Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 141
Filter
1.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3262-3272, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726144

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic infectious disease that was named the new coronavirus disease (COVID 19), spread throughout the world, causing a major public health emergency. The causative virus of COVID-19, called SARS CoV-2, can infect all age groups. Various clinical signs and symptoms have been observed in neonates, children, and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 might be different due to the medical conditions and comorbid status in elderly and pediatric patients. The rise in cases among children has been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although infected children generally appear to be asymptomatic or have only mild symptoms, COVID-19 in children may also involve a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic carriers to life-threatening and fatal diseases, as COVID-19 is a systemic disease that can affect multiple organs. Due to the lack of knowledge in the current literature, it is necessary to describe the atypical clinical features, including extrapulmonary manifestations, in pediatric patients with COVID-19. This review is conducted to identify knowledge gaps regarding the broad spectrum of clinical signs and symptoms of children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(2): 129-136, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677246

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a worldwide public health problem due to its high incidence and accompanying mortality, morbidity, and financial burden. It is a major cause of admission to paediatric intensive care units; despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment, both incidence and mortality are high in low-income and middle-income countries. There are several barriers in addressing the enormous burden of paediatric sepsis in these countries, which include: lack of data of incidence and mortality; unfamiliarity of sepsis by the lay public, leading to failure to seek care early, and by health professionals, leading to failure to treat emergently; and insufficient government funding for sepsis care programmes leading to inadequate staffing, material, and financial resources, and therefore, poor health systems. Socioeconomic inequalities, such as inequity and marked variation in income and education, high rates of malnutrition, high percentage of young population, and health systems that do not meet the population's demands also represent barriers in the care of children with sepsis in Latin America. In this Viewpoint, we draw attention to the problem of paediatric sepsis in Latin America and call for action to reduce the disease burden by proposing some solutions.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Health Priorities , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/prevention & control , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Latin America/epidemiology , Social Class
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23562, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623168

ABSTRACT

During the winter months of 2020/2021 a wave of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged in Poland. We present the results of a nationwide register aiming to capture and characterise MIS-C with a focus on severity determinants. The first MIS-C wave in Poland was notably high, hence our analysis involved 274 children. The group was 62.8% boys, with a median age of 8.8 years. Besides one Asian, all were White. Overall, the disease course was not as severe as in previous reports, however. Pediatric intensive care treatment was required for merely 23 (8.4%) of children, who were older and exhibited a distinguished clinical picture at hospital admission. We have also identified sex-dependent differences; teenage boys more often had cardiac involvement (decreased ejection fraction in 25.9% vs. 14.7%) and fulfilled macrophage activation syndrome definition (31.0% vs. 15.2%). Among all boys, those hospitalized in pediatric intensive care unit were significantly older (median 11.2 vs. 9.1 years). Henceforth, while ethnicity and sex may affect MIS-C phenotype, management protocols might be not universally applicable, and should rather be adjusted to the specific population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e3, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616906

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene (HH) performance on entering intensive care units (ICUs) is commonly accepted but often inadequately performed. We developed a simple, inexpensive module that connects touchless dispensers of alcohol sanitiser (TDAS) to the automatic doors of a paediatric ICU, and assessed the impact of this intervention on HH compliance of hospital staff and visitors. A prospective observational study was conducted over a 3-week period prior to the intervention, followed by a 4-week period post intervention. HH performance was monitored by a research assistant whose office location enabled direct and video-assisted observation of the ICU entrance. A total of 609 entries to the ICU was recorded. Overall HH performance was 46.9% (92/196) before and 98.5% (406/413) after the intervention. Our findings suggest that HH performance on entering an ICU can be improved via a mechanism that makes operation of an automatic door dependent on use of a TDAS system, and thus contribute to infection control.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/methods , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies
8.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595609

ABSTRACT

A 9-year-old girl presented to her primary care pediatrician via telemedicine during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of 4 days of warmth perceived by her mother, decreased energy, and a new rash on her upper extremities. After 10 additional days of documented fever >38°C, worsening fatigue, and 1 day of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, she was allowed to schedule an in-person visit with her pediatrician after testing negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. She appeared ill on arrival to clinic, and her pediatrician recommended evaluation in an emergency department. Her initial laboratory testing revealed nonspecific elevation in several inflammatory markers and leukopenia, and she responded well to intravenous hydration. Over the next 2 weeks, her fever persisted, constitutional symptoms worsened, and she developed progressively painful cervical lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia. She was evaluated in clinic by several specialists and eventually was urged to present to the emergency department again, at which time she was admitted to the PICU. After consulting additional specialists and waiting for laboratory results, the team reached a definitive diagnosis and initiated therapy; however, she experienced rapid clinical decline shortly thereafter. The specialists who assisted with identification of the underlying etiology of her symptoms were able to work together to manage the subsequent complications.


