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1.
Am J Manag Care ; 27(4): e135-e136, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a complete panel of actions of the Service de Santé des Armées (SSA) (ie, French Military Health Service) that together contributed to prevent French health system saturation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective study. METHODS: Actions taken by military practitioners in the Parisian military hospitals, which contained 500 beds, to fight COVID-19 were listed and described. RESULTS: The Parisian military hospitals were fully reorganized to offer 147% more intensive care unit beds and took care of 665 inpatients with COVID-19 while continuing their core mission of war-wounded military care. A strategy to prioritize the use of medicine and medical devices was designed to avoid shortages. Field intensive care unit deployment and airborne collective medical evacuation by the SSA's MoRPHEE system avoided hospital saturation. CONCLUSIONS: Key facets of this achievement were interunit collaboration, esprit de corps, and health workers' adaptability. Small hospitals can provide a coherent answer to the COVID-19 pandemic, as long as they organize and prioritize the patients' care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Military/organization & administration , France/epidemiology , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(4): 1108-1118, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced our cardiac surgery program and hospital to enact drastic measures that has forced us to change how we care for cardiac surgery patients, assist with COVID-19 care, and enable support for the hospital in terms of physical resources, providers, and resident training. METHODS: In this review, we review the cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 and describe our system-wide adaptations to the pandemic, including the use of telemedicine, how a severe reduction in operative volume affected our program, the process of redeployment of staff, repurposing of residents into specific task teams, the creation of operation room intensive care units, and the challenges that we faced in this process. RESULTS: We offer a revised set of definitions of surgical priority during this pandemic and how this was applied to our system, followed by specific considerations in coronary/valve, aortic, heart failure and transplant surgery. Finally, we outline a path forward for cardiac surgery for the near future. CONCLUSIONS: We recognize that individual programs around the world will eventually face COVID-19 with varying levels of infection burden and different resources, and we hope this document can assist programs to plan for the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Burn Care Res ; 42(2): 135-140, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152044

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 obliged many countries to apply lockdown policies to contain the spread of infection. The restrictions in Israel included limitations on movement, reduction of working capacity, and closure of the educational system. The present study focused on patients treated at a referral center for burns in northern Israel. Their goal was to investigate temporal variations in burn injuries during this period. Data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of burn patients treated at our hospital between March 14, 2020 and April 20, 2020 (ie, the period of aggravated lockdown). Data from this period were compared with that from paralleling periods between 2017 and 2019. During the lockdown and paralleling periods, 178 patients were treated for burn injuries, of whom 44% were under 18. Although no restrictions were enforced during the virus outbreak period with regard to seeking medical care, we noticed a decrease in the number of patients admitted to the emergency room for all reasons. Of particular interest was a 66% decrease in the number of adult burn patients (P < .0001). Meanwhile, among the pediatric population, no significant decrease was observed. Nonetheless, subgroups with higher susceptibility to burn injuries included children aged 2 to 5 years (56.3% vs 23.8%, P = .016) and female patients from all pediatric age groups (57.1% vs 25%, P = .027). These findings may be explained by the presumably busier kitchen and dining areas during the lockdown. Overall, the study results can assist with building a stronger understanding of varying burn injuries and with developing educational and preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
Burns/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Burn Units/organization & administration , Burns/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Infant , Israel , Male , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Environment Design , Germany/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Workflow
8.
Crit Care Med ; 50(4): 595-606, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate healthcare system-driven variation in general characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU within one Western European region across three countries. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTING: Seven ICUs in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany. PATIENTS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients supported in the ICU during the first pandemic wave. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and outcome data were retrieved after ethical approval and data-sharing agreements. Descriptive statistics were performed to investigate country-related practice variation. From March 2, 2020, to August 12, 2020, 551 patients were admitted. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years, and 29% were female. At admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were 15.0 ± 5.5, 16.8 ± 5.5, and 15.8 ± 5.3 (p = 0.002), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were 4.4 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.2, and 7.7 ± 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the Belgian, Dutch, and German parts of Euregio, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 22%, 42%, and 44%, respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences were observed in the frequency of organ support, antimicrobial/inflammatory therapy application, and ICU capacity. Mixed-multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that differences in ICU mortality were independent of age, sex, disease severity, comorbidities, support strategies, therapies, and complications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs within one region, the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, differed significantly in general characteristics, applied interventions, and outcomes despite presumed genetic and socioeconomic background, admission diagnosis, access to international literature, and data collection are similar. Variances in healthcare systems' organization, particularly ICU capacity and admission criteria, combined with a rapidly spreading pandemic might be important drivers for the observed differences. Heterogeneity between patient groups but also healthcare systems should be presumed to interfere with outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , APACHE , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Transfer , Treatment Outcome
10.
J Hosp Palliat Nurs ; 23(6): 530-538, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511098

