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1.
Anaesthesia ; 77 Suppl 1: 49-58, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612834

ABSTRACT

Delirium is a common condition affecting hospital inpatients, including those having surgery and on the intensive care unit. Delirium is also common in patients with COVID-19 in hospital settings, and the occurrence is higher than expected for similar infections. The short-term outcomes of those with COVID-19 delirium are similar to that of classical delirium and include increased length of stay and increased mortality. Management of delirium in COVID-19 in the context of a global pandemic is limited by the severity of the syndrome and compounded by the environmental constraints. Practical management includes effective screening, early identification and appropriate treatment aimed at minimising complications and timely escalation decisions. The pandemic has played out on the national stage and the effect of delirium on patients, relatives and healthcare workers remains unknown but evidence from the previous SARS outbreak suggests there may be long-lasting psychological damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/metabolism , Delirium/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Intensive Care Units/trends
2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260310, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523457

ABSTRACT

The first case of COVID-19 was detected in North Carolina (NC) on March 3, 2020. By the end of April, the number of confirmed cases had soared to over 10,000. NC health systems faced intense strain to support surging intensive care unit admissions and avert hospital capacity and resource saturation. Forecasting techniques can be used to provide public health decision makers with reliable data needed to better prepare for and respond to public health crises. Hospitalization forecasts in particular play an important role in informing pandemic planning and resource allocation. These forecasts are only relevant, however, when they are accurate, made available quickly, and updated frequently. To support the pressing need for reliable COVID-19 data, RTI adapted a previously developed geospatially explicit healthcare facility network model to predict COVID-19's impact on healthcare resources and capacity in NC. The model adaptation was an iterative process requiring constant evolution to meet stakeholder needs and inform epidemic progression in NC. Here we describe key steps taken, challenges faced, and lessons learned from adapting and implementing our COVID-19 model and coordinating with university, state, and federal partners to combat the COVID-19 epidemic in NC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Intensive Care Units/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care , Forecasting , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 381, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, there is also evidence that it causes endothelial damage in the microvasculature of several organs. The aim of the present study is to characterize in vivo the microvascular reactivity in peripheral skeletal muscle of severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study carried out in Spain, Mexico and Brazil. Healthy subjects and severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the intermediate respiratory (IRCU) and intensive care units (ICU) due to hypoxemia were studied. Local tissue/blood oxygen saturation (StO2) and local hemoglobin concentration (THC) were non-invasively measured on the forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A vascular occlusion test (VOT), a three-minute induced ischemia, was performed in order to obtain dynamic StO2 parameters: deoxygenation rate (DeO2), reoxygenation rate (ReO2), and hyperemic response (HAUC). In COVID-19 patients, the severity of ARDS was evaluated by the ratio between peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (SF ratio). RESULTS: Healthy controls (32) and COVID-19 patients (73) were studied. Baseline StO2 and THC did not differ between the two groups. Dynamic VOT-derived parameters were significantly impaired in COVID-19 patients showing lower metabolic rate (DeO2) and diminished endothelial reactivity. At enrollment, most COVID-19 patients were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (53%) or high-flow nasal cannula support (32%). Patients on MV were also receiving sedative agents (100%) and vasopressors (29%). Baseline StO2 and DeO2 negatively correlated with SF ratio, while ReO2 showed a positive correlation with SF ratio. There were significant differences in baseline StO2 and ReO2 among the different ARDS groups according to SF ratio, but not among different respiratory support therapies. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe COVID-19 show systemic microcirculatory alterations suggestive of endothelial dysfunction, and these alterations are associated with the severity of ARDS. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether these observations have prognostic implications. These results represent interim findings of the ongoing HEMOCOVID-19 trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04689477 . Retrospectively registered 30 December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Microvessels/physiopathology , Respiratory Care Units/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 908-910, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493269

