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1.
Clin Perinatol ; 50(2): 381-397, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233462

ABSTRACT

We discuss the burden of health care-associated infections (HAIs) in the neonatal ICU and the role of quality improvement (QI) in infection prevention and control. We examine specific QI opportunities and approaches to prevent HAIs caused by Staphylococcus aureus , multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, Candida species, and respiratory viruses, and to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and surgical site infections. We explore the emerging recognition that many hospital-onset bacteremia episodes are not CLABSIs. Finally, we describe the core tenets of QI, including engagement with multidisciplinary teams and families, data transparency, accountability, and the impact of larger collaborative efforts to reduce HAIs.


Subject(s)
Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitals , Delivery of Health Care
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243203

ABSTRACT

Families (n = 12) with infants born at <29 weeks gestation shared their experiences while in the NICU and transitioning home. Parents were interviewed 6-8 weeks after NICU discharge, including some during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings regarding the parent experience in the NICU were focused around challenges navigating parent-infant separation, social isolation, communication difficulties, limited knowledge of preterm infants, mental health challenges. Parents also discussed supports that were present and supports they wished were present, as well as the impact of COVID-19 on their experiences. In the transition to home, primary experiences included the sudden nature of the transition, anxiety around discharge preparation, and the loss of the support from nursing staff. During the first few weeks at home, parents expressed joy and anxiety, particularly around feeding. The COVID-19 pandemic limited emotional, informational, and physical support to parents and resulted in limited mutual support from other parents of infants in the NICU. Parents of preterm infants in the NICU present with multiple stressors, rendering attending to parental mental health crucial. NICU staff need to address logistical barriers and familial priorities impacting communication and parent-infant bonding. Providing multiple opportunities for communication, participating in caretaking activities, and meeting other families can be important sources of support and knowledge for parents of very preterm infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Premature , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anxiety , Patient Discharge
3.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068759, 2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327387

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been demonstrated to enhance infant growth and development, reduce parental anxiety and stress and strengthen parent-infant bonding. Since eHealth technology emerged, research on its utilisation in NICUs has risen substantially. There is some evidence that incorporating such technologies in the NICU can reduce parental stress and enhance parent confidence in caring for their infant.Several countries, including China, restrict parental attendance in NICUs, citing infection control challenges, issues of privacy and confidentiality and perceived additional workload for healthcare professionals. Due to COVID-19 pandemic-related shortages of personal protective equipment and uncertain mode of transmission, many NICUs around the world closed to parental visiting and engagement in neonatal care.There is anecdotal evidence that, given pandemic-related restrictions, eHealth technologies, have increasingly been used in NICUs as a potential substitute for in-person parental presence.However, the constraints and enablers of technologies in these situations have not been exhaustively examined. This scoping review aims to update the literature on eHealth technology utilisation in the NICU and to explore the literature on the challenges and facilitators of eHealth technology implementation to inform future research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The five-stage Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework and the Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will serve as the foundation for this scoping review. Eight databases will be searched for the relevant literature published between January 2000 and August 2022 in either English or Chinese. Grey literature will be manually searched. Data extraction and eligibility screening will be carried out by two impartial reviewers. There will be periods of both quantitative and qualitative analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since all data and information will be taken from publicly accessible literature, ethical approval would not be necessary. A peer-reviewed publication will be published with the results of this scoping review. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This scoping review protocol was registered in Open Science Framework and can be found here: https://osf.io/AQV5P/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parents , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
4.
Trials ; 24(1): 331, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Family-centered rounds is recognized as a best practice for hospitalized children, but it has only been possible for children whose families can physically be at the bedside during hospital rounds. The use of telehealth to bring a family member virtually to the child's bedside during hospital rounds is a promising solution. We aim to evaluate the impact of virtual family-centered hospital rounds in the neonatal intensive care unit on parental and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will randomize families of hospitalized infants to have the option to use telehealth for virtual hospital rounds (intervention) or usual care (control). The intervention-arm families will also have the option to participate in hospital rounds in-person or to not participate in hospital rounds. All eligible infants who are admitted to this single-site neonatal intensive care unit during the study period will be included. Eligibility requires that there be an English-proficient adult parent or guardian. We will measure participant-level outcome data to test the impact on family-centered rounds attendance, parent experience, family-centered care, parent activation, parent health-related quality of life, length of stay, breastmilk feeding, and neonatal growth. Additionally, we will conduct a mixed methods implementation evaluation using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. DISCUSSION: The findings from this trial will increase our understanding about virtual family-centered hospital rounds in the neonatal intensive care unit. The mixed methods implementation evaluation will enhance our understanding about the contextual factors that influence the implementation and rigorous evaluation of our intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05762835. Status: Not yet recruiting. First posted: March 10, 2023; last update posted: March 10, 2023.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Quality of Life , Infant, Newborn , Child , Infant , Adult , Humans , Parents , Family , Hospitals , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Early Hum Dev ; 182: 105788, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Parent-infant interaction in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) promotes health and reduces infant stress. During the COVID-19 pandemic, however, NICUs restricted parent-infant interaction to reduce viral transmission. This study examined the potential relationship between pandemic visitation restrictions, parental presence and infant stress as measured by salivary cortisol. METHODS: A two-NICU cross-sectional study of infants with gestational age (GA) 23-41 weeks, both during (n = 34) and after (n = 38) visitation restrictions. We analysed parental presence with and without visitation restrictions. The relationship between infant salivary cortisol and self-reported parental NICU presence in hours per day was analysed using Pearson's r. A linear regression analysis included potential confounders, including GA and proxies for infant morbidity. The unstandardised B coefficient described the expected change in log-transformed salivary cortisol per unit change in each predictor variable. RESULTS: Included infants had a mean (standard deviation) GA of 31(5) weeks. Both maternal and paternal NICU presence was lower with versus without visitation restrictions (both p ≤0.05). Log-transformed infant salivary cortisol correlated negatively with hours of parental presence (r = -0.40, p = .01). In the linear regression, GA (B = -0.03, p = .02) and central venous lines (B = 0.23, p = .04) contributed to the variance in salivary cortisol in addition to parental presence (B = -0.04 p = .04). CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related visitation restrictions reduced NICU parent-infant interaction and may have increased infant stress. Low GA and central venous lines were associated with higher salivary cortisol. The interaction between immaturity, morbidity and parental presence was not within the scope of this study and merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Infant, Premature , Hydrocortisone , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Parents
6.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 28(1): 101428, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292401