Subject(s)
Exanthema , Fever , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Disease Progression , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Pancytopenia/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
9.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(6)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This descriptive study aimed to compare the clinical and laboratory features of the children with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), admission with the MIS-C patients who did not require PICU admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted between March 2020 and February 2021 at the University of Health Sciences Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital, a referral center for pediatric infectious diseases in the Aegean Region of Turkey. All hospitalized patients aged 18 years old or less with MIS-C according to the definition of the universal guidelines were included in the study. Data of the patients with the diagnosis of MIS-C were recorded and collected from the electronic medical records of the hospital. The data included demographic characteristics, presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory findings and clinical data. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with MIS-C were included in this study. Thirty-eight (65.5%) patients were male. The median age was 6 years (2 months-16 years). The patients admitted to PICU were 15 (25.9%). The rate of pulmonary involvement was 81.3% (n = 13) in the PICU group. The median procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-Dimer and ferritin values were significantly higher in the PICU group compared to non-PICU group (p < 0.001, p = 0.02, p < 0.001, p = 0.006 and p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Besides the depressing cardiac functions reported before, the pulmonary involvement and signs of shock are important factors for PICU admission in children with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Retrospective Studies
11.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 172, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare hyperinflammatory condition that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a paucity of research describing risk factors, optimal management, and outcomes of this life-threatening condition. METHODS: This is a case series of 26 patients diagnosed with MIS-C in a West Michigan pediatric tertiary care center from April 2020 to February 2021. We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of these patients and detail their treatments and outcomes with comparisons between Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and non-PICU patients. Categorical testing utilized Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Comparison between groups used T-tests or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (57%) required intensive care. There was no statistically significant difference in demographics between PICU and non-PICU patients, however all Black patients required intensive care. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 22 patients (84%). Seventeen patients (65%) had Kawasaki-like features and 12 (46%) developed coronary artery dilation. Patients requiring intensive care were less likely to have a reported history of COVID-19 disease or exposure (p = 0.0362). Statistically significant differences were also noted in peak ferritin (p = 0.0075), procalcitonin, and BNP in those who required intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Although overlap exists with other hyperinflammatory conditions, our study provides further evidence that MIS-C is a distinct, albeit heterogenous, disorder with various degrees of cardiac involvement. Anakinra, in conjunction with steroid use, appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of MIS-C. This report identifies procalcitonin, peak ferritin, and BNP as potentially useful biomarkers for severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Pediatr Neurol ; 128: 33-44, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to characterize the frequency, early impact, and risk factors for neurological manifestations in hospitalized children with acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional study of neurological manifestations in children aged <18 years hospitalized with positive SARS-CoV-2 test or clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2-related condition between January 2020 and April 2021. Multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for neurological manifestations was performed. RESULTS: Of 1493 children, 1278 (86%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 and 215 (14%) with MIS-C. Overall, 44% of the cohort (40% acute SARS-CoV-2 and 66% MIS-C) had at least one neurological manifestation. The most common neurological findings in children with acute SARS-CoV-2 and MIS-C diagnosis were headache (16% and 47%) and acute encephalopathy (15% and 22%), both P < 0.05. Children with neurological manifestations were more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) care (51% vs 22%), P < 0.001. In multivariable logistic regression, children with neurological manifestations were older (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 and 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07 to 1.13) and more likely to have MIS-C versus acute SARS-CoV-2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24), pre-existing neurological and metabolic conditions (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.15; and OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.66, respectively), and pharyngeal (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.64) or abdominal pain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.00); all P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study, 44% of children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2-related conditions experienced neurological manifestations, which were associated with ICU admission and pre-existing neurological condition. Posthospital assessment for, and support of, functional impairment and neuroprotective strategies are vitally needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South America/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
13.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 193-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585817

ABSTRACT

Identifying which children and young people (CYP) are most vulnerable to serious infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important to guide protective interventions. To address this question, we used data for all hospitalizations in England among 0-17 year olds from 1 February 2019 to 31 January 2021. We examined how sociodemographic factors and comorbidities might be risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission among hospitalizations due to the following causes: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in the first pandemic year (2020-2021); hospitalizations due to all other non-traumatic causes in 2020-2021; hospitalizations due to all non-traumatic causes in 2019-2020; and hospitalizations due to influenza in 2019-2020. Risk of PICU admission and death from COVID-19 or PIMS-TS in CYP was very low. We identified 6,338 hospitalizations with COVID-19, of which 259 were admitted to a PICU and eight CYP died. We identified 712 hospitalizations with PIMS-TS, of which 312 were admitted to a PICU and fewer than five CYP died. Hospitalizations with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS were more common among males, older CYP, those from socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and those who were of non-White ethnicity (Black, Asian, Mixed or Other). The odds of PICU admission were increased in CYP younger than 1 month old and decreased among 15-17 year olds compared to 1-4 year olds with COVID-19; increased in older CYP and females with PIMS-TS; and increased for Black compared to White ethnicity in patients with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS. Odds of PICU admission in COVID-19 were increased for CYP with comorbidities and highest for CYP with multiple medical problems. Increases in odds of PICU admission associated with different comorbidities in COVID-19 showed a similar pattern to other causes of hospitalization examined and, thus, likely reflect background vulnerabilities. These findings identify distinct risk factors associated with PICU admission among CYP with COVID-19 or PIMS-TS that might aid treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , /statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , /statistics & numerical data
14.
J Crit Care ; 68: 59-65, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568825