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 continues to challenge health-care systems and ICUs around the globe more than one year into the pandemic and in spite of all advances in diagnosis and treatment of the disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2. Many open questions remain concerning optimal medical therapy, respiratory management and resource allocation, particuly in times of limited available health care personell. In the following short article, we summarized current knowlegde on management of COVID-19 in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Humans , Intensive Care Units/standards , Intensive Care Units/trends
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20308, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467131

ABSTRACT

The positivity rate of testing is currently used both as a benchmark of testing adequacy and for assessing the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, since the former is a prerequisite for the latter, its interpretation is often conflicting. We propose as a benchmark for COVID-19 testing effectiveness a new metric, termed 'Severity Detection Rate' (SDR), that represents the daily needs for new Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, per 100 cases detected (t - i) days ago, per 10,000 tests performed (t - i) days ago. Based on the announced COVID-19 monitoring data in Greece from May 2020 until August 2021, we show that beyond a certain threshold of daily tests, SDR reaches a plateau of very low variability that begins to reflect testing adequacy. Due to the stabilization of SDR, it was possible to predict with great accuracy the daily needs for new ICU admissions, 12 days ahead of each testing data point, over a period of 10 months, with Pearson r = 0.98 (p = 10-197), RMSE = 7.16. We strongly believe that this metric will help guide the timely decisions of both scientists and government officials to tackle pandemic spread and prevent ICU overload by setting effective testing requirements for accurate pandemic monitoring. We propose further study of this novel metric with data from more countries to confirm the validity of the current findings.


Subject(s)
Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Admission/trends , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0258018, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data of critically ill COVID-19 patients are being evaluated worldwide, not only to understand the various aspects of the disease and to refine treatment strategies but also to improve clinical decision-making. For clinical decision-making in particular, prognostic factors of a lethal course of the disease would be highly relevant. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the first 59 adult critically ill Covid-19 patients treated in one of the intensive care units of the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany. Using uni- and multivariable regression models, we extracted a set of parameters that allowed for prognosing in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Within the cohort, 19 patients died (mortality 32.2%). Blood pH value, mean arterial pressure, base excess, troponin, and procalcitonin were identified as highly significant prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. However, no significant differences were found for other parameters expected to be relevant prognostic factors, like low arterial partial pressure of oxygen or high lactate levels. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the pH value and the mean arterial pressure turned out to be the most influential prognostic factors for a lethal course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Blood Physiological Phenomena , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18959, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437695

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has put massive strains on hospitals, and tools to guide hospital planners in resource allocation during the ebbs and flows of the pandemic are urgently needed. We investigate whether machine learning (ML) can be used for predictions of intensive care requirements a fixed number of days into the future. Retrospective design where health Records from 42,526 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients in Denmark was extracted. Random Forest (RF) models were trained to predict risk of ICU admission and use of mechanical ventilation after n days (n = 1, 2, …, 15). An extended analysis was provided for n = 5 and n = 10. Models predicted n-day risk of ICU admission with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) between 0.981 and 0.995, and n-day risk of use of ventilation with an ROC-AUC between 0.982 and 0.997. The corresponding n-day forecasting models predicted the needed ICU capacity with a coefficient of determination (R2) between 0.334 and 0.989 and use of ventilation with an R2 between 0.446 and 0.973. The forecasting models performed worst, when forecasting many days into the future (for large n). For n = 5, ICU capacity was predicted with ROC-AUC 0.990 and R2 0.928, and use of ventilator was predicted with ROC-AUC 0.994 and R2 0.854. Random Forest-based modelling can be used for accurate n-day forecasting predictions of ICU resource requirements, when n is not too large.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Intensive Care Units/trends , Area Under Curve , Computational Biology/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/trends , Denmark/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Hospitals/trends , Humans , Machine Learning , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilators, Mechanical/trends
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18844, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434153