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 in pregnancy is known to confer risks to both the pregnant patient and fetus. A review of the current literature demonstrates that pregnant individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at risk for higher composite morbidity, intensive care unit admission, ventilatory support, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions compared to pregnant individuals without SARS-CoV-2. Worse obstetric morbidity and mortality generally correlate with the severity of COVID-19. Comorbidities such as diabetes increase the risk of severe COVID-19. An increased risk of stillbirth appears to be predominantly confined to pregnancies affected in the Delta variant time period. Further, vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in pregnancy and while breastfeeding. Therefore, continued counseling encouraging vaccination remains imperative. The long-term maternal and neonatal consequences of pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown, and therefore continued research in this regard is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Pregnancy , Female , Infant, Newborn , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pregnancy Outcome
8.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e073400, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296420

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of neonatal intubations are complicated by severe desaturation (≥20% decline in pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2)). Apnoeic oxygenation prevents or delays desaturation during intubation in adults and older children. Emerging data show mixed results for apnoeic oxygenation using high-flow nasal cannula (NC) during neonatal intubation. The study objective is to determine among infants ≥28 weeks' corrected gestational age (cGA) who undergo intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) whether apnoeic oxygenation with a regular low-flow NC, compared with standard of care (no additional respiratory support), reduces the magnitude of SpO2 decline during intubation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, prospective, unblinded, pilot randomised controlled trial in infants ≥28 weeks' cGA who undergo premedicated (including paralytic) intubation in the NICU. The trial will recruit 120 infants, 10 in the run-in phase and 110 in the randomisation phase, at two tertiary care hospitals. Parental consent will be obtained for eligible patients prior to intubation. Patients will be randomised to 6 L NC 100% oxygen versus standard of care (no respiratory support) at time of intubation. The primary outcome is magnitude of oxygen desaturation during intubation. Secondary outcomes include additional efficacy, safety and feasibility outcomes. Ascertainment of the primary outcome is performed blinded to intervention arm. Intention-to-treat analyses will be conducted to compare outcomes between treatment arms. Two planned subgroup analyses will explore the influence of first provider intubation competence and patients' baseline lung disease using pre-intubation respiratory support as a proxy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Institutional Review Boards at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania have approved the study. Upon completion of the trial, we intend to submit our primary results to a peer review forum after which we plan to publish our results in a peer-reviewed paediatric journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT05451953).


