Sepsis remains among the most common causes of mortality in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Extensive literature is available regarding managing sepsis in pediatric patients without CHD. Because the cardiovascular pathophysiology of children with CHD differs entirely from their typical peers, the available diagnosis and management recommendations for sepsis cannot be implemented directly in children with CHD. This review discusses the risk factors, etiopathogenesis, available diagnostic tools, resuscitation protocols, and anesthetic management of pediatric patients suffering from various congenital cardiac lesions. Further research should focus on establishing a standard guideline for managing children with CHD with sepsis and septic shock admitted to the intensive care unit.
Subject(s)Heart Defects, Congenital , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Child , Humans , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Resuscitation/methods , Hospitalization , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of burnout, anxiety and depression symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in PICU workers in Brazil during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. To compare the results of subgroups stratified by age, gender, professional category, health system, and previous mental health disorders. DESIGN: Multicenter, cross-sectional study using an electronic survey. SETTING: Twenty-nine public and private Brazilian PICUs. SUBJECTS: Multidisciplinary PICU workers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition [PCL-5]) in 1,084 respondents. Subjects were mainly young (37.1 ± 8.4 yr old) and females (85%), with a median workload of 50 hours per week. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 33% and 19%, respectively, whereas PTSD was 13%. The overall median burnout scores were high in the emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment dimensions (16 [interquartile range (IQR), 8-24] and 40 [IQR, 33-44], respectively) whereas low in the depersonalization one (2 [IQR, 0-5]), suggesting a profile of overextended professionals, with a burnout prevalence of 24%. Professionals reporting prior mental health disorders had higher prevalence of burnout (30% vs 22%; p = 0.02), anxiety (51% vs 29%; p < 0.001), and depression symptoms (32.5% vs 15%; p < 0.001), with superior PCL-5 scores for PTSD ( p < 0.001). Public hospital workers presented more burnout (29% vs 18.6%, p < 0.001) and more PTSD levels (14.8% vs 10%, p = 0.03). Younger professionals were also more burned out ( p < 0.05 in all three dimensions). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health disorders in Brazilian PICU workers during the first 2020 peak of COVID-19 was as high as those described in adult ICU workers. Some subgroups, particularly those reporting previous mental disorders and younger professionals, should receive special attention to prevent future crises.
Subject(s)Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Child , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Health Personnel/psychology
Subject(s)Hospitals , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology
BACKGROUND: Strict visitor restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with staff moral distress in numerous clinical settings, yet little is known about effects on perceptions of pediatric end-of-life care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of COVID-19 visitor restrictions on perceptions of quality of dying and death. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of interdisciplinary staff caring for dying children in a cardiac intensive care unit with flexible visitation allowances compared with published policies reported in the literature at the time. RESULTS: No significant difference in perceptions of quality of dying and death was found between the prepandemic and pandemic periods despite similar clinical care provision. The relatively less stringent allowances at end of life did not adversely affect staff risk for infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support affording some flexibility to visitation at end of life, which may mitigate negative staff perceptions of quality of dying and death. With the profound effects of COVID-19 on end-of-life care provision, these results may have implications for future global challenges.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Terminal Care , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Death
In a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of 32 beds, clinicians manage resources 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, from a large-screen dashboard implemented in 2017. This resource management dashboard efficiently replaces the handwriting information displayed on a whiteboard, offering a synthetic view of the bed's layout and specific information on staff and equipment at bedside. However, in 2020 when COVID-19 hit, the resource management dashboard showed several limitations. Mainly, its visualization offered to the clinicians limited situation awareness (SA) to perceive, understand and predict the impacts on resource management and decision-making of an unusual flow of patients affected by the most severe form of coronavirus. To identify the SA requirements during a pandemic, we conducted goal-oriented interviews with 11 clinicians working in ICUs. The result is the design of an SA-oriented dashboard with 22 key indicators (KIs): 1 on the admission capacity, 15 at bedside and 6 displayed as statistics in the central area. We conducted a usability evaluation of the SA-oriented dashboard compared to the resource management dashboard with 6 clinicians. The results showed five usability improvements of the SA-oriented dashboard and five limitations. Our work contributes to new knowledge on the clinicians' SA requirements to support resource management and decision-making in ICUs in times of pandemics.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Awareness , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