ABSTRACT

Comparing pandemic waves could aid in understanding the evolution of COVID-19. The objective of the present study was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in different pandemic waves in terms of severity and mortality. We performed an observational retrospective cohort study of 5,220 patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection from February to September 2020 in Aragon, Spain. We compared ICU admissions and 30-day mortality, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of the first and second waves of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 genome was also analyzed in 236 samples. Patients in the first wave (n = 2,547) were older (median age 74 years [IQR 60-86] vs. 70 years [53-85]; p < 0.001) and had worse clinical and analytical parameters related to severe COVID-19 than patients in the second wave (n = 2,673). The probability of ICU admission at 30 days was 16% and 10% (p < 0.001) and the cumulative 30-day mortality rates 38% and 32% in the first and second wave, respectively (p = 0.007). Survival differences were observed among patients aged 60 to 80 years. We also found some variability among death risk factors and the viral genome between waves. Therefore, the two analyzed COVID-19 pandemic waves were different in terms of disease severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization/trends , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/trends , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Spain , Young Adult
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 331, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality due to COVID-19 is high, especially in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The purpose of the study is to investigate associations between mortality and variables measured during the first three days of mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 intubated at ICU admission. METHODS: Multicenter, observational, cohort study includes consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 44 Spanish ICUs between February 25 and July 31, 2020, who required intubation at ICU admission and mechanical ventilation for more than three days. We collected demographic and clinical data prior to admission; information about clinical evolution at days 1 and 3 of mechanical ventilation; and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 2,095 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU, 1,118 (53.3%) were intubated at day 1 and remained under mechanical ventilation at day three. From days 1 to 3, PaO2/FiO2 increased from 115.6 [80.0-171.2] to 180.0 [135.4-227.9] mmHg and the ventilatory ratio from 1.73 [1.33-2.25] to 1.96 [1.61-2.40]. In-hospital mortality was 38.7%. A higher increase between ICU admission and day 3 in the ventilatory ratio (OR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.07], p = 0.030) and creatinine levels (OR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.09], p = 0.005) and a lower increase in platelet counts (OR 0.96 [CI 0.93-1.00], p = 0.037) were independently associated with a higher risk of death. No association between mortality and the PaO2/FiO2 variation was observed (OR 0.99 [CI 0.95 to 1.02], p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Higher ventilatory ratio and its increase at day 3 is associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation at ICU admission. No association was found in the PaO2/FiO2 variation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 176, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain if prior use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) in COVID-19 outpatients with multimorbidity impacts prognosis, especially if cardiometabolic diseases are present. Clinical outcomes 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis were compared between outpatients with cardiometabolic disease receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or direct-acting OAC (DOAC) therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. Adult outpatients with cardiometabolic disease (i.e. diabetes mellitus and any disease of the circulatory system) treated with VKAs or DOACs at time of COVID-19 diagnosis between 20-Jan-2020 and 15-Feb-2021 were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance cohorts receiving VKAs and DOACs. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation (MV) necessity, intracranial haemorrhage (ICH)/gastrointestinal bleeding, and the composite of any arterial or venous thrombotic event(s) at 30-days after COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: 2275 patients were included. After PSM, 1270 patients remained in the study (635 on VKAs; 635 on DOACs). VKA-treated patients had similar risks and 30-day event-free survival than patients on DOACs regarding all-cause mortality, ICU admission/MV necessity, and ICH/gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of any arterial or venous thrombotic event was 43% higher in the VKA cohort (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.98; Log-Rank test p = 0.029). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 outpatients with cardiometabolic diseases, prior use of DOAC therapy compared to VKA therapy at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis demonstrated lower risk of arterial or venous thrombotic outcomes, without increasing the risk of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Metabolic Diseases/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolic Diseases/mortality , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Treatment Outcome
13.
Cancer ; 127(22): 4240-4248, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and cancer are serious public health problems worldwide. However, little is known about the risk factors of in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients with and without cancer in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients with and without cancer and to compare mortality according to gender and topography during the year 2020 in Brazil. METHODS: This was a secondary data study of hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 by real-time polymerase chain reaction testing in Brazil. The data were collected from the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System. RESULTS: This study analyzed data from 322,817 patients. The prevalence of cancer in patients with COVID-19 was 2.3%. COVID-19 patients with neurological diseases and cancer had the most lethal comorbidities in both sexes. COVID-19 patients with cancer were more likely to be older (median age, 67 vs 62 years; P < .001), to have a longer hospital stay (13.1 vs 11.5 days; P < .001), to be admitted to the intensive care unit (45.3% vs 39.6%; P < .001), to receive more invasive mechanical ventilation (27.1% vs 21.9%), and to have a higher risk of death (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-2.06; P < .001) than those without cancer. Patients with hematological neoplasia (aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.41-3.38; P < .001) had a higher risk of mortality than those with solid tumors (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.72-1.95; P < .001) in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian COVID-19 patients with cancer have higher disease severity and a higher risk of mortality than those without cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 894-898, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324449