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Oxygen , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(6): 917-921, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Device-associated infections (DAIs) are important components of healthcare associated infection and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study describes DAIs across different intensive care units (ICUs) in a hospital in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study was conducted between 2017 and 2020 and followed the definitions of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) for DAIs. The calculated the rates of ventilator-associated events (VAE), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) followed NHSN definitions. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 82 DAIs in adult ICUs and of these 16 (19.5%) were CLABSI, 26 (31.7%) were CAUTI and 40 (48.7%) were VAE. The overall rates for adult ICUs were 1.6, 1.9, 3.8 per 1000 device-days for CAUTI, CLABSI and VAE, respectively. The device-utilization ratio was 0.5, 0.6, and 0.48 for urinary catheters, central lines, and ventilators, respectively. VAE rates for medical and surgical ICU were about 2.8 times the rate in the coronary care unit and the rates were high in 2020 corresponding with the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the adult ICUS, medical ICU had a CLABSI rate of 2.13/1000 device-days and was about double the rate in surgical and cardiac ICU. For CAUTI, the rates per 1000 device-days were 2.19, 1.73, and 1.65 for medical, surgical, and coronary ICUs, respectively. The rate of CLABSI per 1000 device-days for pediatric and neonatal ICUs were 3.38 and 2.28, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CAUTI was the most common infections among adult ICUs and medical ICU had higher rates than other adult ICUs. VAE rate was higher in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, indicating increased device-use, change in patients characteristics as well as possible change in practices across the ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Urinary Tract Infections , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Child , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology
10.
J Trop Pediatr ; 69(1)2022 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a higher burden from the low- and middle-income countries. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) pandemic has impacted healthcare in various ways including healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The objective of the present study was to determine changes in organism profile and incidence rates of HAI in neonates admitted to the index hospital during the pandemic and compared it with the data from the pre-pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was a retrospective, observational analysis of data from neonates with culture-positive sepsis, in a tertiary care children's hospital, between January 2018 and December 2021. Pre-Covid (January 2018 to December 2019) and Covid period data (January 2020 to December 2021) were analyzed for the significance of change. RESULTS: The prevalence of culture-positive sepsis, in pre-Covid and Covid periods, was 19.55% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.13-21.52)] and 18.36% (CI 16.05-20.74), respectively. HAI rates/1000 patient days increased slightly during the Covid pandemic [7.2% (95% CI 6.98-10.08) to 9.8% (95% CI 9.78-13.67)] mainly due to an increase in fungal HAI (26% pre- vs. 41.5% Covid period). However, the proportion of Gram-negative (GN) infections fell significantly (70.5% vs. 48.6%) during the same period. In the pre-Covid period, Klebsiella followed by Burkholderia cepacia, Acinetobacter spp and Pseudomonas, were the major HAI isolates. During the Covid period, there was a decline in these isolates and Burkholderia spp was not detected. All fungal isolates were Candida species. The case fatality ratio (CFR) from HAI decreased significantly from 38% to 15.45%, mainly due to a decrease in GN HAI. CONCLUSION: During Covid pandemic, there was a significant decline in GN HAI and CFR from HAI, due to improved compliance with infection control measures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). At the same time, there was a rise in the fungal HAI, possibly because of a higher proportion of premature, and sick neonates with longer hospital stay and more invasive procedures. Consolidations of gains in infection control and restriction of invasive procedures could help to minimize HAI in NICUs.


Blood stream infections in children less than 4 weeks old are known as neonatal sepsis. Several predisposing factors can make a neonate (less than 4 weeks) more prone to sepsis, such as prematurity, male gender, cultural practices, presence of underlying medical or surgical conditions, hospitalization, antibiotic use and invasive treatment. Neonatal sepsis in a hospitalized child can be either­pre-harbored infection (PHI), which means infection acquired prior to hospital admission or it could be healthcare-associated infection (HAI), where the infection is acquired during the hospital stay. Organisms causing neonatal sepsis in hospitalized neonates include bacteria and fungi. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) pandemic impacted all aspects of life including healthcare. The investigators conducted the present study to look into the changes in the incidence rate as well as in the type of organisms causing healthcare-associated blood stream infections in neonates in the pre-Covid and during the Covid period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Neonatal Sepsis , Sepsis , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/drug therapy
12.
Clin Perinatol ; 50(1): 253-268, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261826