ABSTRACT

Patients with Covid-19, after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU), experience some psychological, physical, and cognitive disorders, which is known as the post-intensive care syndrome and has adverse effects on patients and their families. The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-intensive care syndrome and its predictors in Covid-19 patients discharged from the ICU. In this study, 84 Covid-19 patients discharged from the ICU were selected by census method based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. After completing the demographic information, the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor Self Report Tool was used to assess post-intensive care syndrome. Sixty-nine percent of participants experienced different degrees of post-intensive care syndrome, and its mean score was 8.86 ± 12.50; the most common disorder was related to the physical dimension. Among individual social variables, age and duration after discharge were able to predict 12.3% and 8.4% of the variance of post-intensive care syndrome, respectively. Covid-19 patients who are admitted to the ICU, after discharge from the hospital, face cognitive, psychological, and functional disorders, and there is a need for planning to prevent, follow up, and care for them by health care providers in the hospice and palliative care centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Discharge , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1749-1756, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmaceutical interventions are implemented internationally to mitigate the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with the aim to reduce coronavirus disease 2019-related deaths and to protect the health system, particularly intensive care facilities from being overwhelmed. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions on ICU admissions of non-coronavirus disease 2019-related patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Analysis of all reported adult patient admissions to New Zealand ICUs during Level 3 and Level 4 lockdown restrictions from March 23, to May 13, 2020, in comparison with equivalent periods from 5 previous years (2015-2019). SUBJECTS: Twelve-thousand one-hundred ninety-two ICU admissions during the time periods of interest were identified. MEASUREMENTS: Patient data were obtained from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society critical care resources registry, and Statistics New Zealand. Study variables included patient baseline characteristics and ICU resource use. MAIN RESULTS: Nonpharmaceutical interventions in New Zealand were associated with a 39.1% decrease in ICU admission rates (p < 0.0001). Both elective (-44.2%) and acute (-36.5%) ICU admissions were significantly reduced when compared with the average of the previous 5 years (both p < 0.0001). ICU occupancy decreased from a mean of 64.3% (2015-2019) to 39.8% in 2020. Case mix, ICU resource use per patient, and ICU and hospital mortality remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The institution of nonpharmaceutical interventions was associated with a significant decrease in elective and acute ICU admissions and ICU resource use. These findings may help hospitals and health authorities planning for surge capacities and elective surgery management in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Med J Aust ; 215(11): 513-517, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the short term ability of Australian intensive care units (ICUs) to increase capacity in response to heightened demand caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Survey of ICU directors or delegated senior clinicians (disseminated 30 August 2021), supplemented by Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) registry data. SETTING: All 194 public and private Australian ICUs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of currently available and potentially available ICU beds in case of a surge; available levels of ICU-relevant equipment and staff. RESULTS: All 194 ICUs responded to the survey. The total number of currently open staffed ICU beds was 2183. This was 195 fewer (8.2%) than in 2020; the decline was greater for rural/regional (18%) and private ICUs (18%). The reported maximal ICU bed capacity (5623) included 813 additional physical ICU bed spaces and 2627 in surge areas outside ICUs. The number of available ventilators (7196) exceeded the maximum number of ICU beds. The reported number of available additional nursing staff would facilitate the immediate opening of 383 additional physical ICU beds (47%), but not the additional bed spaces outside ICUs. CONCLUSIONS: The number of currently available staffed ICU beds is lower than in 2020. Equipment shortfalls have been remediated, with sufficient ventilators to equip every ICU bed. ICU capacity can be increased in response to demand, but is constrained by the availability of appropriately trained staff. Fewer than half the potentially additional physical ICU beds could be opened with currently available staff numbers while maintaining pre-pandemic models of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Bed Capacity , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/supply & distribution , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Registries/statistics & numerical data
13.
Anaesthesist ; 69(10): 717-725, 2020 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the regional outbreak in China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world, presenting the healthcare systems with huge challenges worldwide. In Germany the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a slowly growing demand for health care with a sudden occurrence of regional hotspots. This leads to an unpredictable situation for many hospitals, leaving the question of how many bed resources are needed to cope with the surge of COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: In this study we created a simulation-based prognostic tool that provides the management of the University Hospital of Augsburg and the civil protection services with the necessary information to plan and guide the disaster response to the ongoing pandemic. Especially the number of beds needed on isolation wards and intensive care units (ICU) are the biggest concerns. The focus should lie not only on the confirmed cases as the patients with suspected COVID-19 are in need of the same resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the input we used the latest information provided by governmental institutions about the spreading of the disease, with a special focus on the growth rate of the cumulative number of cases. Due to the dynamics of the current situation, these data can be highly variable. To minimize the influence of this variance, we designed distribution functions for the parameters growth rate, length of stay in hospital and the proportion of infected people who need to be hospitalized in our area of responsibility. Using this input, we started a Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 runs to predict the range of the number of hospital beds needed within the coming days and compared it with the available resources. RESULTS: Since 2 February 2020 a total of 306 patients were treated with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 at this university hospital. Of these 84 needed treatment on the ICU. With the help of several simulation-based forecasts, the required ICU and normal bed capacity at Augsburg University Hospital and the Augsburg ambulance service in the period from 28 March 2020 to 8 June 2020 could be predicted with a high degree of reliability. Simulations that were run before the impact of the restrictions in daily life showed that we would have run out of ICU bed capacity within approximately 1 month. CONCLUSION: Our simulation-based prognosis of the health care capacities needed helps the management of the hospital and the civil protection service to make reasonable decisions and adapt the disaster response to the realistic needs. At the same time the forecasts create the possibility to plan the strategic response days and weeks in advance. The tool presented in this study is, as far as we know, the only one accounting not only for confirmed COVID-19 cases but also for suspected COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the few input parameters used are easy to access and can be easily adapted to other healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Hospital Bed Capacity , Hospitals, University/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Germany , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 315, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383659

ABSTRACT

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2021. Other selected articles can be found online at  https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2021 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from  https://link.springer.com/bookseries/8901 .


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Patient Positioning/standards , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Positioning/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Survival Analysis
18.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 49-60, ene.-feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1386572

ABSTRACT

La pandemia SARS-CoV-2 ha desafiado el despliegue de todo el equipo de salud, movilizando no solo un recurso humano, también equipamiento, insumos y una infraestructura, que permita responder una alta demanda de pacientes críticos, que requirió abrir más camas críticas, manejada por un personal sanitario sin experiencia en UCI y con equipamiento e insumos limitados. El trabajo en equipo, la comunicación efectiva y el liderazgo en enfermería, son competencias esenciales en la primera ola de la pandemia, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo es describir la innovación de la orgánica estructural de enfermería, especialmente en las áreas de hospitalización de paciente crítico, para velar por el cuidado del paciente, la familia y el equipo de salud.


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has challenged the deployment of the entire health team, mobilizing not only a human resource, but also equipment, supplies and an infrastructure, which allows responding to a high demand for critical patients, which required opening more critical beds, managed by health personnel without ICU experience and with limited equipment and supplies. Teamwork, effective communication and leadership in nursing are essential competencies in the first wave of the pandemic, so the objective of this article is to describe the innovation of the structural nursing organization, especially in hospitalization areas. Critical patient, to ensure the care of the patient, the family and the health team


Subject(s)
Humans , Hospitals, Private/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Nursing Care/organization & administration , Chile , Patient-Centered Care , Education, Nursing , Clinical Governance , Pandemics , Interprofessional Relations , Nurse-Patient Relations
19.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(1): 36-48, ene.-feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1386571

ABSTRACT

La pandemia en Chile generó un desafío de modernización y gestión de los Cuidados Intensivos, haciendo necesario que las unidades de pacientes críticos realizaran un aumento de su capacidad hospitalaria, lo que requiere preparar una infraestructura, un equipamiento mínimo, protocolos y un equipo humano preparado y alineado, para garantizar la seguridad y calidad de atención a los pacientes. Una forma de lograrlo es la incorporación de la estrategia militar de Sistema de Comando de Incidentes, utilizado para enfrentar distintos tipos de desastres, con una estructura modular de comando y sus seccionales de trabajo, con diferentes equipos y líderes para hacer frentes a los variados desafíos. El objetivo de este artículo es describir la instauración del sistema de comando de incidentes en un hospital privado, detallando su conformación y los resultados logrados.


The pandemic in Chile has been a real challenge in terms of modernization and management of intensive care. Critical care units have been forced to increase their hospital capacity in terms of infrastructure, equipment, protocols and human team, while guaranteeing safety and high-quality patient care.One approach to achieve this objective is to develop the army strategy called incident command system that has been used to face different types of disaster. A modular command structure is developed based on the creation of teams each lead by an expert in different areas in order to cope with a variety of upcoming challenges.The objective of this article is to describe the setting up of a successful incident command system in a private hospital, detailing its formation and results obtained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Systems/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Chile , Hospitals, Private/organization & administration , Critical Care , Disaster Planning , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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