ABSTRACT

Nobody supposed that after one year of the pandemia, the SARS-CoV-2 Virus and its emerging mutants dominates the press, our lives and the health system as a whole. As for Geriatric Medicine, many things have also changed: The majority of COVID-19 patients are no more the (oldest) old and mortality is less observed in multimorbid persons, as most of them have been vaccinated. (Oldest) old persons are still especially vulnerable to die due to a COVD-19 infection. In longterm care, a significant higher mortality was seen in the former waves, but now, some longterm care facilities have more places that they can fill. This is a situation that many European countries would never have anticipated.Ressource allocationin stormy times is now more openly discussed, especially who should be admitted to intensive care units. This has led to more detailed and new guidelines which may help even when the pandemia is over. Here, some thoughts regarding the care of older adults in times of the pandemia are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Geriatrics , Resource Allocation/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Geriatrics/trends , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/complications
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14523, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315610

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed the need for proactive protocols to react and act, imposing preventive and restrictive countermeasures on time in any society. The extent to which confirmed cases can predict the morbidity and mortality in a society remains an unresolved issue. The research objective is therefore to test a generic model's predictability through time, based on percentage of confirmed cases on hospitalized patients, ICU patients and deceased. This study reports the explanatory and predictive ability of COVID-19-related healthcare data, such as whether there is a spread of a contagious and virulent virus in a society, and if so, whether the morbidity and mortality can be estimated in advance in the population. The model estimations stress the implementation of a pandemic strategy containing a proactive protocol entailing what, when, where, who and how countermeasures should be in place when a virulent virus (e.g. SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS) or pandemic strikes next time. Several lessons for the future can be learnt from the reported model estimations. One lesson is that COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality in a population is indeed predictable. Another lesson is to have a proactive protocol of countermeasures in place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Forecasting/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/trends , Models, Statistical , Morbidity , Pandemics , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e102, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279797

ABSTRACT

Estimating the lengths-of-stay (LoS) of hospitalised COVID-19 patients is key for predicting the hospital beds' demand and planning mitigation strategies, as overwhelming the healthcare systems has critical consequences for disease mortality. However, accurately mapping the time-to-event of hospital outcomes, such as the LoS in the intensive care unit (ICU), requires understanding patient trajectories while adjusting for covariates and observation bias, such as incomplete data. Standard methods, such as the Kaplan-Meier estimator, require prior assumptions that are untenable given current knowledge. Using real-time surveillance data from the first weeks of the COVID-19 epidemic in Galicia (Spain), we aimed to model the time-to-event and event probabilities of patients' hospitalised, without parametric priors and adjusting for individual covariates. We applied a non-parametric mixture cure model and compared its performance in estimating hospital ward (HW)/ICU LoS to the performances of commonly used methods to estimate survival. We showed that the proposed model outperformed standard approaches, providing more accurate ICU and HW LoS estimates. Finally, we applied our model estimates to simulate COVID-19 hospital demand using a Monte Carlo algorithm. We provided evidence that adjusting for sex, generally overlooked in prediction models, together with age is key for accurately forecasting HW and ICU occupancy, as well as discharge or death outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Length of Stay/trends , Models, Statistical , Age Factors , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Bed Occupancy/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Analysis
17.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 191, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257954