BACKGROUND: The severity of SARS-CoV-2-related diseases in children remains unclear. This study aimed to describe the incidence of French pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) admissions with acute COVID-19, incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) during the delta and omicron variant periods. METHODS: This study used the French PICU registry to obtain data on all patients admitted to 41 French PICUs diagnosed with acute COVID-19, incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, or MIS-C between August 30, 2021 and April 20, 2022. Data regarding the total number of positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction results according to the type of variants were obtained from the French National Public Health Agency. RESULTS: Of 745 children, 244 (32.8%) were admitted for acute COVID-19, 246 (33.0%) for incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and 255 (34.2%) for MIS-C. The incidence of each group was higher with delta than with omicron. The incidence rate ratios with the delta variant were 7.47 (95% CI, 4.22-13.26) for acute COVID-19, 4·78 (95% CI, 2.30-9.94) for incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and 10.46 (95% CI, 5.98-18.31) for MIS-C compared to the omicron variant. The median age was 66 (7.7-126.8) months; 314 (42%) patients had comorbidities. Patients with acute COVID-19 and incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results had similar proportions of comorbidities. No patient with MIS-C died, whereas the mortality rates in the acute COVID-19 and incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results groups were 6.8% and 3.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute COVID-19, incidental positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and MIS-C admitted to the PICU were significantly higher with the delta variant than with the omicron variant.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
OBJECTIVES: To investigate neurocognitive, psychosocial, and quality of life (QoL) outcomes in children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) seen 3-6 months after PICU admission. DESIGN: National prospective cohort study March 2020 to November 2021. SETTING: Seven PICUs in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Children with MIS-C (0-17 yr) admitted to a PICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Children and/or parents were seen median (interquartile range [IQR] 4 mo [3-5 mo]) after PICU admission. Testing included assessment of neurocognitive, psychosocial, and QoL outcomes with reference to Dutch pre-COVID-19 general population norms. Effect sizes (Hedges' g ) were used to indicate the strengths and clinical relevance of differences: 0.2 small, 0.5 medium, and 0.8 and above large. Of 69 children with MIS-C, 49 (median age 11.6 yr [IQR 9.3-15.6 yr]) attended follow-up. General intelligence and verbal memory scores were normal compared with population norms. Twenty-nine of the 49 followed-up (59%) underwent extensive testing with worse function in domains such as visual memory, g = 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.4), sustained attention, g = 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-2.4), and planning, g = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). The children also had more emotional and behavioral problems, g = 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-0.7), and had lower QoL scores in domains such as physical functioning g = 1.3 (95% CI 0.9-1.6), school functioning g = 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.4), and increased fatigue g = 0.5 (95% CI 0.1-0.9) compared with population norms. Elevated risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was seen in 10 of 30 children (33%) with MIS-C. Last, in the 32 parents, no elevated risk for PTSD was found. CONCLUSIONS: Children with MIS-C requiring PICU admission had normal overall intelligence 4 months after PICU discharge. Nevertheless, these children reported more emotional and behavioral problems, more PTSD, and worse QoL compared with general population norms. In a subset undergoing more extensive testing, we also identified irregularities in neurocognitive functions. Whether these impairments are caused by the viral or inflammatory response, the PICU admission, or COVID-19 restrictions remains to be investigated.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 pandemic. This name was given to the disease caused by the SARS-CoV 2 virus at its outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei, China. In Colombia, a significant number of cases have been confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate children with respiratory symptoms caused by SARS-CoV2 infection, identifying independent predictors of risk of having a severe illness, thus leading to an early approach and intervention in our patients, especially in children with comorbidities. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between April 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021 at a fourth-level referral institution in Bogotá on patients under 18 years of age with respiratory symptoms and a COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed in the laboratory. An explanatory binary logistic regression model was performed with an outcome variable of admission to the intensive care unit. A total of 385 children were included in the study, with ages between 9 months and 17 years of age; 50.1% were male, and the ICR was 9.75 years. 