ABSTRACT

Dedicated Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) follow-up programs are recommended for ongoing surveillance for infants at high-risk for future neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Systemic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial barriers remain for referrals and the continued neurodevelopmental follow-up of high-risk infants. Telemedicine can help overcome these barriers. Telemedicine allows standardization of evaluations, increased referral rates, and reduced time to follow-up as well as increased therapy engagement. Telemedicine can expand neurodevelopmental surveillance and support all NICU graduates, facilitating the early identification of NDI. However, with the recent expansion of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic, new barriers related to access and technological support have arisen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , Schools
13.
J Reprod Infant Psychol ; 41(2): 111-113, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286779
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal departments around the world have changed their policies to prevent the spread of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. The birth of an extremely premature baby can disrupt physical contact between the mother/parent and the baby. This situation affects the bonding process between mother and child. The aim of the study was to investigate the opinions of parents who receive photographs or videos of their children electronically on the usefulness of this intervention, as well as the emotional reaction of parents to the photos or videos received, and potential ways to improve the intervention. METHODS: The study used a qualitative approach and relied on phenomenology, which is a research method used to study experience as experienced from the subjective point of view. Pilot interviews were conducted in January and February 2021, and the final study ran from March to June 2021. RESULTS: The uploaded photographs and videos provided a useful communication tool. The parents' emotions at the proposal to send photographs of the child and while viewing the first photographs were strong and marked by considerable ambivalence. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed how important it is to ensure communication between the parent and the medical staff. Despite the positive reception, in the future obtaining consent from the legal guardian for taking pictures should be considered, whether this form will be accepted, and to ensure the presence of medical staff while the parent is watching the photographs/videos, as this method of communication will not fully ensure direct skin-to-skin contact to build bonds between the parent and the infant. Neonatal intensive care units need to find strategies to mitigate the impact of separation on parental experiences and bonds should a similar situation arise in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant, Newborn , Female , Child , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Infant, Extremely Premature , Mothers
15.
Soins Psychiatr ; 43(343): 32-35, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228639

ABSTRACT

In the context of maternal vital emergency due to Covid-19, dire situations of birth questioned the health practitioners of a neonatal intensive care unit. How can mothers take care of their baby when their own life has been threatened ? The analysis of two clinical cases underlines the importance of talking for these mothers who have been through disastrous experiences, which could lead to a post-traumatic stress disorder. Restoring a connection to outside reality thanks to psychological care in the acute post-trauma period helps these mothers take care of their child.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology
16.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 37(1): 61-67, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Familial involvement in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) reduces parental stress and strengthens parental-infant bonding. However, parents often face barriers to in-person visitation. The coronavirus disease-2019 COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated limitations to parental bedside presence. OBJECTIVE: To design, implement, and evaluate a technology-based program to connect NICU babies with their families during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We created NeoConnect at our level IV NICU, which included parental audio recordings and video chats between parents and their babies. Parental and NICU staff input on NeoConnect was gathered via preimplementation surveys. Inaugural families and staff members completed a postparticipation survey. RESULTS: Prior to implementation, all parents who were surveyed (n = 24) wished they could be more involved in their baby's care. In the first 3 months of NeoConnect, 48 families participated in the audio recording project and 14 families participated in the video chat initiative. Following implementation, 85% of surveyed staff (28/33) reported that the patients became calmer when listening to their parents' recorded voice and 100% of surveyed parents (6/6) reported that video chats reduced their stress level. CONCLUSION: Harnessing technology as a tool to increase parental involvement in the NICU is feasible and beneficial for NICU patients and their families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 37(1): 50-60, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222882

ABSTRACT

This 5-year study evaluated a virtual visitation implementation initiative in a neonatal intensive care unit. Our objectives were to (1) use the Plan-Do-Study-Act methodological framework to implement a virtual visitation program, (2) investigate whether implementation of virtual visitation could be done with no patient harm and minimal workflow disruption, (3) foster a top-down participatory structure for decision making, and (4) evaluate parent use and satisfaction. The study involved a qualitative and quantitative description of cycles and results. Routine collection of outcome data allowed problems that arose as a result of changing practices to be quickly and efficiently addressed. The study results suggested that the virtual visitation implementation initiative in a neonatal intensive care unit using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles helped create an environment of trust and provided benefits. A steady increase in the use of virtual visitation by parents and their extended families indicated utilization. During the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual visitation helped families feel connected with each other and their neonate, despite being in separate locations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pandemics , Visitors to Patients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient-Centered Care
18.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most NICUs, with a high rate of skin colonization and subsequent invasive infections among hospitalized neonates. The effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce MRSA infection in the NICU during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has not been characterized. METHODS: Using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Model for Improvement, we implemented several process-based infection prevention strategies to reduce invasive MRSA infections at our level IV NICU over 24 months. The outcome measure of invasive MRSA infections was tracked monthly utilizing control charts. Process measures focused on environmental disinfection and hospital personnel hygiene were also tracked monthly. The COVID-19 pandemic was an unexpected variable during the implementation of our project. The pandemic led to restricted visitation and heightened staff awareness of the importance of hand hygiene and proper use of personal protective equipment, as well as supply chain shortages, which may have influenced our outcome measure. RESULTS: Invasive MRSA infections were reduced from 0.131 to 0 per 1000 patient days during the initiative. This positive shift was sustained for 30 months, along with a delayed decrease in MRSA colonization rates. Several policy and practice changes regarding personnel hygiene and environmental cleaning likely contributed to this reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a multidisciplinary quality improvement initiative aimed at infection prevention strategies led to a significant decrease in invasive MRSA infections in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control , COVID-19/prevention & control
19.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279451, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197101