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aim to describe the action plan and clinical results of a COVID-19 unit for adult patient care in units intended for critically ill children, proposing a clinical/administrative framework. METHODS: We reviewed the preparedness of the PICU team before the surge of cases of COVID-19 and the organizational/administrative issues to increase critical beds in a six-bed PICU allocated to adult critical care in a government-funded general hospital in Latin America. We analyzed the prospectively collected administrative/clinical data of severe COVID-19 cases admitted to PICU during the peak of the first wave of the pandemic. RESULTS: We describe a 6-step preparedness plan: recruitment and education, admission criteria, children diversion, team hierarchy, and general and respiratory equipment. The 6-bed PICU was allocated to adult care for 20 weeks, progressively increasing capacity to a 23-bed dedicated COVID-19 unit managed by the PICU team. A six-block bed organizational units were implemented, and personnel increased from 40 to 125 healthcare workers in 24 h shifts. COVID-19 incidence in personnel was 0.5/1000 workdays. One hundred thirty-six patients were admitted, median age 59 (51,65) years old, 68% were male, and 63% had P/F ≤ 100. In addition, 48% received mechanical ventilation, the median length of stay was 7 (3,17), and in-hospital mortality was 15%. CONCLUSIONS: We propose an organizational framework for the role of PICU in the hospital action plan to increase adult critical beds. The cohort of patients admitted to a PICU repurposed as a COVID-19 ICU had good outcomes. These data are valuable to plan coordinated actions of the healthcare system for future scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Critical Care , Hospitals, General , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Middle Aged
15.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(6)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory findings in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with those of other respiratory viruses in critically ill children. METHODS: It is a single center retrospective descriptive study conducted in a 32-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Our study was performed in Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between 1 March 2020, and 1 March 2021. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected and we recorded the antibiotic use, antiviral treatments, respiratory and extracorporeal supports, PICU stay and survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 202 pediatric patients who tested positive for either COVID-19 or for another respiratory virus panel (RVP) were included in the study. Seventy-two patients were COVID-19 positive. The median age of COVID-19 positive patients and RVP positive patients was 97 and 17 months, respectively. Hypoxia was much more common in patients with RVP than in COVID-19 patients. Low oxygen saturation in arterial blood (SaO2), increased oxygen saturation index (OSI) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) needs were more significant in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. Respiratory support therapies, such as high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation (NIV), were used more frequently in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: It is important to distinguish between COVID-19 and RVP cases in order to prioritize intensive care needs in these patients. In addition, non-Covid diseases should not be left aside in the pandemic and appropriate care should be provided to them.