41.6% had some comorbidity, 13.5% were admitted to the pediatric ICU, and 3.6% of the total number of patients died. The predictor variables were: use of antibiotics in the first 24 h, neurological comorbidity, and consolidation shown in the chest X-ray. This explains 38.7% of the variability of the variable. In this cohort of patients with COVID-19-associated respiratory symptoms, we identified predictors of severity, so we consider that these patients require a risk approach that allows timely and adequate care.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Infant , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of children with SARs-CoV-2-related illnesses have been admitted to the Pediatric intensive care unit (ICU), although often for closer monitoring or concerns related to comorbidities or young age. This may have resulted in inappropriate ICU admissions, waste of resources, ICU overcrowding, and stress for young patients and caregivers. The Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU) may represent an appropriate setting for the care of children whose monitoring and treatment needs are beyond the resources of a general pediatric ward, but who do not qualify for critical care. However, research on pediatric IMCUs and data on their performance is very limited. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study including all patients aged 0-18 with acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), admitted to a newly established stand-alone 12-bed pediatric IMCU at Gaslini Hospital, Genoa, Italy, between 1 March 2020 and 31 January 2022. Each IMCU room has a multiparameter monitor connected to a control station and can be equipped as an ICU room in case of need for escalation of care, up to ECMO support. IMCU and ICU are adjacent and located on the same floor, allowing a timely escalation from intermediate to critical care in the IMCU, with staff changes without the need for patient transfer. RESULTS: Among 550 patients hospitalized for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C, 106 (19.2%, 80 with acute COVID-19, and 26 MIS-C) were admitted to IMCU. Three of them (2.8%) required escalation to critical care due to the worsening of their conditions. Forty-seven patients (44%) were discharged home from the IMCU, while the remaining 57 (55%) were transferred to low-intensity care units after clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the need for pediatric ICU admission was low for both acute COVID-19 patients (0.8%) and MIS-C patients (3.1%) compared to the literature data. The IMCU represented an adequate setting for children with COVID-19-related illness who need a higher level of care, but lack strict indications for ICU admission, thus preventing ICU overcrowding and wasting of economic and logistical resources. Further studies are needed to better assess the impact of an IMCU on hospital costs, ICU activity, and long-term psychological sequelae on children and their families.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
AIM: Data indicate a tendency towards an increased incidence through the last decades of various forms of pneumonia. Among these, nosocomial pneumonia in patients who have been on mechanical ventilation support (increased after the Covid-19 pandemic) is a condition that must be addressed as soon as possible to avoid complications. Current literature lacks an in-depth analysis of the potential correlation between ventilator-associated pneumonia and poor oral hygiene, especially in children. The aim of this literature review is to investigate if improving oral hygiene could affect the onset of nosocomial pneumonia in children. METHODS: A search was performed in Pubmed, Medline, and Scopus for the keywords: oral care, children, neonates, ventilator-associated pneumonia, combined with 'AND' or 'OR' Boolean Operators. CONCLUSION: The relevant papers retrieved in the scientific literature emphasised the importante of good oral care bundles to mitigate the bacteria proliferation in the bloodstream, and to prevent the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Oral Hygiene , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
Subject(s)Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Morals , Humans , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Italy , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
Subject(s)COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics
Subject(s)Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Humans , Child , Pandemics , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate air leakage during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and explore potential risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent IMV in a single-center PICU in a tertiary referral hospital. Air leakage risk factors and factors associated with an improved outcome were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 548 children who underwent IMV were enrolled in this study. Air leakage occurred in 7.5% (41/548) of the cases in the PICU. Air leakage increased the duration of IMV and hospitalization time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher risk of air leakage during IMV for PICU patients with acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 4.38), a higher pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) (OR = 1.08), or a higher peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (OR = 1.08), whereas the risk was lower for patients with central respiratory failure (OR = 0.14). The logistic model had excellent predictive power for air leakage, with an area under the curve of 0.883 and tenfold cross-validation. Patients aged between 1 and 6 years who were diagnosed with measles or pneumonia and had a low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high PaO2/FiO2 ratio were associated with improved outcomes. Patients diagnosed with central respiratory failure or congenital heart diseases were associated with less desirable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ARDS, a higher PCIS at admission or a higher PIP were at higher risk of air leakage.