ABSTRACT

Since the lockdown because of the pandemic, family members have been prohibited from visiting their loved ones in hospital. While it is clearly complicated to implement protocols for the admission of family members, we believe precise strategic goals are essential and operational guidance is needed on how to achieve them. Even during the pandemic, we consider it a priority to share strategies adapted to every local setting to allow family members to enter intensive care units and all the other hospital wards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Family/psychology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Visitors to Patients , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Professional-Patient Relations , Time Factors
18.
Health Secur ; 19(S1): S34-S40, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214455

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, reassessing intensive care unit (ICU) use by population should be a priority for hospitals planning for critical care resource allocation. In our study, we reviewed the impact of COVID-19 on a community hospital serving an urban region, comparing the sociodemographic distribution of ICU admissions before and during the pandemic. We executed a time-sensitive analysis to see if COVID-19 ICU admissions reflect the regional sociodemographic populations and ICU admission trends before the pandemic. Sociodemographic variables included sex, race, ethnicity, and age of adult patients (ages 18 years and older) admitted to the hospital's medical and cardiac ICUs, which were converted to COVID-19 ICUs. The time period selected was 18 months, which was then dichotomized into pre-COVID-19 admissions (December 1, 2018 to March 13, 2020) and COVID-19 ICU admissions (March 14 to May 31, 2020). Variables were compared using Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon tests when appropriate. During the 18-month period, 1,861 patients were admitted to the aforementioned ICUs. The mean age of the patients was 62.75 (SD 15.57), with the majority of these patients being male (52.23%), White (64.43%), and non-Hispanic/Latinx (95.75%). Differences were found in racial and ethnic distribution comparing pre-COVID-19 admissions to COVID-19 admissions. Compared with pre-COVID-19 ICU admissions, we found an increase in African American versus White admissions (P = .01) and an increase in Hispanic/Latinx versus non-Hispanic/Latinx admissions (P < .01), during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the first 3 months of admissions to COVID-19 ICUs, the number of admissions among Hispanic/Latinx and African American patients increased while the number of admissions among non-Hispanic/Latinx and White patient decreased, compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. These findings support development of strategies to enhance allocation of resources to bolster novel, equitable strategies to mitigate the incidence of COVID-19 in urban populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/trends , Intensive Care Units/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , /statistics & numerical data
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 271-278, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic affects the worldwide healthcare system and our understanding of this disease grows rapidly. Although COVID-19 is a mainly respiratory disease, neurological manifestations are not uncommon. The aim of this review is to report on the etiology, clinical profile, location, and outcome of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and COVID-19. This review includes 36 studies examining ICH in the clinical presentation of COVID-19. Overall, 217 cases with intracranial hemorrhage, of which 188 ICHs, were reported. Generally, a low incidence of both primary and secondary ICH was found in 8 studies [106 (0.25%) out of 43,137 hospitalized patients with COVID-19]. Available data showed a median age of 58 years (range: 52-68) and male sex 64%, regarding 36 and 102 patients respectively. Furthermore, 75% of the patients were on prior anticoagulation treatment, 52% had a history of arterial hypertension, and 61% were admitted in intensive care unit. Location of ICH in deep structures/basal ganglia was ascertained in only 7 cases making arterial hypertension an improbable etiopathogenetic mechanism. Mortality was calculated at 52.7%. Disease related pathophysiologic mechanisms support the hypothesis that SARS-CoV2 can cause ICH, however typical ICH risk factors such as anticoagulation treatment, or admission to ICU should also be considered as probable causes. Physicians should strongly suspect the possibility of ICH in individuals with severe COVID-19 admitted to ICU and treated with anticoagulants. It is not clear whether ICH is related directly to COVID-19 or reflects expected comorbidity and/or complications observed in severely ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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