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of early neonatal mortality, which causes an estimated 900,000 deaths annually. Therefore, assessing the survival status and predictors of mortality among asphyxiated neonates will be highly helpful to policymakers in designing, implementing, and evaluating programs to achieve the sustainable development goal of reducing neonatal mortality as low as 12/1,000 live births by 2030. METHODS: A facility-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 378 asphyxiated neonates admitted to the NICU of Dessie Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from January, 2017 -December, 2019. The data were collected from eligible records by using a structured data extraction tool from March 30 -April 21, 2020. The data were cleaned manually and entered into Epi-data version 7.1.2.0, and STATA version 16 was used for the analysis. Bivariate and Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were performed, and significant predictors were identified using 95% confidence interval and p-value <0.05. RESULT: A total of 378 neonates were followed for 2298 neonatal days, ranging from 1 to 28 days. The mortality incidence rate was 5.3/100 person-days-of observation (95% CI: 4.41, 6.29), and 32% (95% CI: 27.6%, 36.8%) of the study subjects died. Admission weight (AHR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.72), seizure (AHR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.27), neonates who received resuscitation (AHR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.80), and stage of asphyxia (moderate (AHR: 3.50; 95% CI: 1.55, 8.36), and severe (AHR: 11.55; 95% CI: 4.73, 28.25)) were significant predictors of neonatal mortality among asphyxiated neonates. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of neonatal mortality among asphyxiated neonates in the study area was high. Admission weight, seizure, resuscitation, and stage of asphyxia were significant predictors of mortality among neonates with asphyxia. Therefore, special attention should be given to asphyxiated neonates with low admission weight and those who had seizure. Additionally, the timing, quality, and effectiveness of resuscitation might need further assessment and evaluation.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant Mortality , Hospitals , Seizures
20.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 94, 2022 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parental stress in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is well known, as is the stress induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. This combination might increase stress to the extent of affecting the availability of maternal expressed milk and the success of establishing breastfeeding. This is particularly relevant in very preterm infants. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective analysis in two cohorts of very low birth weight infants born in a hospital in Italy. Babies born before the pandemic (September 2017 - December 2019) (n = 101) and during the pandemic (March 2020 - December 2021) (n = 67) were included in the analysis. We compared the rate of babies fed with maternal milk (both expressed and / or donated) at the achievement of full enteral feeding and the rate of those exclusively breastfed at discharge in the two groups. Then, we analysed the impact of donated human milk availability on infant formula use. We also compared mother's need for psychological support during NICU stay and the duration of psychological follow-up after discharge. RESULTS: In our NICU the availability of expressed maternal milk significantly decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic (86.1% before the pandemic vs 44.8% during the pandemic, p < 0.001) at the time of full enteral feeding achievement. Thanks to the availability of donated human milk, the rate of formula-fed babies remained almost unchanged (13.9% vs 14.9%). At discharge, the rate of breastfeeding was similar (73.3% vs 72.7%). The maternal need for psychological support was significantly higher during the pandemic (33% vs 64%, p < 0.001), as well as the duration of follow-up > 6 months (1% vs 15%, p < 0.001). No differences in the main clinical outcomes were found. CONCLUSION: Pandemic-induced stress had a significant impact on the availability of expressed maternal milk in NICU. However, the presence of human donated milk was fundamental in preventing increased use of infant formula during NICU stays. This underlines how strategies to implement the widespread establishment of donor milk banks on a national level are warranted. Further research is desirable to optimise the use of donated human milk banks during emergency situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Milk Banks , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Breast Feeding , Milk, Human , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Infant, Premature , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Italy/epidemiology
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