Subject(s)Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Intensive Care Units
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. More than 5 million children have been infected in the United States. Risk factors for more severe disease progression include obesity, pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurologic comorbidities. Children with COVID-19 are admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of severe acute COVID-19 illness or COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The delta surge of 2021 was responsible for an increased disease burden in children and points to the key role of vaccinating children against this sometimes-deadly disease.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the prevalence of pediatric critical illness from multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to assess the influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain on outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems Database. PATIENTS: All children with MIS-C admitted to the PICU in 115 contributing hospitals between January 1, 2020, and June 30, 2021. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 145,580 children admitted to the PICU during the study period, 1,338 children (0.9%) were admitted with MIS-C with the largest numbers of children admitted in quarter 1 (Q1) of 2021 ( n = 626). The original SARS-CoV-2 viral strain and the D614G Strain were the predominant strains through 2020, with Alpha B.1.1.7 predominating in Q1 and quarter 2 (Q2) of 2021. Overall, the median PICU length of stay (LOS) was 2.7 days (25-75% interquartile range [IQR], 1.6-4.7 d) with a median hospital LOS of 6.6 days (25-75% IQR, 4.7-9.3 d); 15.2% received mechanical ventilation with a median duration of mechanical ventilation of 3.1 days (25-75% IQR, 1.9-5.8 d), and there were 11 hospital deaths. During the study period, there was a significant decrease in the median PICU and hospital LOS and a decrease in the frequency of mechanical ventilation, with the most significant decrease occurring between quarter 3 and quarter 4 (Q4) of 2020. Children admitted to a PICU from the general care floor or from another ICU/step-down unit had longer PICU LOS than those admitted directly from an emergency department. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality from MIS-C was low, but the disease burden was high. There was a peak in MIS-C cases during Q1 of 2021, following a shift in viral strains in Q1 of 2021. However, an improvement in MIS-C outcomes starting in Q4 of 2020 suggests that viral strain was not the driving factor for outcomes in this population.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the changes in the disease spectrum among hospitalized children in the pediatric intensive care units (PICU) within 2 years before and after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The related data on disease diagnosis were collected from all children who were hospitalized in the PICU of Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College from January 2018 to December 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group) and from January 2020 to December 2021 (post-COVID-19 group). A statistical analysis was performed for the disease spectrum of the two groups. RESULTS: There were 2 368 children in the pre-COVID-19 group and 1 653 children in the post-COVID-19 group. The number of children in the post-COVID-19 group was reduced by 30.19% compared with that in the pre-COVID-19 group. There was a significant difference in age composition between the two groups (P<0.05). The top 10 diseases in the pre-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, critical illness, circulatory system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, digestive system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, and tumors. The top 10 diseases in the post-COVID-19 group by number of cases were respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, sepsis, circulatory system diseases, unintentional injuries, endocrine system diseases, severe neurosurgical diseases, acute abdomen, trauma surgical diseases, and digestive system diseases. The proportions of respiratory diseases, critical illness and severe neurosurgical diseases in the post-COVID-19 group were lower than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05), while the proportions of unintentional injuries, acute abdomen, endocrine system diseases, trauma surgical diseases and sepsis were higher than those in the pre-COVID-19 group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 epidemic has led to a significant reduction in the number of children admitted to the PICU, and there are significant changes in the disease spectrum within 2 years before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Relevant prevention and control measures taken during the COVID-19 epidemic can reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases, neurological diseases, and other critical illness in children, but it is necessary to strengthen the prevention of unintentional injuries and chronic disease management during the epidemic.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Epidemics , Nervous System Diseases , Sepsis , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Sepsis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Introduction: In late February 2020, after we had informed about the presence of some cases of COVID-19 in Iran and its rapid spread throughout the country, we decided to make the necessary arrangements for patients with critical conditions in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Children's Medical Center. There are a little data on critically ill children with COVID-19 infection with ICU requirements. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcomes of the pediatrics population infected by SARS-CoV-2 admitted to PICU. Materials and Methods: This study was performed between February 2020 and May 2020 in the COVID PICU of the Children's Medical Center Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients were evaluated in terms of demographic categories, primary symptoms and signs at presentation, underlying disease, SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test result, laboratory findings at PICU admission, chest X-ray (CXR) and lung CT findings, and treatment. Moreover, the need to noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay in the PICU, and outcomes were assessed. Results: In total, 99 patients were admitted to COVID PICU, 42.4% (42 patients) were males, and 66 patients had positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of clinical signs and symptoms (except for fever) among patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and negative ones. Among all admitted patients, the presence of underlying diseases was noticed in 81 (82%) patients. Of 99 patients, 34 patients were treated with NIV during their admission. Furthermore, 35 patients were intubated and treated with mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, 11 out of 35 mechanically ventilated patients (31%) passed away. Conclusion: No laboratory and radiological findings in children infected with COVID-19 were diagnostic in cases with COVID-19 admitted to PICU. There are higher risks of severe COVID-19, PICU admission, and mortality in children with comorbidities.