COVID-19 originated in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and has since spread around the world. During the key period of the pandemic from 1 March 2020, to 1 March 2021, the pediatric intensive care unit registered a total of 72 patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 130 patients positive for RVP on the respiratory virus panel. In this single-center study, we compared the clinical differences and course of the disease in pediatric intensive care patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with patients diagnosed with respiratory tract viruses during the COVID-19 outbreak. Unlike previous studies, this is the first to compare the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 with other respiratory pathogens requiring intensive care. Respiratory support therapy, such as high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and NIV, was prescribed more frequently in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. In our study, low oxygen saturation in the arterial blood (SaO2), increased OSI and increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) requirements were more significant in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. In parallel, the need for mechanical ventilation was higher in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we believe that RVP patients should be followed more carefully during this pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey , Viruses/classification
16.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 162, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pediatric patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) and identify the risk factors associated with symptomatic or severe disease defined as hospital admission, intensive care admission or death. METHODS: An observational longitudinal study was conducted during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (March 2020-March 2021). All pediatric patients attended at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of six tertiary referral hospitals in Madrid, Spain, with a diagnosis of RMD and COVID-19 were included. Main outcomes were symptomatic disease and hospital admission. The covariates were sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and treatment regimens. We ran a multivariable logistic regression model to assess associated factors for outcomes. RESULTS: The study population included 77 pediatric patients. Mean age was 11.88 (4.04) years Of these, 30 patients (38.96%) were asymptomatic, 41 (53.25%) had a mild-moderate COVID-19 and 6 patients (7.79%) required hospital admission. The median length of hospital admission was 5 (2-20) days, one patient required intensive care and there were no deaths. Previous comorbidities increased the risk for symptomatic disease and hospital admission. Compared with outpatients, the factor independently associated with hospital admission was previous use of glucocorticoids (OR 3.51; p = 0.00). No statistically significant risk factors for symptomatic COVID-19 were found in the final model. CONCLUSION: No differences in COVID-19 outcomes according to childhood-onset rheumatic disease types were found. Results suggest that associated comorbidities and treatment with glucocorticoids increase the risk of hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/drug therapy , Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
17.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 399, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic had a relatively minimal direct impact on critical illness in children compared to adults. However, children and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) were affected indirectly. We analysed the impact of the pandemic on PICU admission patterns and patient characteristics in the UK and Ireland. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all admissions to PICUs in children < 18 years during Jan-Dec 2020, using data collected from 32 PICUs via a central database (PICANet). Admission patterns, case-mix, resource use, and outcomes were compared with the four preceding years (2016-2019) based on the date of admission. RESULTS: There were 16,941 admissions in 2020 compared to an annual average of 20,643 (range 20,340-20,868) from 2016 to 2019. During 2020, there was a reduction in all PICU admissions (18%), unplanned admissions (20%), planned admissions (15%), and bed days (25%). There was a 41% reduction in respiratory admissions, and a 60% reduction in children admitted with bronchiolitis but an 84% increase in admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis during 2020 compared to the previous years. There were 420 admissions (2.4%) with either PIMS-TS or COVID-19 during 2020. Age and sex adjusted prevalence of unplanned PICU admission reduced from 79.7 (2016-2019) to 63.1 per 100,000 in 2020. Median probability of death [1.2 (0.5-3.4) vs. 1.2 (0.5-3.4) %], length of stay [2.3 (1.0-5.5) vs. 2.4 (1.0-5.7) days] and mortality rates [3.4 vs. 3.6%, (risk-adjusted OR 1.00 [0.91-1.11, p = 0.93])] were similar between 2016-2019 and 2020. There were 106 fewer in-PICU deaths in 2020 (n = 605) compared with 2016-2019 (n = 711). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a high-quality international database allowed robust comparisons between admission data prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A significant reduction in prevalence of unplanned admissions, respiratory diseases, and fewer child deaths in PICU observed may be related to the targeted COVID-19 public health interventions during the pandemic. However, analysis of wider and longer-term societal impact of the pandemic and public health interventions on physical and mental health of children is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Child , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2033-2041, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of public health interventions on the volume and characteristics of admissions to the PICU. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Six U.S. referral PICUs during February 15, 2020-May 14, 2020, compared with the same months during 2017-2019 (baseline). PATIENTS: PICU admissions excluding admissions for illnesses due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and readmissions during the same hospitalization. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcome was admission volumes during the period of stay-at-home orders (March 15, 2020-May 14, 2020) compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization characteristics including advanced support (e.g., invasive mechanical ventilation), PICU and hospital lengths of stay, and mortality. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to compare patient and admission characteristics during the stay-at-home orders period to baseline. We evaluated 7,960 admissions including 1,327 during March 15, 2020-May 14, 2020. Daily admissions and patients days were lower during the period of stay-at-home orders compared with baseline: median admissions 21 (interquartile range, 17-25) versus 36 (interquartile range, 30-42) (p < 0.001) and median patient days 93.0 (interquartile range, 55.9-136.7) versus 143.6 (interquartile range, 108.5-189.2) (p < 0.001). Admissions during the period of stay-at-home orders were less common in young children and for respiratory and infectious illnesses and more common for poisonings, endocrinopathies and for children with race/ethnicity categorized as other/unspecified. There were no differences in hospitalization characteristics except fewer patients received noninvasive ventilation during the period of stay-at-home orders. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in PICU admissions suggest that much of pediatric critical illness in younger children and for respiratory and infectious illnesses may be preventable through targeted public health strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
20.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(5): 573-584, 2021 Oct.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505019

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop an untact visit service based on an application that can be utilized in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) during COVID-19. METHODS: This study adopted the double diamond process of service design comprising the discovery, defining, and development stages. RESULTS: We developed an untact visit service based on an application that considered the child's status, schedule, photo, and video messages, and so on. Moreover, we derived a service flow regarding the required roles and the type of flow shown between each stakeholder. CONCLUSION: Considering the ongoing pandemic, the untact visit service is designed to increase rapport and participation of parents, share the child's information in real-time, and provide one-stop service without increasing healthcare providers' work. It will be a useful visit service that can be applied and evaluated in various hospital settings and the PICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL