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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 350-366, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205388

ABSTRACT

Introdução: No final do ano de 2019 surgiu na China uma doença infectocontagiosa de característica respiratória e alto grau de disseminação até então desconhecida. No Brasil o primeiro caso de Covid-19 foi confirmado no final de fevereiro de 2020 e a primeira morte em meados de março. Segundo dados da plataforma Coronavírus Brasil, em 17 de março de 2021, houve registro de 11.603.535 casos confirmados e 282.127 óbitos. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil de pessoas que morreram tendo como causa básica do óbito a Covid-19, em um município do Sudoeste do Paraná, entre os anos de 2020 e 2021. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, documental de caráter quantitativo que foi realizado na prefeitura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Houve prevalência de óbitos em pacientes do sexo masculino, idosos, com presença de alguma comorbidade associada, sendo hipertensão a mais citada (50,8%). Os sintomas mais prevalentes foram tosse (74,4%), dispneia (56,3%) e saturação < 95% (48,3%), necessitando ainda de hospitalização em algum período da doença (94,1%), sendo os leitos de Sistema Único de Saúde os mais procurados (74,4%). Quanto à taxa de ocupação 49,6% dos casos necessitou apenas de leitos de enfermaria e 42% unidades de terapia intensiva. Discussão: Diversas pesquisas apontam que o sexo masculino é o mais acometido por condições graves de saúde, devido à demora na busca de assistência médica. No que se refere à idade, neste estudo, a prevalência de óbitos se deu entre 71 e 75 anos (15,1%) o que justifica que o envelhecimento é um fator de risco elevado para complicações da doença. Durante a análise dos dados, notou- se que grande parte dos pacientes que tiveram como desfecho o óbito, possuíam algum fator associado, dentre os mais citados, verificou-se a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (50,8%) Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), doenças cardiovasculares (23,9%) e obesidade (14,7%). No que diz respeito à hospitalização, nesse estudo notou-se que 74,4% da amostra foram hospitalizadas em leitos de SUS, 18,5% em hospitais particulares e 7,1% não possuíam essa informação. Conclusão: É possível observar a importância do estudo epidemiológico para identificar o perfil da população em risco, podendo auxiliar no planejamento do atendimento, rastreamento e controle da doença, além de conhecer a evolução da patologia, a fim de buscar ações adequadas para seu enfrentamento.


Introduction: At the end of 2019, a previously unknown infectious disease with respiratory characteristics and a high degree of dissemination emerged in China. In Brazil the first case of Covid-19 was confirmed in late February 2020 and the first death in mid-March. According to data from the Coronavirus Brazil platform, as of March 17, 2021, 11,603,535 confirmed cases and 282,127 deaths were recorded. Objective: To describe the profile of people who died with Covid-19 as the underlying cause of death in a city in southwestern Paraná between the years 2020 and 2021. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, documental, quantitative study carried out at the Francisco Beltrão City Hall. Results: There was a prevalence of deaths in male patients, elderly, with the presence of some associated comorbidity, hypertension being the most cited (50.8%). The most prevalent symptoms were cough (74.4%), dyspnea (56.3%) and saturation < 95% (48.3%), requiring hospitalization in some period of the disease (94.1%), and the Unified Health System beds were the most sought (74.4%). As for the occupancy rate, 49.6% of the cases required only ward beds and 42% intensive care units. Discussion: Several studies show that men are the most affected by serious health conditions, due to the delay in seeking medical assistance. Regarding age, in this study, the prevalence of deaths was between 71 and 75 years (15.1%), which justifies that aging is a high risk factor for disease complications. During data analysis, it was noted that most patients who died had some associated factor, among the most cited were systemic arterial hypertension (50.8%), diabetes mellitus (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (23.9%) and obesity (14.7%). Regarding hospitalization, in this study it was noted that 74.4% of the sample were hospitalized in SUS beds, 18.5% in private hospitals, and 7.1% did not have this information. Conclusion: It is possible to observe the importance of the epidemiological study to identify the profile of the population at risk, which can help in planning care, tracking and control of the disease, besides knowing the evolution of the pathology in order to seek appropriate actions for its confrontation


Introducción: A finales del año 2019 apareció en China una enfermedad infecto- contagiosa de característica respiratoria y alto grado de diseminación desconocida hasta entonces. En Brasil se confirmó el primer caso de Covid-19 a finales de febrero de 2020 y la primera muerte a mediados de marzo. Según los datos de la plataforma Coronavirus Brasil, hasta el 17 de marzo de 2021, había 11.603.535 casos confirmados y 282.127 muertes. Objetivo: Describir el perfil de las personas fallecidas con Covid-19 como causa subyacente de muerte en una ciudad del sudoeste de Paraná entre los años 2020 y 2021. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, documental de carácter cuantitativo que se realizó en la prefectura municipal de Francisco Beltrão. Resultados: Hubo una prevalencia de muertes en pacientes masculinos, de edad avanzada, con presencia de alguna comorbilidad asociada, siendo la hipertensión la más citada (50,8%). Los síntomas más prevalentes fueron la tos (74,4%), la disnea (56,3%) y la saturación < 95% (48,3%), requiriendo hospitalización en algún periodo de la enfermedad (94,1%), siendo las camas del Sistema Único de Salud las más solicitadas (74,4%). En cuanto a la tasa de ocupación, el 49,6% de los casos sólo necesitaban camas de sala y el 42% unidades de cuidados intensivos. Discusión: Varias investigaciones señalan que el género masculino es el más afectado por las condiciones de salud graves, debido al retraso en la búsqueda de asistencia médica. En cuanto a la edad, en este estudio, la prevalencia de muertes se produjo entre los 71 y los 75 años (15,1%), lo que justifica que el envejecimiento sea un factor de riesgo elevado para las complicaciones de la enfermedad. Durante el análisis de los datos, se observó que la mayoría de los pacientes que fallecieron tenían algún factor asociado, entre los más citados estaban la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (50,8%), la Diabetes Mellitus (24,8%), las enfermedades cardiovasculares (23,9%) y la obesidad (14,7%). En lo que respecta a la hospitalización, en este estudio se observó que el 74,4% de la muestra estaba hospitalizada en camas del SUS, el 18,5% en hospitales privados y el 7,1% no tenía esta información. Conclusión: Es posible observar la importancia del estudio epidemiológico para identificar el perfil de la población en riesgo, pudiendo ayudar en la planificación de la atención, el rastreo y el control de la enfermedad, además de conocer la evolución de la patología, con el fin de buscar las acciones adecuadas para su enfrentamiento.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death , Unified Health System , Aged , Aging/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Cough , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyspnea , Oxygen Saturation , Hospitalization , Hypertension , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Obesity
2.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e22794, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a viral respiratory disease first reported in December 2019, quickly became a threat to global public health. Further understanding of the epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the risk perception of the community may better inform targeted interventions to reduce the impact and spread of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine the association between chronic diseases and serious outcomes following COVID-19 infection, and to explore its influence on people's self-perception of risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This study draws data from two databases: (1) the nationwide database of all confirmed COVID-19 cases in Portugal, extracted on April 28, 2020 (n=20,293); and (2) the community-based COVID-19 Barometer survey, which contains data on health status, perceptions, and behaviors during the first wave of COVID-19 (n=171,087). We assessed the association between relevant chronic diseases (ie, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal diseases; diabetes; and cancer) and death and intensive care unit (ICU) admission following COVID-19 infection. We identified determinants of self-perception of risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal diseases were associated with mortality and ICU admission among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% CI 1.11-1.98; OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.80-6.40; and OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.66-3.06, respectively). Diabetes and cancer were associated with serious outcomes only when considering the full sample of COVID-19-infected cases in the country (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64; and OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.89, respectively). Older age and male sex were both associated with mortality and ICU admission. The perception of risk for severe COVID-19 disease in the study population was 23.9% (n=40,890). This was markedly higher for older adults (n=5235, 46.4%), those with at least one chronic disease (n=17,647, 51.6%), or those in both of these categories (n=3212, 67.7%). All included diseases were associated with self-perceptions of high risk in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the association between some prevalent chronic diseases and increased risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes. It also brings forth a greater understanding of the community's risk perceptions of serious COVID-19 disease. Hence, this study may aid health authorities to better adapt measures to the real needs of the population and to identify vulnerable individuals requiring further education and awareness of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study between March and May 2020 at the Lille University Hospital (France), including all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Psychological distress symptoms were measured 3 weeks after onset of COVID-19 symptoms using the Impact of Event Scale-6 items (IES-6). The evaluation of PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) took place 1 month later. Bivariate analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between PCL-5 scores and the demographic and health variables. The significant variables were then introduced into a multivariable linear regression analysis to establish their relative contributions to the severity of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: 180 patients were included in this study, and 138 patients completed the 2 evaluations. Among the 180 patients, 70.4% patients required hospitalization, and 30.7% were admitted to the intensive care unit. The prevalence of PTSD was 6.5%, and the predictive factors of PTSD included psychological distress at the onset of the illness and a stay in an intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PTSD in patients with COVID-19 is not as high as that reported among patients during previous epidemics. Initial psychological responses were predictive of a PTSD diagnosis, even though most patients showing acute psychological distress (33.5% of the sample) improved in the following weeks. PTSD symptoms also increased following a stay in an intensive care unit. Future studies should assess the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on patients' mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
6.
BMJ ; 375: n2400, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of therapeutic heparin compared with prophylactic heparin among moderately ill patients with covid-19 admitted to hospital wards. DESIGN: Randomised controlled, adaptive, open label clinical trial. SETTING: 28 hospitals in Brazil, Canada, Ireland, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and US. PARTICIPANTS: 465 adults admitted to hospital wards with covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels were recruited between 29 May 2020 and 12 April 2021 and were randomly assigned to therapeutic dose heparin (n=228) or prophylactic dose heparin (n=237). INTERVENTIONS: Therapeutic dose or prophylactic dose heparin (low molecular weight or unfractionated heparin), to be continued until hospital discharge, day 28, or death. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of death, invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, or admission to an intensive care unit, assessed up to 28 days. The secondary outcomes included all cause death, the composite of all cause death or any mechanical ventilation, and venous thromboembolism. Safety outcomes included major bleeding. Outcomes were blindly adjudicated. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 60 years; 264 (56.8%) were men and the mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2. At 28 days, the primary composite outcome had occurred in 37/228 patients (16.2%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 52/237 (21.9%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (odds ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.10; P=0.12). Deaths occurred in four patients (1.8%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 18 patients (7.6%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.22, 0.07 to 0.65; P=0.006). The composite of all cause death or any mechanical ventilation occurred in 23 patients (10.1%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and 38 (16.0%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.59, 0.34 to 1.02; P=0.06). Venous thromboembolism occurred in two patients (0.9%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and six (2.5%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.34, 0.07 to 1.71; P=0.19). Major bleeding occurred in two patients (0.9%) assigned to therapeutic heparin and four (1.7%) assigned to prophylactic heparin (0.52, 0.09 to 2.85; P=0.69). CONCLUSIONS: In moderately ill patients with covid-19 and increased D-dimer levels admitted to hospital wards, therapeutic heparin was not significantly associated with a reduction in the primary outcome but the odds of death at 28 days was decreased. The risk of major bleeding appeared low in this trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04362085.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 34(3)2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to investigate the temporal trend of in-hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients over 6 months in the spring and summer of 2021 in Iran. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Qazvin Province- Iran during 6 month from April to September 2021. PARTICIPANTS: All 14355 patients who were hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 in hospitals of Qazvin Province. INTERVENTION: No intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The trends of overall in-hospital mortality and ICU mortality were the main outcome of interest. We obtained crude and adjusted in-hospital and ICU mortality rates for each month of admission and over surge and lull periods of the disease. RESULTS: The overall in-hospital mortality, early mortality and ICU mortality were 8.8%, 3.2% and 67.6%, respectively. The trend for overall mortality was almost plateau ranging from 6.5% in July to 10.7% in April. The lowest ICU mortality was 60.0% observed in April, whereas it reached a peak in August (ICU mortality = 75.7%). Admission on surge days of COVID-19 was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality (Odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 1.5). The comparison of surge and lull status showed that the odds of ICU mortality in the surge of COVID-19 was 1.7 higher than in the lull period (P-value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the risk of both overall in-hospital and ICU mortality increased over the surge period and fourth and fifth waves of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in Iran. The lack of hospital resources and particularly ICU capacities to respond to the crisis during the surge period is assumed to be the main culprit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Iran/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2204141119, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960626

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 infection vary widely. Prior exposure to endemic coronaviruses, common in young children, may protect against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated risk of severe COVID-19 among adults with and without exposure to young children in a large, integrated healthcare system. Adults with children 0-5 years were matched 1:1 to adults with children 6-11 years, 12-18 years, and those without children based upon a COVID-19 propensity score and risk factors for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 infections, hospitalizations, and need for intensive care unit (ICU) were assessed in 3,126,427 adults, of whom 24% (N = 743,814) had children 18 years or younger, and 8.8% (N = 274,316) had a youngest child 0-5 years. After 1:1 matching, propensity for COVID-19 infection and risk factors for severe COVID-19 were well balanced between groups. Rates of COVID-19 infection were slightly higher for adults with exposure to older children (incident risk ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, [1.05-1.12] and IRR 1.09 [1.05-1.13] for adults with children 6-11 and 12-18, respectively), compared to those with children 0-5 years, although no difference in rates of COVID-19 illness requiring hospitalization or ICU admission was observed. However, adults without exposure to children had lower rates of COVID-19 infection (IRR 0.85, [0.83-0.87]) but significantly higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization (IRR 1.49, [1.29-1.73]) and hospitalization requiring ICU admission (IRR 1.76, [1.19-2.58]) compared to those with children aged 0-5. In a large, real-world population, exposure to young children was associated with less severe COVID-19 illness. Endemic coronavirus cross-immunity may play a role in protection against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
9.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
10.
BJOG ; 129(2): 221-231, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this article was to describe SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women during the wild-type and Alpha-variant periods in Italy. The secondary aim was to compare the impact of the virus variants on the severity of maternal and perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: National population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 315 Italian maternity hospitals. SAMPLE: A cohort of 3306 women with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days of hospital admission. METHODS: Cases were prospectively reported by trained clinicians for each participating maternity unit. Data were described by univariate and multivariate analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 pneumonia, ventilatory support, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mode of delivery, preterm birth, stillbirth, and maternal and neonatal mortality. RESULTS: We found that 64.3% of the cohort was asymptomatic, 12.8% developed COVID-19 pneumonia and 3.3% required ventilatory support and/or ICU admission. Maternal age of 30-34 years (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87) and ≥35 years (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23-2.13), citizenship of countries with high migration pressure (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36-2.25), previous comorbidities (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.13-1.98) and obesity (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.29-2.27) were all associated with a higher occurrence of pneumonia. The preterm birth rate was 11.1%. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, stillbirths and maternal and neonatal deaths remained stable. The need for ventilatory support and/or ICU admission among women with pneumonia increased during the Alpha-variant period compared with the wild-type period (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.99-5.28). CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a low risk of severe COVID-19 disease among pregnant women and with rare adverse perinatal outcomes. During the Alpha-variant period there was a significant increase of severe COVID-19 illness. Further research is needed to describe the impact of different SARS-CoV-2 viral strains on maternal and perinatal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
12.
Crit Care Med ; 50(4): 595-606, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate healthcare system-driven variation in general characteristics, interventions, and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the ICU within one Western European region across three countries. DESIGN: Multicenter observational cohort study. SETTING: Seven ICUs in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany. PATIENTS: Consecutive COVID-19 patients supported in the ICU during the first pandemic wave. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory values, and outcome data were retrieved after ethical approval and data-sharing agreements. Descriptive statistics were performed to investigate country-related practice variation. From March 2, 2020, to August 12, 2020, 551 patients were admitted. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years, and 29% were female. At admission, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores were 15.0 ± 5.5, 16.8 ± 5.5, and 15.8 ± 5.3 (p = 0.002), and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were 4.4 ± 2.7, 7.4 ± 2.2, and 7.7 ± 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the Belgian, Dutch, and German parts of Euregio, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 22%, 42%, and 44%, respectively (p < 0.001). Large differences were observed in the frequency of organ support, antimicrobial/inflammatory therapy application, and ICU capacity. Mixed-multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that differences in ICU mortality were independent of age, sex, disease severity, comorbidities, support strategies, therapies, and complications. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs within one region, the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, differed significantly in general characteristics, applied interventions, and outcomes despite presumed genetic and socioeconomic background, admission diagnosis, access to international literature, and data collection are similar. Variances in healthcare systems' organization, particularly ICU capacity and admission criteria, combined with a rapidly spreading pandemic might be important drivers for the observed differences. Heterogeneity between patient groups but also healthcare systems should be presumed to interfere with outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , APACHE , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Patient Transfer , Treatment Outcome
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3629, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730316

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed health care systems in many countries and bed availability has become a concern. In this context, the present study aimed to analyze the hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) times in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The study covered 55,563 ICU admissions and 238,075 hospitalizations in Brazilian Health System units from February 22, 2020, to June 7, 2021. All the patients had a positive COVID-19 diagnosis. The symptoms analyzed included: fever, dyspnea, low oxygen saturation (SpO2 < 95%), cough, respiratory distress, fatigue, sore throat, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of taste, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. We performed Cox regression in two models (ICU and hospitalization times). Hazard ratios (HRs) and survival curves were calculated by age group. The average stay was 14.4 days for hospitalized patients and 12.4 days for ICU patients. For hospitalized cases, the highest hazard mean values, with a positive correlation, were for symptoms of dyspnea (HR = 1.249; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.225-1.273) and low oxygen saturation (HR = 1.157; 95% CI 1.137-1.178). In the ICU, the highest hazard mean values were for respiratory discomfort (HR = 1.194; 95% CI 1.161-1.227) and abdominal pain (HR = 1.100; 95% CI 1.047-1.156). Survival decreased by an average of 2.27% per day for hospitalization and 3.27% per day for ICU stay. Survival by age group curves indicated that younger patients were more resistant to prolonged hospital stay than older patients. Hospitalization was also lower in younger patients. The mortality rate was higher in males than females. Symptoms related to the respiratory tract were associated with longer hospital stay. This is the first study carried out with a sample of 238,000 COVID-19 positive participants, covering the main symptoms and evaluating the hospitalization and ICU times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Young Adult
14.
Crit Care Med ; 50(3): 353-362, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disrupted critical care services across the world. In anticipation of surges in the need for critical care services, governments implemented "lockdown" measures to preserve and create added critical care capacity. Herein, we describe the impact of lockdown measures on the utilization of critical care services and patient outcomes compared with nonlockdown epochs in a large integrated health region. DESIGN: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Seventeen adult ICUs across 14 acute care hospitals in Alberta, Canada. PATIENTS: All adult (age ≥ 15 yr) patients admitted to any study ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main exposure was ICU admission during "lockdown" occurring between March 16, 2020, and June 30, 2020. This period was compared with two nonpandemic control periods: "year prior" (March 16, 2019, to June 30, 2019) and "pre lockdown" immediately prior (November 30, 2019, to March 15, 2020). The primary outcome was the number of ICU admissions. Secondary outcomes included the following: daily measures of ICU utilization, ICU duration of stay, avoidable delay in ICU discharge, and occupancy; and patient outcomes. Mixed multilevel negative binomial regression and interrupted time series regression were used to compare rates of ICU admissions between periods. Multivariable regressions were used to compare patient outcomes between periods. During the lockdown, there were 3,649 ICU admissions (34.1 [8.0] ICU admissions/d), compared with 4,125 (38.6 [9.3]) during the prelockdown period and 3,919 (36.6 [8.7]) during the year prior. Mean bed occupancy declined significantly during the lockdown compared with the nonpandemic periods (78.7%, 95.9%, and 96.4%; p < 0.001). Avoidable ICU discharge delay also decreased significantly (42.0%, 53.2%, and 58.3%; p < 0.001). During the lockdown, patients were younger, had fewer comorbid diseases, had higher acuity, and were more likely to be medical admissions compared with the nonpandemic periods. Adjusted ICU and hospital mortality and ICU and hospital lengths of stay were significantly lower during the lockdown compared with nonpandemic periods. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown resulted in substantial changes to ICU utilization, including a reduction in admissions, occupancy, patient lengths of stay, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , APACHE , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alberta/epidemiology , Bed Occupancy , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2798, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707401

ABSTRACT

Brazil is a country of continental dimensions, where many smaller countries would fit. In addition to demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural differences, hospital infrastructure and healthcare varies across all 27 federative units. Therefore, the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic did not manifest itself in a homogeneous and predictable trend across the nation. In late 2020 and early 2021, new waves of the COVID-19 outbreak have caused an unprecedented sanitary collapse in Brazil. Unlike the first COVID-19 wave, in subsequent waves, preliminary evidence has pointed to an increase in the daily reported cases among younger people being hospitalized, overloading the healthcare system. In this comprehensive retrospective cohort study, confirmed cases of hospitalization, ICU admission, IMV requirement and in-hospital death from Brazilian COVID-19 patients throughout 2020 until the beginning of 2021 were analyzed through a spatio-temporal study for patients aged 20-59 years. All Brazilian federative units had their data disaggregated in six periods of ten epidemiological weeks each. We found that there is a wide variation in the waves dynamic due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, both in the first and in subsequent outbreaks in different federative units over the analyzed periods. As a result, atypical waves can be seen in the Brazil data as a whole. The analysis showed that Brazil is experiencing a numerical explosion of hospitalizations and deaths for patients aged 20-59 years, especially in the state of São Paulo, with a similar proportion of hospitalizations for this age group but higher proportion of deaths compared to the first wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E74-E81, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial number of Quebec hospitals were hit by hospital-acquired (HA) SARS-CoV-2 infections. Our objective was to assess whether mortality is higher in HA cases than in non-hospital-acquired (NHA) cases and determine the prevalence of HA-SARS-CoV-2 infection in our hospital. METHODS: This retrospective single-centre cohort study included all adults (≥ 18 yr) who had COVID-19, admitted to Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont (Montréal, Canada) from Mar. 1 to June 30, 2020. We collected data on demographic characteristics, comorbidities, treatment, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and mechanical ventilation requirements from electronic health records. We adjudicated hospital acquisition based on the timing of symptom onset, and polymerase chain reaction testing for and exposures to SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the association between HA-SARS-CoV-2 infection and in-hospital mortality, we computed a multivariable logistic regression analysis including known risk factors for death in patients with COVID-19 as covariates. RESULTS: Among 697 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 253 (36.3%) were classified as HA. The mortality rate was higher in the HA group than in the NHA group (38.2% v. 26.4%, p = 0.001), while the rates of ICU admission (8.3% v. 19.1%, p = 0.001) and requirement for mechanical ventilation (3.6% v. 13.0%, p = 0.001) were lower. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that HA-SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients younger than 75 years is an independent risk factor for death (odds ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.44-5.38). INTERPRETATION: Our results show that HA-SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger patients was associated with higher mortality. Future studies need to evaluate relevant patient-centred long-term outcomes in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quebec/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 18, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different treatments have been used in critically ill patients. Using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been suggested in various studies as an effective option. Our study aims to access the efficacy of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective matched cohort study, records of three tertiary centers with a large number of COVID-19 admissions were evaluated and used. Based on treatment options, patients were divided into two groups, standard COVID-19 treatment (109 patients) and IVIG treatment (74 patients) patients. Also, the effect of IVIG in different dosages was evaluated. Patients with IVIG treatment were divided into three groups of low (0.25 gr/kg), medium (0.5 gr/kg), and high (1 gr/kg) dose. Data analysis was performed using an independent t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the outcomes between two groups, including duration of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and mortality rate. RESULTS: The duration of hospitalization in the IVIG group was significantly longer than standard treatment (13.74 days vs. 11.10 days, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in ICU length of stay, the number of intubated patients, and duration of mechanical ventilation (p > 0.05). Also, initial outcomes in IVIG subgroups were compared separately with the standard treatment group. The results indicated that only the duration of hospitalization in the IVIG subgroup with medium dose is significantly longer than the standard treatment group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the use of IVIG in critically ill COVID-19 patients could not be beneficial, based on no remarkable differences in duration of hospitalization, ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and even mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
CMAJ ; 194(4): E112-E121, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disability-related considerations have largely been absent from the COVID-19 response, despite evidence that people with disabilities are at elevated risk for acquiring COVID-19. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with a disability compared with patients without a disability. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included adults with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital and discharged between Jan. 1, 2020, and Nov. 30, 2020, at 7 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. We compared in-hospital death, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital length of stay and unplanned 30-day readmission among patients with and without a physical disability, hearing or vision impairment, traumatic brain injury, or intellectual or developmental disability, overall and stratified by age (≤ 64 and ≥ 65 yr) using multivariable regression, controlling for sex, residence in a long-term care facility and comorbidity. RESULTS: Among 1279 admissions to hospital for COVID-19, 22.3% had a disability. We found that patients with a disability were more likely to die than those without a disability (28.1% v. 17.6%), had longer hospital stays (median 13.9 v. 7.8 d) and more readmissions (17.6% v. 7.9%), but had lower ICU admission rates (22.5% v. 28.3%). After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences between those with and without disabilities for in-hospital death or admission to ICU. After adjustment, patients with a disability had longer hospital stays (rate ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.56) and greater risk of readmission (relative risk 1.77, 95% CI 1.14-2.75). In age-stratified analyses, we observed longer hospital stays among patients with a disability than in those without, in both younger and older subgroups; readmission risk was driven by younger patients with a disability. INTERPRETATION: Patients with a disability who were admitted to hospital with COVID-19 had longer stays and elevated readmission risk than those without disabilities. Disability-related needs should be addressed to support these patients in hospital and after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Female , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vision Disorders/epidemiology
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 612, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671555

ABSTRACT

We study the real-life effect of an unprecedented rapid mass vaccination campaign. Following a large outbreak of the Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, 100,000 doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) were procured to mass vaccinate the entire adult population of the district between the 11th and 16th of March 2021. This made the district the first widely inoculated region in Europe. We examine the effect of this campaign on the number of infections, cases of variants of concern, hospital and ICU admissions. We compare Schwaz with (i) a control group of highly similar districts, and (ii) with populations residing in municipalities along the border of Schwaz which were just excluded from the campaign. We find large and significant decreases for all outcomes after the campaign. Our results suggest that rapid mass vaccination is an effective tool to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mass Vaccination , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667344

ABSTRACT

Unselected data of nationwide studies of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are still sparse, but these data are of outstanding interest to avoid exceeding hospital capacities and overloading national healthcare systems. Thus, we sought to analyze seasonal/regional trends, predictors of in-hospital case-fatality, and mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with COVID-19 in Germany. We used the German nationwide inpatient samples to analyze all hospitalized patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis in Germany between 1 January and 31 December in 2020. We analyzed data of 176,137 hospitalizations of patients with confirmed COVID-19-infection. Among those, 31,607 (17.9%) died, whereby in-hospital case-fatality grew exponentially with age. Overall, age ≥ 70 years (OR 5.91, 95%CI 5.70-6.13, p < 0.001), pneumonia (OR 4.58, 95%CI 4.42-4.74, p < 0.001) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR 8.51, 95%CI 8.12-8.92, p < 0.001) were strong predictors of in-hospital death. Most COVID-19 patients were treated in hospitals in urban areas (n = 92,971) associated with the lowest case-fatality (17.5%), as compared to hospitals in suburban (18.3%) or rural areas (18.8%). MV demand was highest in November/December 2020 (32.3%, 20.3%) in patients between the 6th and 8th age decade. In the first age decade, 78 of 1861 children (4.2%) with COVID-19-infection were treated with MV, and five of them died (0.3%). The results of our study indicate seasonal and regional variations concerning the number of COVID-19 patients, necessity of MV, and case fatality in Germany. These findings may help to ensure the flexible allocation of intensive care (human) resources, which is essential for managing enormous societal challenges worldwide to avoid overloaded regional healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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