 who refused intensive care, died. Eighteen patients were discharged. Median length of ICU and hospital stay for all patients was 6 and 22 days, respectively. Median length of ventilator dependency was 7 days. Four patients underwent a tracheostomy and received prolonged ventilation for more than 21 days. One patient receiving mechanical ventilation died. All survivors discontinued ventilator use. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was remarkably low in our single institutional study. Three survivors received mechanical ventilation for more than 3 weeks. Trends of clinically significant laboratory markers reflected the clinical course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , /therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , /mortality , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL